_DIGAMBARA_ (/dɪˈɡʌmbərə/ ; "sky-clad") is one of the two major
Jainism , the other being _
Śvētāmbara _ (white-clad).
The word _Digambara_ (
Sanskrit ) is a combination of two words: _dig_
(directions) and _ambara_ (sky), referring to those whose garments are
of the element that fills the four quarters of space. _
_ do not wear any clothes. The monks carry _picchi_, a broom made up
of fallen peacock feathers (for clearing the place before walking or
sitting), _kamandalu _ (a water container made of wood), and _shastra
_ (scripture). One of the most important scholar-monks of _Digambara_
Kundakunda . He authored
Prakrit texts such as the
Samayasāra _ and the _
Pravacanasāra _. Other prominent _Acharyas _
of this tradition were,
Virasena (author of a commentary on the
Dhavala _), Samantabhadra and
Siddhasena Divakara . The
Satkhandagama _ and _
Kasayapahuda _ have major significance in the
* 1 History
* 1.1 Lineage
* 2 Sub-sects
* 2.1 _Terapanthi_
* 2.2 _Bispanthi_
* 3 Practices
* 3.1 Monasticism
* 3.2 Worship
* 3.2.1 Statues
* 4 Literature
* 5 Differences with
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 9 External links
Relics found from Harrapan excavations like seals depicting
Kayotsarga _ posture, idols in _Padmasana _ and a nude bust of red
limestone give insight about the antiquity of the _Digambara_
tradition. The presence of gymnosophists (naked philosophers) in
Greek records as early as the fourth century BC, supports the claim of
the _Digambaras_ that they have preserved the ancient _
Dundas talks about the archeological evidences which indicate that
Jain monks moved from the practice of total nudity towards wearing
clothes in later period. Ancient
Tirthankara statues found in Mathura
are naked. The oldest
Tirthankara statue wearing a cloth is dated in
5th century CE. _Digamabara_ statues of tirthankara belonging to
Gupta period has half-closed eyes.
Pattavali _ Stela at Marhiaji,
Jabalpur , showing the
transmission of the oral tradition, erected on the 2500th anniversary
of Lord Mahavira's nirvana_
According to _Digambara_ texts, after liberation of the Lord Mahavira
, three _Anubaddha Kevalīs_ attained _Kevalajñāna _ (omniscience)
sequentially – Gautama _Gaņadhara _, _Acharya_
Sudharma , and
Jambusvami in next 62 years. During the next hundred years, five
_Āchāryas_ had complete knowledge of the scriptures, as such, called
_Śruta Kevalīs_, the last of them being _Āchārya_ Bhadrabahu.
Spiritual lineage of heads of monastic orders is known as _Pattavali
Digambara tradition consider
Dharasena to be the 33rd teacher in
succession of Gautama, 683 years after the _nirvana _ of Mahavira.
3rd century B.C.E.
Last _Shruta Kevalin_ and
Chandragupta Maurya 's spiritual teacher
1st century B.C.E.-
1st century C.E. Author of
Samayasāra , Niyamasara, Pravachansara,
2nd century C.E.
Tattvartha Sutra (canon on science and ethics)
2nd century C.E.
Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra ,
5th century C.E.
Author of _Sanmatitarka_
5th century C.E.
Author of Iṣṭopadeśa (Divine Sermons), a concise work of 51
6th century C.E.
Creator of famous
Mathematician and author of
9th century C.E.
Author of Mahapurana
10th century C.E.
Dravyasamgraha and supervised the consecration of the
Gomateshwara statue .
It has been suggested that
Mula Sangha _ and _
Kashtha Sangha _ be
merged into this article. (Discuss ) _Proposed since April 2017._
Acharya _ Vidyasagar , a prominent
The _Digambara_ tradition can be divided into two main orders viz.
Mula Sangha _ (original community) and modern community. _Mula
Sangha_ can be further divided into orthodox and heterodox traditions.
Orthodox traditions included _Nandi_, _Sena_, _Simha_ and _Deva_
_sangha_. Heterodox traditions included _Dravida_, _
Kashtha _ and _Mathura_ sangha. Other traditions of _Mula sangha_
include _Deshiya Gana_ and _
Balatkara Gana _ traditions. Modern
_Digambara_ community is divided into various sub-sects viz.
_Terapanthi _, _
Bispanthi _, _Taranpanthi _ (or _Samayiapanthi_),
_Gumanapanthi_ and _Totapanthi_.
Digambara community was divided into _Terapanthi_ and _Bisapanthi_ on
the acceptance of authority of _Bhattaraka_. The _Bhattarakas _ of
Mudbidri belong to _Deshiya Gana_ and the
Humbaj belongs to the _Balatkara Gana_.
The _Terapanthis_ worship the idols with _ashta-dravya_ just like the
Bispanthis, but replace flowers and fruits with dry substitutes. The
ashta-dravya _jal_ (water), _chandan_ (sandal), _akshata_ (sacred
rice), _pushp_ (yellow rice), _deep_ (yellow dry coconut), _dhup_
(_kapoor_ or cloves) and _phal_ (almonds). Terapanthi is a reformist
sect of _Digambara_
Jainism that distinguished itself from the
Bispanthi _ sect. It formed out of strong opposition to the religious
domination of traditional religious leaders called _bhattarakas _ in
the 17th century. They oppose the worship of various minor gods and
goddesses. Some _Terapanthi_ practices, like not using flowers in
worship, gradually spread throughout most of North Indian
well. _Terapanthis_ occur in large numbers in
Rajasthan , Uttar
Madhya Pradesh .
Besides _tirthankaras_, _Bispanthi_ also worship _
Yaksha _ and
Yakshini _ like
Kshetrapala . Their religious practices
include _aarti _ and offerings of flowers, fruits and _prasad _.
_Bhattarakas_ are their _dharma-gurus_ and they are concentrated in
The word _Digambara_ is a combination of two
Sanskrit words: _dik_
(दिक्) (directions) and _ambara_ (अम्बर) (clothes),
referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the
four quarters of space. _Digambara_ monks do not wear any clothes as
it is considered to be _parigraha_ (possession), which ultimately
leads to attachment. A _Digambara_ monk has 28 _mūla guņas_
(primary attributes). These are: five _mahāvratas_ (supreme vows);
five _samitis_ (regulations); _pañcendriya nirodha_ (five-fold
control of the senses); _Ṣadāvaśyakas_ (six essential duties); and
seven _niyamas_ (rules or restrictions).
Five Great Vows 1. _Ahimsa _
Not to injure any living being through actions or thoughts
To speak only the truth and good words
Not to take anything unless given
Celibacy in action, words and thoughts
Renunciation of worldly things and foreign natures, external and
Fivefold regulation of activities 6. _irya_
To walk carefully after viewing land to the extent of four cubits
Not to criticise anyone or speak bad words
To accept food from a _sravaka_ (householder) if it is free from 46
Carefulness in the handling of whatever the saint possess.
To dispose off the body waste at a place free from living beings.
11–15. Fivefold control of the senses
Shedding all attachment and aversion towards the sense objects
pertaining to touch (_sparśana_), taste (_rasana_), smell
(_ghrāṇa_), sight (_cakśu_), and hearing (_śrotra_)
Six Essential Duties
Meditate for equanimity towards every living being
Worship of the _
To pay obeisances to _siddhas _, _arihantas_ and _acharyas_
Self-censure, repentance; to drive oneself away from the multitude
of _karmas_, virtuous or wicked, done in the past.
Giving up attachment to the body and meditate on soul.
Seven rules 22. _adantdhavan_
Not to use tooth powder to clean teeth
Sleeping on hard ground
Eating food in standing posture
To consume food and water once a day
To pluck hair on the head and face by hand.
To be nude (_digambara_)
The monks carry _picchi_, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers
for removing small insects without causing them injury, _Kamandalu_
(the gourd for carrying pure, sterilized water) and _shastra_
(scripture). The head of all monastics is called _Āchārya _, while
the saintly preceptor of saints is the _upādhyāya_. The _Āchārya_
has 36 primary attributes (_mūla guņa_) in addition to the 28
mentioned above. The monks perform _kayotsarga_ daily, in a rigid and
immobile posture, with the arms held stiffly down, knees straight, and
toes directed forward. Female monastics in
Digambara tradition are
known as _aryikas _. Statistically, there are more
than there are monks.
Adinatha image (Badami caves)
The _Digambara_ Jains worship completely nude idols of _tirthankaras_
(omniscient beings) and _siddha _ (liberated souls). The _tirthankara_
is represented either seated in yoga posture or standing in the
The truly "sky-clad" (_digambara_) Jaina statue expresses the perfect
isolation of the one who has stripped off every bond. His is an
absolute "abiding in itself," a strange but perfect aloofness, a
nudity of chilling majesty, in its stony simplicity, rigid contours,
and abstraction. —
Keelavalavu ) Sculptures
The 57 feet (17 m) high
Gommateshwara statue ,
Gwalior Fort ,
The _Digambara_ sect of
Jainism rejects the authority of the texts
accepted by the other major sect, the _Svetambaras _.
According to the _Digambaras_, _Āchārya_
Dharasena guided two
_Āchāryas_, Pushpadanta and
Bhutabali , to put the teachings of
Mahavira in written form, 683 years after the _nirvana _ of Mahavira.
The two _Āchāryas_ wrote _Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama _ on palm leaves
which is considered to be among the oldest known _Digambara_ texts.
Bhutabali was the last ascetic who had partial knowledge
of the original Jain _Agamas _. Later on, some learned _Āchāryas_
started to restore, compile and put into written words the teachings
of Lord Mahavira, that were the subject matter of _Agamas_.
_Digambaras_ group the texts into four literary categories called
_anuyoga_ (exposition). The _prathmanuyoga_ (first exposition)
contains the universal history, the _karananuyoga_ (calculation
exposition) contains works on cosmology and the _charananuyoga_
(behaviour exposition) includes texts about proper behaviour for monks
Most eminent _Digamabara_ authors include Kundakunda, Samantabhadra,
Pujyapada, Jinasena, Akalanka, Vidyanandi, Somadeva and Asadhara.
DIFFERENCES WITH ŚVēTāMBARA SECT
According to _Digambara_ texts, after attaining _
Kevala Jnana _
(omniscience), _arihant _ (omniscient beings) are free from human
needs like hunger, thirst, and sleep. According to the _Digambara_
tradition, a soul can attain _moksha_ (liberation) only from the male
body with complete nudity being a necessity.
Nudity in religion
* God in
* Timeline of
Digambar Jain Mahasabha
* ^ Possehl 2002 , p. 111.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Zimmer 1953 , p. 210.
Upinder Singh 2016 , p. 444.
* ^ Umakant Premanand Shah 1987 , p. 4.
* ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012 , p. xi-xii.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Pereira 1977 , p. 5.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Vijay K. Jain 2012 , p. xii.
* ^ Cort 2010 , p. 335.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Dundas 2002 , p. 79.
* ^ Jaini 1991 , p. 31.
Upinder Singh 2009 , p. 524.
Satkhandagama : Dhaval (Jivasthana) Satparupana-I (Enunciation
of Existence-I) An English Translation of Part 1 of the Dhavala
Commentary on the
Satkhandagama of Acarya Pushpadanta & Bhutabali
Dhavala commentary by Acarya
Virasena English tr. by Prof. Nandlal
Jain, Ed. by Prof. Ashok Jain ISBN 978-81-86957-47-9
* ^ Sangave 1980 , pp. 51-56.
* ^ Long 2008 , p. 39.
* ^ Sangave 1980 , p. 299.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sangave 1980 , p. 52.
* ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 45.
* ^ Pramansagar 2008 , p. 189–191.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Vijay K. Jain 2013 , pp. 189–191,
* ^ Vijay K. Jain 2011 , p. 93–100.
Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain 1926 , p. 26.
* ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012 , p. 144–145.
Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain 1926 , p. 32–38.
* ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012 , p. 143.
Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain 1926 , p. 46–47.
Upinder Singh 2009 , p. 316.
Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain 1926 , p. 36.
Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain 1926 , p. 21.
Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain 1926 , p. 141.
* ^ Harvey 2014 , p. 182.
* ^ Zimmer 1953 , p. 209–210.
* ^ Zimmer 1953 , p. 213.
Upinder Singh 2009 , p. 444.
* ^ Dundas 2002 , pp. 63–64.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Dundas 2002 , p. 80.
* ^ Jaini 2000 , p. 28.
Upinder Singh 2009 , p. 314.
Upinder Singh 2009 , p. 319.
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* International Digamber Jain Organization