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Jain
Jainism
Jainism
(/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/),[1] traditionally known as Jain
Jain
Dharma,[2] is an ancient Indian religion.[3] Followers of Jainism
Jainism
are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life.[4] Jains
Jains
trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra
Mahāvīra
around 500 BCE
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Religious Text
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin
Latin
scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs. Religious texts may be used to provide meaning and purpose, evoke a deeper connection with the divine, convey religious truths, promote religious experience, foster communal identity, and guide individual and communal religious practice
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Diwali
Diwali
Diwali
or Deepavali is the Hindu
Hindu
festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).[4][5] It is an official holiday in Fiji, Guyana, India,[6] Malaysia, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago
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Dharma (Jainism)
Dharma
Dharma
(/ˈdɑːrmə/;[8] Sanskrit: धर्म, translit. dharma, pronounced [dʱəɾmə] ( listen); Pali: धम्म, translit. dhamma, translit
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Jain (other)
Jain
Jain
refers to Jainism, a religion of India, and its adherents.List of Jains, a list of people who are the adherents of Jainism (Jain Dharma). Jain
Jain
or JAIN may also refer to:
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Śvētāmbara
The Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
(/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/; Sanskrit: श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara. Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara
Digambara
"sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity.[1] Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha. Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara, Māllīnātha, was a woman.Contents1 History 2 Denominations 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
tradition follows the lineage of Sthulabhadra
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Jai Jinendra
Jai Jinendra! (Sanskrit: जय जिनेन्द्र Jaya Jinēndra) is a common greeting used by the Jains. The phrase means "Honor to the Supreme Jinas (Tirthankaras)"[1] The reverential greeting is a combination of two sanskrit words: Jai and JinendraThe word, Jai is used to praise somebody. In Jai Jinendra, it is used to praise the qualities of the Jinas (conquerors). The word Jinendra is a compound-word derived from the word Jina, referring to a human being who has conquered all inner passions and possess Kevala Gyan
Kevala Gyan
(pure infinite knowledge), and the word "Indra," which means chief or lord.[2][3][1]See also[edit]God in Jainism MahaviraNotes[edit]^ a b Rankin 2013, p. 37. ^ Sangave 2001, p. 16. ^ Sangave 2001, p. 164.References[edit]Rankin, Aidan (2013), "Chapter 1
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Aparigraha
In Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism, aparigraha (Sanskrit: अपरिग्रह) is the virtue of non-possessiveness, non-grasping or non-greediness.[1] Aparigrah is the opposite of parigrah, and refers to keeping the desire for possessions to what is necessary or important, depending on one's life stage and context
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Micchami Dukkadam
Micchāmi Dukkaḍaṃ (मिच्छामि दुक्कडम्) is an ancient Indian phrase, which is translated from Prakrit
Prakrit
to literally mean "may all the evil that has been done be fruitless." [1] It is commonly used to seek forgiveness and to mean, "If I have offended you in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought, word or deed, then I seek your forgiveness."[2] It is used widely in the Jain religion on the last day ( Samvatsari
Samvatsari
or Kshamavani) of Paryushana, the most important annual holy event of the Jain calendar.[3][4] As a matter of ritual, Jains greet their friends and relatives on this last day with Micchāmi Dukkaḍaṃ, seeking their forgiveness. No private quarrel or dispute should be carried beyond this time
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Kalpa Sūtra
The Kalpa Sūtra
Kalpa Sūtra
(Sanskrit: कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
and Mahavira.[1] Traditionally ascribed to Bhadrabahu, which would place it in the 4th century BCE.[2], it was probably put to writing only after 980 or 993 years after the Nirvana(Moksha) of Mahavira.Contents1 History 2 Importance 3 See also 4 References4.1 Citations 4.2 Sources5 External linksHistory[edit] Within the six sections of the Jain
Jain
literary corpus belonging to the Svetambara
Svetambara
school, it is classed as one of the Cheda Sūtras. This Sutra contains detailed life histories and, from the mid-15th century, was frequently illustrated with miniature painting
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Bhaktamara Stotra
Bhaktamara Stotra
Stotra
is a famous Jain
Jain
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
prayer. It was composed by Acharya Manatunga
Manatunga
(seventh century CE).[1] The name Bhaktamara comes from a combination of two sanskrit names, "Bhakta" (Devotee) and "Amar" (Immortal).Illustrative of Rishabhanatha, Folio Bhaktamara StotraThe prayer praises Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
(adinath), the first Tirthankara
Tirthankara
of Jainism. There are forty-eight verses in total. The last verse gives the name of the author Manatunga. Bhaktamar verses have been recited as a stotra (prayer), and sung as a stavan (hymn), somewhat interchangeably
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Parasparopagraho Jivanam
Parasparopagraho Jīvānām (Sanskrit) is a Jain aphorism from the Tattvārtha Sūtra [5.21]. It is translated as "Souls render service to one another".[1] It is also translated as, "All life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence."[2] These translations are virtually the same (by virtue, that is), because Jains believe that every living being, from a plant or a bacterium to human, has a soul and the concept forms the very basis of Jainism. ("Soul". Wikipedia. ) Motto of Jainism[edit] The aphorism Parasparopagraho Jīvānām has been accepted as the motto of Jainism.[3] It stresses the philosophy of non-violence and ecological harmony on which the Jain ethics and doctrine—especially the doctrines of Ahimsa and Anekantavada—are based
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Pravachanasara
Pravachanasara, is a text composed by Jain monk, Kundakunda, in about the mid-second century BC. It means "Essence of Scriptures" or "Essence of Sermons" or "Essence of Doctrine". In the text, Kundakunda shows how the correct understanding of the duality of self and others leads to that defining characteristic of Digambara
Digambara
mendicant praxis, nudity.[2] It consists of three chapters and 275 verses. First chapter consists of 92 verses and it describes attributes of Supreme Beings and outlines the first steps in the process of transforming oneself into a Supreme Being. Second chapter consists of 108 verses and it describes laws of interaction between space, time particles, elementary matter particles, compound matter particles, motion and souls in the Cosmos
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Brahmacharya
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chat
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Haribhadra
Haribhadra
Haribhadra
Suri was a Svetambara
Svetambara
mendicant Jain leader and author. There are multiple contradictory dates assigned to his birth. According to tradition, he lived c. 459–529 CE. However, in 1919, a Jain monk named Jinavijayi pointed out that given his familiarity with Dharmakirti, a more likely choice would be sometime after 650.[1] In his writings, Haribhadra
Haribhadra
identifies himself as a student of Jinabhadra and Jinadatta of the Vidyadhara Kula. There are several, somewhat contradictory, accounts of his life
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