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_DIGAMBARA_ (/dɪˈɡʌmbərə/ ; "sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism
Jainism
, the other being _ Śvētāmbara _ (white-clad). The word _Digambara_ ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
) is a combination of two words: _dig_ (directions) and _ambara_ (sky), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. _ Digambara
Digambara
monks _ do not wear any clothes. The monks carry _picchi_, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers (for clearing the place before walking or sitting), _kamandalu _ (a water container made of wood), and _shastra _ (scripture). One of the most important scholar-monks of _Digambara_ tradition was Kundakunda . He authored Prakrit texts such as the _ Samayasāra _ and the _ Pravacanasāra _. Other prominent _Acharyas _ of this tradition were, Virasena
Virasena
(author of a commentary on the _ Dhavala _), Samantabhadra and Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara . The _ Satkhandagama _ and _ Kasayapahuda
Kasayapahuda
_ have major significance in the _Digambara_ tradition.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Lineage

* 2 Sub-sects

* 2.1 _Terapanthi_ * 2.2 _Bispanthi_

* 3 Practices

* 3.1 Monasticism

* 3.2 Worship

* 3.2.1 Statues

* 4 Literature * 5 Differences with Śvētāmbara sect * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

Relics found from Harrapan excavations like seals depicting _ Kayotsarga _ posture, idols in _Padmasana _ and a nude bust of red limestone give insight about the antiquity of the _Digambara_ tradition. The presence of gymnosophists (naked philosophers) in Greek records as early as the fourth century BC, supports the claim of the _Digambaras_ that they have preserved the ancient _ Śramaṇa _ practice.

Dundas talks about the archeological evidences which indicate that Jain monks moved from the practice of total nudity towards wearing clothes in later period. Ancient Tirthankara
Tirthankara
statues found in Mathura are naked. The oldest Tirthankara
Tirthankara
statue wearing a cloth is dated in 5th century CE. _Digamabara_ statues of tirthankara belonging to Gupta period has half-closed eyes.

LINEAGE

See also: Pattavali
Pattavali
_ Stela at Marhiaji, Jabalpur , showing the transmission of the oral tradition, erected on the 2500th anniversary of Lord Mahavira's nirvana_

According to _Digambara_ texts, after liberation of the Lord Mahavira , three _Anubaddha Kevalīs_ attained _Kevalajñāna _ (omniscience) sequentially – Gautama _Gaņadhara _, _Acharya_ Sudharma , and Jambusvami in next 62 years. During the next hundred years, five _Āchāryas_ had complete knowledge of the scriptures, as such, called _Śruta Kevalīs_, the last of them being _Āchārya_ Bhadrabahu. Spiritual lineage of heads of monastic orders is known as _Pattavali _. Digambara
Digambara
tradition consider Dharasena
Dharasena
to be the 33rd teacher in succession of Gautama, 683 years after the _nirvana _ of Mahavira.

_ACHARYAS_ TIME PERIOD KNOWN FOR

Bhadrabahu 3rd century B.C.E. Last _Shruta Kevalin_ and Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
's spiritual teacher

Kundakunda 1st century B.C.E.- 1st century C.E. Author of Samayasāra , Niyamasara, Pravachansara, Barah anuvekkha

Umaswami 2nd century C.E. Author of Tattvartha Sutra (canon on science and ethics)

Samantabhadra 2nd century C.E. Author of Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra , Aptamimamsa
Aptamimamsa

Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara 5th century C.E. Author of _Sanmatitarka_

Pujyapada
Pujyapada
5th century C.E. Author of Iṣṭopadeśa (Divine Sermons), a concise work of 51 verses

Manatunga
Manatunga
6th century C.E. Creator of famous Bhaktamara Stotra
Bhaktamara Stotra

Virasena
Virasena
8th-century C.E. Mathematician and author of Dhavala

Jinasena 9th century C.E. Author of Mahapurana

Nemichandra 10th century C.E. Author of Dravyasamgraha and supervised the consecration of the Gomateshwara statue .

SUB-SECTS

_ It has been suggested that Mula Sangha _ and _ Kashtha Sangha
Kashtha Sangha
_ be merged into this article. (Discuss ) _Proposed since April 2017._

_ Acharya
Acharya
_ Vidyasagar , a prominent Digambara monk

The _Digambara_ tradition can be divided into two main orders viz. _ Mula Sangha _ (original community) and modern community. _Mula Sangha_ can be further divided into orthodox and heterodox traditions. Orthodox traditions included _Nandi_, _Sena_, _Simha_ and _Deva_ _sangha_. Heterodox traditions included _Dravida_, _ Yapaniya _, _ Kashtha _ and _Mathura_ sangha. Other traditions of _Mula sangha_ include _Deshiya Gana_ and _ Balatkara Gana _ traditions. Modern _Digambara_ community is divided into various sub-sects viz. _Terapanthi _, _ Bispanthi
Bispanthi
_, _Taranpanthi _ (or _Samayiapanthi_), _Gumanapanthi_ and _Totapanthi_.

Digambara
Digambara
community was divided into _Terapanthi_ and _Bisapanthi_ on the acceptance of authority of _Bhattaraka_. The _Bhattarakas _ of Shravanabelagola and Mudbidri belong to _Deshiya Gana_ and the _Bhattaraka_ of Humbaj belongs to the _Balatkara Gana_.

_TERAPANTHI_

Main article: Digambara Terapanth
Digambara Terapanth
Acharya
Acharya
Gyansagar

The _Terapanthis_ worship the idols with _ashta-dravya_ just like the Bispanthis, but replace flowers and fruits with dry substitutes. The ashta-dravya _jal_ (water), _chandan_ (sandal), _akshata_ (sacred rice), _pushp_ (yellow rice), _deep_ (yellow dry coconut), _dhup_ (_kapoor_ or cloves) and _phal_ (almonds). Terapanthi is a reformist sect of _Digambara_ Jainism
Jainism
that distinguished itself from the _ Bispanthi
Bispanthi
_ sect. It formed out of strong opposition to the religious domination of traditional religious leaders called _bhattarakas _ in the 17th century. They oppose the worship of various minor gods and goddesses. Some _Terapanthi_ practices, like not using flowers in worship, gradually spread throughout most of North Indian Jainism
Jainism
as well. _Terapanthis_ occur in large numbers in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
.

_BISPANTHI_

Main article: Bispanthi
Bispanthi

Besides _tirthankaras_, _Bispanthi_ also worship _ Yaksha _ and _ Yakshini
Yakshini
_ like Bhairava
Bhairava
and Kshetrapala . Their religious practices include _aarti _ and offerings of flowers, fruits and _prasad _. _Bhattarakas_ are their _dharma-gurus_ and they are concentrated in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Gujarat
Gujarat
.

PRACTICES

MONASTICISM

Main article: Digambara monk

The word _Digambara_ is a combination of two Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words: _dik_ (दिक्) (directions) and _ambara_ (अम्बर) (clothes), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. _Digambara_ monks do not wear any clothes as it is considered to be _parigraha_ (possession), which ultimately leads to attachment. A _Digambara_ monk has 28 _mūla guņas_ (primary attributes). These are: five _mahāvratas_ (supreme vows); five _samitis_ (regulations); _pañcendriya nirodha_ (five-fold control of the senses); _Ṣadāvaśyakas_ (six essential duties); and seven _niyamas_ (rules or restrictions).

HEAD VOW MEANING

_Mahavratas_- Five Great Vows 1. _Ahimsa _ Not to injure any living being through actions or thoughts

2. Truth
Truth
To speak only the truth and good words

3. _ Asteya _ Not to take anything unless given

4. _ Brahmacharya _ Celibacy in action, words and thoughts

5. _ Aparigraha
Aparigraha
_ Renunciation of worldly things and foreign natures, external and internal

_Samiti_- Fivefold regulation of activities 6. _irya_ To walk carefully after viewing land to the extent of four cubits (2 yards).

7. _bhasha_ Not to criticise anyone or speak bad words

8. _eshna_ To accept food from a _sravaka_ (householder) if it is free from 46 faults

9. _adan-nishep_ Carefulness in the handling of whatever the saint possess.

10. _pratishṭapan_ To dispose off the body waste at a place free from living beings.

_Panchindrinirodh_ 11–15. Fivefold control of the senses Shedding all attachment and aversion towards the sense objects pertaining to touch (_sparśana_), taste (_rasana_), smell (_ghrāṇa_), sight (_cakśu_), and hearing (_śrotra_)

Six Essential Duties 16. _ Sāmāyika _ Meditate for equanimity towards every living being

17. _stuti_ Worship of the _ Tirthankaras _

18. _vandan_ To pay obeisances to _siddhas _, _arihantas_ and _acharyas_

19. _ Pratikramana _ Self-censure, repentance; to drive oneself away from the multitude of _karmas_, virtuous or wicked, done in the past.

20. _Pratikhayan_ Renunciation

21. _ Kayotsarga _ Giving up attachment to the body and meditate on soul.

_Niyama_- Seven rules 22. _adantdhavan_ Not to use tooth powder to clean teeth

23. _bhushayan_ Sleeping on hard ground

24. _asnāna_ Non-bathing

25. _stithi-bhojan_ Eating food in standing posture

26. _ahara_ To consume food and water once a day

27. _keśa-lonch_ To pluck hair on the head and face by hand.

28. nudity To be nude (_digambara_)

The monks carry _picchi_, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers for removing small insects without causing them injury, _Kamandalu_ (the gourd for carrying pure, sterilized water) and _shastra_ (scripture). The head of all monastics is called _Āchārya _, while the saintly preceptor of saints is the _upādhyāya_. The _Āchārya_ has 36 primary attributes (_mūla guņa_) in addition to the 28 mentioned above. The monks perform _kayotsarga_ daily, in a rigid and immobile posture, with the arms held stiffly down, knees straight, and toes directed forward. Female monastics in Digambara
Digambara
tradition are known as _aryikas _. Statistically, there are more Digambara
Digambara
nuns, than there are monks.

WORSHIP

Adinatha image (Badami caves)

The _Digambara_ Jains worship completely nude idols of _tirthankaras_ (omniscient beings) and _siddha _ (liberated souls). The _tirthankara_ is represented either seated in yoga posture or standing in the _Kayotsarga_ posture.

The truly "sky-clad" (_digambara_) Jaina statue expresses the perfect isolation of the one who has stripped off every bond. His is an absolute "abiding in itself," a strange but perfect aloofness, a nudity of chilling majesty, in its stony simplicity, rigid contours, and abstraction. —  Heinrich Zimmer

Statues

*

Kizhavalavu ( Keelavalavu ) Sculptures *

The 57 feet (17 m) high Gommateshwara statue , Shravanabelagola *

_Tirthankara_ statues, Gwalior Fort , Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
*

_Tirthankara_ Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
statue, Rajasthan
Rajasthan

LITERATURE

The _Digambara_ sect of Jainism
Jainism
rejects the authority of the texts accepted by the other major sect, the _Svetambaras _.

According to the _Digambaras_, _Āchārya_ Dharasena
Dharasena
guided two _Āchāryas_, Pushpadanta and Bhutabali
Bhutabali
, to put the teachings of Mahavira in written form, 683 years after the _nirvana _ of Mahavira. The two _Āchāryas_ wrote _Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama _ on palm leaves which is considered to be among the oldest known _Digambara_ texts. _Āchārya_ Bhutabali
Bhutabali
was the last ascetic who had partial knowledge of the original Jain _Agamas _. Later on, some learned _Āchāryas_ started to restore, compile and put into written words the teachings of Lord Mahavira, that were the subject matter of _Agamas_.

_Digambaras_ group the texts into four literary categories called _anuyoga_ (exposition). The _prathmanuyoga_ (first exposition) contains the universal history, the _karananuyoga_ (calculation exposition) contains works on cosmology and the _charananuyoga_ (behaviour exposition) includes texts about proper behaviour for monks and _Sravakas_.

Most eminent _Digamabara_ authors include Kundakunda, Samantabhadra, Pujyapada, Jinasena, Akalanka, Vidyanandi, Somadeva and Asadhara.

DIFFERENCES WITH ŚVēTāMBARA SECT

According to _Digambara_ texts, after attaining _ Kevala Jnana
Kevala Jnana
_ (omniscience), _arihant _ (omniscient beings) are free from human needs like hunger, thirst, and sleep. According to the _Digambara_ tradition, a soul can attain _moksha_ (liberation) only from the male body with complete nudity being a necessity.

SEE ALSO

* Jainism
Jainism
portal

* Nudity in religion * God in Jainism
Jainism
* Kshullak
Kshullak
* Jain Philosophy * Timeline of Jainism
Jainism
* Digambar Jain Mahasabha

NOTES

* ^ Possehl 2002 , p. 111. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Zimmer 1953 , p. 210. * ^ Upinder Singh 2016 , p. 444. * ^ Umakant Premanand Shah 1987 , p. 4. * ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012 , p. xi-xii. * ^ _A_ _B_ Pereira 1977 , p. 5. * ^ _A_ _B_ Vijay K. Jain 2012 , p. xii. * ^ Cort 2010 , p. 335. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dundas 2002 , p. 79. * ^ Jaini 1991 , p. 31. * ^ Upinder Singh 2009 , p. 524. * ^ Satkhandagama : Dhaval (Jivasthana) Satparupana-I (Enunciation of Existence-I) An English Translation of Part 1 of the Dhavala Commentary on the Satkhandagama of Acarya Pushpadanta & Bhutabali Dhavala commentary by Acarya Virasena
Virasena
English tr. by Prof. Nandlal Jain, Ed. by Prof. Ashok Jain ISBN 978-81-86957-47-9 * ^ Sangave 1980 , pp. 51-56. * ^ Long 2008 , p. 39. * ^ Sangave 1980 , p. 299. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sangave 1980 , p. 52. * ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 45. * ^ Pramansagar 2008 , p. 189–191. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Vijay K. Jain 2013 , pp. 189–191, 196–197. * ^ Vijay K. Jain 2011 , p. 93–100. * ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926 , p. 26. * ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012 , p. 144–145. * ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926 , p. 32–38. * ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012 , p. 143. * ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926 , p. 46–47. * ^ Upinder Singh 2009 , p. 316. * ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926 , p. 36. * ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926 , p. 21. * ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926 , p. 141. * ^ Harvey 2014 , p. 182. * ^ Zimmer 1953 , p. 209–210. * ^ Zimmer 1953 , p. 213. * ^ Upinder Singh 2009 , p. 444. * ^ Dundas 2002 , pp. 63–64. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dundas 2002 , p. 80. * ^ Jaini 2000 , p. 28. * ^ Upinder Singh 2009 , p. 314. * ^ Upinder Singh 2009 , p. 319.

REFERENCES

* Jain, Vijay K. (2013), _Ācārya Nemichandra's Dravyasaṃgraha_, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-5-2 , _ This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._ * Jain, Vijay K. (2012), _ Acharya
Acharya
Amritchandra\'s Purushartha Siddhyupaya_, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 81-903639-4-8 , _ This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._ * Jain, Vijay K. (2011), _ Acharya
Acharya
Umasvami\'s Tattvārthsūtra_ (1st ed.), (Uttarakhand) India: Vikalp Printers, ISBN 81-903639-2-1 , _ This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._ * Possehl, Gregory L. (2002), _The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective_, Rowman Altamira , ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2 * Pramansagar, Muni (2008), _Jain Tattva-Vidya_, India: Bhartiya Gyanpeeth, ISBN 978-81-263-1480-5 * Singh, Upinder (2009), _A History Of Ancient And Early Medieval India: From The Stone Age To The 12Th Century_, Pearson Education , ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0 * Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), _Encyclopedia of Hinduism_, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 * Dundas, Paul (2002) , _The Jains_ (Second ed.), Routledge , ISBN 0-415-26605-X * Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1991), _Gender and Salvation: Jaina Debates on the Spiritual Liberation of Women_, University of California Press , ISBN 0-520-06820-3 * Pereira, José (1977), _Monolithic Jinas_, Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 0-8426-1027-8 * Mookerji, Radha Kumud (1988) , _ Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
and his times_ (4th ed.), Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 81-208-0433-3 * Sangave, Vilas Adinath (1980) , _Jaina Community: A Social Survey_, Popular Prakashan, ISBN 0-317-12346-7 * Cort, John (2010) , _Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History_, Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
, ISBN 978-0-19-538502-1 * Zimmer, Heinrich (1953) , Campbell, Joseph , ed., _Philosophies Of India_, London
London
, E.C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6 , _ This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._ * Jain, Champat Rai (1926), _Sannyasa Dharma_

EXTERNAL LINKS

* International Digamber Jain Organization

* v * t * e

Jainism
Jainism
topics

GODS

* Tirthankara
Tirthankara
*

.