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JetTrain
The JETTRAIN was an experimental high-speed passenger train created by Bombardier Transportation in an attempt to make European-style high-speed service more financially appealing to passenger railways in North America
North America
. It was expected to use the same LRC -derived tilting carriages as the Acela Express trains that Bombardier built for Amtrak in the 1990s and a similar locomotive. Unlike the Acela, powered electrically by overhead lines (as are most other high-speed trains), the JetTrain
JetTrain
was designed to use petroleum -based fuel to power a diesel engine and multiple turboshaft engines for higher speeds. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Gas turbine engines * 1.2 JetTrain
JetTrain
* 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 Further reading * 7 External links DESCRIPTIONGAS TURBINE ENGINES Main articles: Gas turbine and Gas turbine train Turbine engines use as much as 65% of their overall generated power to run the compressor at the front of the engine. This means that when the engine is set to idle, with no net energy output, the engine is still burning 65% of the fuel it would at full speed. This makes turbine engines attractive only in roles where they are run at high power settings for long periods of time, as is the case in aircraft, power generation, or long-range train service
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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High-speed Rail
HIGH-SPEED RAIL is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks. While there is no single standard that applies worldwide, new lines in excess of 250 kilometres per hour (160 miles per hour) and existing lines in excess of 200 kilometres per hour (120 miles per hour) are widely considered to be high-speed, with some extending the definition to include lower speeds in areas for which these speeds still represent significant improvements. The first such system began operations in Japan in 1964 and was widely known as the bullet train . High-speed trains normally operate on standard gauge tracks of continuously welded rail on grade-separated right-of-way that incorporates a large turning radius in its design. Many countries have developed high-speed rail to connect major cities, including Austria , Belgium , China , France , Germany , Italy , Japan , Poland , Portugal , Russia , South Korea , Spain , Sweden , Taiwan , Turkey , United Kingdom , United States and Uzbekistan . Only in Europe does HSR cross international borders. China has 22,000 kilometres (14,000 miles) of HSR as of end December 2016, accounting for two-thirds of the world's total. While high-speed rail is most often designed for passenger travel, some high-speed systems also offer freight service
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Bombardier Transportation
US$8.8 Billion (2013); US$9.6 Billion (2014) NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 34,900 PARENT Bombardier Inc. WEBSITE Bombardier.com/en/transportationBOMBARDIER TRANSPORTATION is the rail equipment division of the Canadian firm Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail vehicle and equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. The division is headquartered in Berlin , Germany , and has regional offices and major development facilities in Canada ( Montreal and Toronto ) and the United States (Plattsburgh, New York ). Bombardier Transportation has many minor production and development facilities worldwide. Bombardier Transportation produces a wide range of products including passenger rail vehicles , locomotives , bogies , propulsion and controls, and offers a number of services. Laurent Troger is the president and chief operating officer of Bombardier Transportation. In January 2011, the company had 34,900 employees, 25,400 of them in Europe, and 60 manufacturing locations around the world
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North America
NORTH AMERICA is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere . It can also be considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas . It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean , to the east by the Atlantic Ocean , to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean , and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea . North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa , and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe . In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states , or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands (most notably the Caribbean ) are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period , via crossing the Bering land bridge approximately 40,000 to 17,000 years ago. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago (the beginning of the Archaic or Meso-Indian period). The Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries
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LRC (train)
The LRC (a bilingual acronym: in English: Light, Rapid, Comfortable; in French : Léger, Rapide, et Confortable) is a series of lightweight diesel-powered passenger trains that were used on short- to medium-distance inter-city service in the Canadian Provinces of Ontario
Ontario
and Quebec
Quebec
. It originally consisted of both locomotives and passenger carriages designed to work together, though the two can be (and now are) used separately. LRC was designed to run with locomotives , or power cars , at both ends and provide 125 mph (201 km/h) service on non-upgraded railway routes. To accomplish this, the LRC passenger cars feature active-tilt technology to reduce the forces on the passengers when a train travels at high speeds around a curve in the railway tracks. LRCs have reached speeds as high as 130 mph (210 km/h) on test runs. On its only regular service route, on the Quebec
Quebec
City – Windsor Corridor , wear concerns, signalling issues and conflicts with slower moving freight trains limit this to 100 mph (160 km/h) or less. For service at these speeds, a single power car was used. Special
Special
signage allowed the LRC to run at higher speeds than normal traffic across a great portion of the Corridor when the tilt system was enabled
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Tilting Train
A TILTING TRAIN is a train that has a mechanism enabling increased speed on regular rail tracks . As a train (or other vehicle) rounds a curve at speed, objects inside the train experience inertia . This can cause packages to slide about or seated passengers to feel squashed by the outboard armrest due to its centripetal force , and standing passengers to lose their balance. Tilting trains are designed to counteract this discomfort. In a curve to the left, the train tilts to the left to compensate for the g-force push to the right, and vice versa. The train may be constructed such that inertial forces cause the tilting (PASSIVE TILT), or it may have a computer-controlled power mechanism (ACTIVE TILT). The first tilting train in regular public service was the 381 series electric multiple unit train operated by Japanese National Railways (JNR), which entered revenue service on 10 July 1973 on the Shinano limited express between Nagoya and Nagano on the Chūō Main Line . This technology was not fully implemented worldwide, as the marginally increased curve speeds did not justify the extra expense and technology in many cases. The British Advanced Passenger Train (operational from 1984 to 1985) was the first to implement active tilt successfully, enabling significantly increased speeds on tight rail curves. Active tilting is the mechanism most widely used today
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Acela Express
The ACELA EXPRESS (/əˈsɛlə/ ə-SEL-ə ; colloquially abbreviated to ACELA) is Amtrak
Amtrak
's flagship service along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in the Northeast United States between Washington, D.C. and Boston
Boston
via 14 intermediate stops including Baltimore
Baltimore
, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, and New York City
New York City
. The route contains segments of high-speed rail , and Acela Express
Acela Express
trains are the fastest trainsets in the Americas
Americas
; they attain 150 mph (240 km/h) on 28 miles (45 km) of the route. Acela carried more than 3.4 million passengers in fiscal year 2015; second only to the slower and less expensive Northeast Regional
Northeast Regional
, which had over 8 million passengers in FY 2015. Its 2015 revenue of $ 585 million was 25% of Amtrak's total. (Another 25% came from Northeast Regional
Northeast Regional
traffic, and roughly 25% each for long-distance trains, and state-supported corridor services throughout the rest of the country)
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Amtrak
The NATIONAL RAILROAD PASSENGER CORPORATION, doing business as AMTRAK /ˈæmtræk/ , is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States . Founded in 1971 to take over most of the remaining U.S. passenger rail services, it is partially government funded yet operated and managed as a for-profit corporation. Amtrak
Amtrak
serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces , operating more than 300 trains each day over 21,300 miles (34,000 km) of track. Some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph (240 km/h). In fiscal year 2015, Amtrak
Amtrak
served 30.8 million passengers and had $2.185 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas; 83% of passengers travel on routes shorter than 400 miles (644 km). Its headquarters is at Union Station in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
The name "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "trak", the latter itself a sensational spelling of "track"
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Electric Motor
An ELECTRIC MOTOR is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy . The reverse of this is the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator , and generators and motors have much in common. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motor's magnetic field and winding currents to generate force. In certain applications, such as in regenerative braking with traction motors in the transportation industry, electric motors can also be used in reverse as generators to convert mechanical energy into electric power. Found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives, electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as from the power grid, inverters or generators. Small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use. The largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, application, type of motion output, and so on
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Overhead Lines
An OVERHEAD LINE or OVERHEAD WIRE is used to transmit electrical energy to trams , trolleybuses , or trains . It is known variously as: * OVERHEAD CONTACT SYSTEM (OCS) * OVERHEAD LINE EQUIPMENT (OLE or OHLE) * OVERHEAD EQUIPMENT (OHE) * OVERHEAD WIRING (OHW) or OVERHEAD LINES (OHL) * CATENARY * TROLLEY WIRE * TRACTION WIREIn this article, the generic term overhead line is used, as used by the International Union of Railways . Overhead line is designed on the principle of one or more overhead wires (or rails, particularly in tunnels) situated over rail tracks , raised to a high electrical potential by connection to feeder stations at regular intervals. The feeder stations are usually fed from a high-voltage electrical grid . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Construction * 2.1 Parallel overhead lines * 3 Tensioning * 4 Breaks * 4.1 Section break * 4.2 Neutral section (phase break) * 4.3 Dead section * 4.4 Gaps * 5 Overhead conductor rails * 6 Crossings * 6.1 Australia * 6.2 Greece * 6.3 Italy * 7 Multiple overhead lines * 8 Overhead catenary * 8.1 Height * 9 Problems with overhead equipment * 10 History * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links OVERVIEWElectric trains that collect their current from overhead lines use a device such as a pantograph , bow collector or trolley pole
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Petroleum
PETROLEUM (from Greek : petra: "rock" + _oleum_: "oil". ) is a naturally occurring , yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth 's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels . Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation . It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds . The name _petroleum_ covers both naturally occurring unprocessed CRUDE OIL and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel , petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae , are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare). Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, and reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of the porosity and permeability of geologic reservoir structures) have been completed. It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation , into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals . Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day
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Diesel Engine
The DIESEL ENGINE (also known as a COMPRESSION-IGNITION or CI ENGINE) is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the high temperature which a gas achieves (i.e. the air) when greatly compressed (adiabatic compression ). Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that it ignites atomised diesel fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber. This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to petrol ), which use a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. In diesel engines, glow plugs (combustion chamber pre-warmers) may be used to aid starting in cold weather, or when the engine uses a lower compression-ratio, or both. The original diesel engine operates on the "constant pressure" cycle of gradual combustion and produces no audible knock. A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Detroit Diesel timing Fairbanks Morse model 32 The diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency (engine efficiency ) of any practical internal or external combustion engine due to its very high expansion ratio and inherent lean burn which enables heat dissipation by the excess air
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Turboshaft
A TURBOSHAFT engine is a form of gas turbine which is optimized to produce shaft power rather than jet thrust . In concept, turboshaft engines are very similar to turbojets , with additional turbine expansion to extract heat energy from the exhaust and convert it into output shaft power. They are even more similar to turboprops , with only minor differences, and a single engine is often sold in both forms. Turboshaft engines are commonly used in applications that require a sustained high power output, high reliability, small size, and light weight. These include helicopters , auxiliary power units , boats and ships , tanks , hovercraft , and stationary equipment. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEWA turboshaft engine may be made up of two major parts assemblies: the 'gas generator' and the 'power section'. The gas generator consists of the compressor , combustion chambers with ignitors and fuel nozzles , and one or more stages of turbine . The power section consists of additional stages of turbines, a gear reduction system, and the shaft output. The gas generator creates the hot expanding gases to drive the power section. Depending on the design, the engine accessories may be driven either by the gas generator or by the power section
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Gas Turbine
A GAS TURBINE, also called a COMBUSTION TURBINE, is a type of internal combustion engine . It has an upstream rotating compressor coupled to a downstream turbine , and a combustion chamber or area, called a combustor , in between. The basic operation of the gas turbine is similar to that of the steam power plant except that the working fluid is air instead of water. Fresh atmospheric air flows through a compressor that brings it to higher pressure. Energy is then added by spraying fuel into the air and igniting it so the combustion generates a high-temperature flow. This high-temperature high-pressure gas enters a turbine, where it expands down to the EXHAUST PRESSURE, producing a SHAFT WORK OUTPUT in the process. The turbine shaft work is used to drive the compressor and other devices such as an electric generator that may be coupled to the shaft. The energy that is not used for shaft work comes out in the exhaust gases , so these have either a high temperature or a high velocity. The purpose of the gas turbine determines the design so that the most desirable energy form is maximized. Gas turbines are used to power aircraft , trains , ships , electrical generators , pumps, gas compressors and tanks
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Gas Turbine Train
A GAS TURBINE TRAIN is a passenger train that uses one or more gas turbines as its main source of power. Few passenger trains use this system today, although there has been one recent prototype built by Bombardier Transportation . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Examples * 2.1 United Kingdom * 2.2 France * 2.3 United States * 2.4 Canada * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONA gas turbine train typically consists of two power cars (one at each end of the train), and one or more intermed