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Digambara
Digambara
(/dɪˈɡʌmbərə/; "sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
(white-clad). The word Digambara
Digambara
(Sanskrit) is a combination of two words: dig (directions) and ambara (sky), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. Digambara
Digambara
monks do not wear any clothes. The monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers (for clearing the place before walking or sitting), kamandalu (a water container made of wood), and shastra (scripture). One of the most important scholar-monks of Digambara tradition was Kundakunda. He authored Prakrit
Prakrit
texts such as the Samayasāra
Samayasāra
and the Pravacanasāra. Other prominent Acharyas of this tradition were, Virasena
Virasena
(author of a commentary on the Dhavala), Samantabhadra and Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara. The Satkhandagama
Satkhandagama
and Kasayapahuda
Kasayapahuda
have major significance in the Digambara
Digambara
tradition.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Lineage

2 Sub-sects

2.1 Terapanthi 2.2 Bispanthi

3 Practices

3.1 Monasticism 3.2 Worship

3.2.1 Statues

4 Literature 5 Differences with Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
sect 6 See also 7 Notes

7.1 Sources

8 External links

History[edit] Relics found from Harrapan excavations like seals depicting Kayotsarga posture, idols in Padmasana and a nude bust of red limestone give insight about the antiquity of the Digambara
Digambara
tradition.[1] The presence of gymnosophists (naked philosophers) in Greek records as early as the fourth century BC, supports the claim of the Digambaras that they have preserved the ancient Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
practice.[2] Dundas talks about the archeological evidences which indicate that Jain monks moved from the practice of total nudity towards wearing clothes in later period. Ancient Tirthankara
Tirthankara
statues found in Mathura are naked. The oldest Tirthankara
Tirthankara
statue wearing a cloth is dated in 5th century CE.[3] Digamabara statues of tirthankara belonging to Gupta period has half-closed eyes.[4] Lineage[edit] See also: Pattavali

Stela at Marhiaji, Jabalpur, showing the transmission of the oral tradition, erected on the 2500th anniversary of Lord Mahavira's nirvana

According to Digambara
Digambara
texts, after liberation of the Lord Mahavira, three Anubaddha Kevalīs attained Kevalajñāna (omniscience) sequentially – Gautama Gaņadhara, Acharya
Acharya
Sudharma, and Jambusvami in next 62 years.[5] During the next hundred years, five Āchāryas had complete knowledge of the scriptures, as such, called Śruta Kevalīs, the last of them being Āchārya Bhadrabahu.[6][7] Spiritual lineage of heads of monastic orders is known as Pattavali.[8] Digambara
Digambara
tradition consider Dharasena
Dharasena
to be the 33rd teacher in succession of Gautama, 683 years after the nirvana of Mahavira.[9]

Acharyas Time period Known for

Bhadrabahu 3rd century B.C.E. Last Shruta Kevalin and Chandragupta Maurya's spiritual teacher[6]

Kundakunda 1st century B.C.E.- 1st century C.E. Author of Samayasāra, Niyamasara, Pravachansara, Barah anuvekkha[10]

Umaswami 2nd century C.E. Author of Tattvartha Sutra
Tattvartha Sutra
(canon on science and ethics)

Samantabhadra 2nd century C.E. Author of Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, Aptamimamsa

Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara 5th century C.E. Author of Sanmatitarka[11]

Pujyapada 5th century C.E. Author of Iṣṭopadeśa (Divine Sermons), a concise work of 51 verses

Manatunga 6th century C.E. Creator of famous Bhaktamara Stotra

Virasena 8th-century C.E. Mathematician and author of Dhavala[12]

Jinasena 9th century C.E. Author of Mahapurana

Nemichandra 10th century C.E. Author of Dravyasamgraha
Dravyasamgraha
and supervised the consecration of the Gomateshwara statue.

Sub-sects[edit]

Acharya
Acharya
Vidyasagar, a prominent Digambara
Digambara
monk

Jain Digambara
Digambara
Sects [13]

Jain Sangh

Digambara

Mula Sangh

Great Schools

Nandi Gana

Balatkara Gana Desiya Gana

Sena Gana Simha Gana Deva Gana

Other Mula Sangh
Mula Sangh
branches (extinct) Kashtha Sangh
Kashtha Sangh
(exists)

Present Sects

Taran Panth Bispanthi Digambar Terapanth Other

Kanji Swami
Kanji Swami
Panth established by ex- Sthanakvasi
Sthanakvasi
monk. Gumanpanth Totapanth

The Digambara
Digambara
tradition can be divided into two main orders viz. Mula Sangha (original community) and modern community. Mula Sangha
Mula Sangha
can be further divided into orthodox and heterodox traditions. Orthodox traditions included Nandi, Sena, Simha and Deva sangha. Heterodox traditions included Dravida, Yapaniya, Kashtha
Kashtha
and Mathura sangha.[14] Other traditions of Mula sangha include Deshiya Gana and Balatkara Gana traditions. Modern Digambara
Digambara
community is divided into various sub-sects viz. Terapanthi, Bispanthi, Taranpanthi (or Samayiapanthi), Gumanapanthi and Totapanthi.[15] Digambara
Digambara
community was divided into Terapanthi and Bisapanthi on the acceptance of authority of Bhattaraka.[16][citation not found] The Bhattarakas of Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
and Mudbidri
Mudbidri
belong to Deshiya Gana and the Bhattaraka
Bhattaraka
of Humbaj
Humbaj
belongs to the Balatkara Gana.[17] The Bispanth-Terapanth division among the Digambaras emerged in the 17th century in the Jaipur
Jaipur
region: Sanganer, Amer and Jaipur itself.[18] Terapanthi[edit]

It has been suggested that Digambara Terapanth
Digambara Terapanth
be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since March 2018.

Main article: Digambara
Digambara
Terapanth

Acharya
Acharya
Gyansagar

The Terapanthis worship the idols with ashta-dravya just like the Bispanthis, but replace flowers and fruits with dry substitutes. The ashta-dravya jal (water), chandan (sandal), akshata (sacred rice), pushp (yellow rice), deep (yellow dry coconut), dhup (kapoor or cloves) and phal (almonds).[19] Terapanthi is a reformist sect of Digambara
Digambara
Jainism
Jainism
that distinguished itself from the Bispanthi
Bispanthi
sect. It formed out of strong opposition to the religious domination of traditional religious leaders called bhattarakas in the 17th century. They oppose the worship of various minor gods and goddesses. Some Terapanthi practices, like not using flowers in worship, gradually spread throughout most of North Indian Jainism
Jainism
as well. Terapanthis occur in large numbers in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Madhya Pradesh.[19] The Terapanthi movement was born out of the Adhyatma movement that arose in 1626 AD (V.S. 1683) in Agra. Its leading proponent was Banarasidas
Banarasidas
of Agra.[20][better source needed] Bispanthi[edit] Main article: Bispanthi Besides tirthankaras, Bispanthi
Bispanthi
also worship Yaksha
Yaksha
and Yakshini
Yakshini
like Bhairava
Bhairava
and Kshetrapala. Their religious practices include aarti and offerings of flowers, fruits and prasad. Bhattarakas are their dharma-gurus and they are concentrated in Rajasthan,Gujarat, Maharastra,South India [19] Practices[edit] Monasticism[edit] Main article: Digambara
Digambara
monk The word Digambara
Digambara
is a combination of two Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words: dik (दिक्) (directions) and ambara (अम्बर) (clothes), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space.[2] Digambara
Digambara
monks do not wear any clothes as it is considered to be parigraha (possession), which ultimately leads to attachment.[21] A Digambara monk
Digambara monk
has 28 mūla guņas (primary attributes).[22] These are: five mahāvratas (supreme vows); five samitis (regulations); pañcendriya nirodha (five-fold control of the senses); Ṣadāvaśyakas (six essential duties); and seven niyamas (rules or restrictions).[23]

Head Vow Meaning

Mahavratas- Five Great Vows[24][25] 1. Ahimsa Not to injure any living being through actions or thoughts

2. Truth To speak only the truth and good words

3. Asteya Not to take anything unless given

4. Brahmacharya Celibacy in action, words and thoughts

5. Aparigraha Renunciation of worldly things and foreign natures, external and internal

Samiti- Fivefold regulation of activities[26][27] 6. irya To walk carefully after viewing land to the extent of four cubits (2 yards).

7. bhasha Not to criticise anyone or speak bad words

8. eshna To accept food from a sravaka (householder) if it is free from 46 faults

9. adan-nishep Carefulness in the handling of whatever the saint possess.

10. pratishṭapan To dispose off the body waste at a place free from living beings.

Panchindrinirodh[23] 11–15. Fivefold control of the senses Shedding all attachment and aversion towards the sense objects pertaining to touch (sparśana), taste (rasana), smell (ghrāṇa), sight (cakśu), and hearing (śrotra)

Six Essential Duties[28][23] 16. Sāmāyika Meditate for equanimity towards every living being

17. stuti Worship of the Tirthankaras

18. vandan To pay obeisances to siddhas, arihantas and acharyas

19. Pratikramana Self-censure, repentance; to drive oneself away from the multitude of karmas, virtuous or wicked, done in the past.

20. Pratikhayan Renunciation

21. Kayotsarga Giving up attachment to the body and meditate on soul.

Niyama- Seven rules[23][29] 22. adantdhavan Not to use tooth powder to clean teeth

23. bhushayan Sleeping on hard ground

24. asnāna Non-bathing

25. stithi-bhojan Eating food in standing posture

26. ahara To consume food and water once a day

27. keśa-lonch To pluck hair on the head and face by hand.

28. nudity To be nude (digambara)

The monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers for removing small insects without causing them injury, Kamandalu
Kamandalu
(the gourd for carrying pure, sterilized water) and shastra (scripture).[30][31] The head of all monastics is called Āchārya, while the saintly preceptor of saints is the upādhyāya.[32] The Āchārya has 36 primary attributes (mūla guņa) in addition to the 28 mentioned above.[23] The monks perform kayotsarga daily, in a rigid and immobile posture, with the arms held stiffly down, knees straight, and toes directed forward.[2] Female monastics in Digambara
Digambara
tradition are known as aryikas.[33] Statistically, there are more Digambara nuns, than there are monks.[34][citation not found] Worship[edit]

Adinatha image (Badami caves)

The Digambara
Digambara
Jains worship completely nude idols of tirthankaras (omniscient beings) and siddha (liberated souls). The tirthankara is represented either seated in yoga posture or standing in the Kayotsarga
Kayotsarga
posture.[35]

The truly "sky-clad" (digambara) Jaina statue expresses the perfect isolation of the one who has stripped off every bond. His is an absolute "abiding in itself," a strange but perfect aloofness, a nudity of chilling majesty, in its stony simplicity, rigid contours, and abstraction.[36] — Heinrich Zimmer

Statues[edit]

Kizhavalavu (Keelavalavu) Sculptures

The 57 feet (17 m) high Gommateshwara statue, Shravanabelagola

Tirthankara
Tirthankara
statues, Gwalior Fort, Madhya Pradesh

Tirthankara
Tirthankara
Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
statue, Rajasthan

Literature[edit] The Digambara
Digambara
sect of Jainism
Jainism
rejects the authority of the texts accepted by the other major sect, the Svetambaras.[37] According to the Digambaras, Āchārya Dharasena
Dharasena
guided two Āchāryas, Pushpadanta and Bhutabali, to put the teachings of Mahavira
Mahavira
in written form, 683 years after the nirvana of Mahavira.[9] The two Āchāryas wrote Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama on palm leaves which is considered to be among the oldest known Digambara
Digambara
texts.[38] Āchārya Bhutabali
Bhutabali
was the last ascetic who had partial knowledge of the original Jain Agamas. Later on, some learned Āchāryas started to restore, compile and put into written words the teachings of Lord Mahavira, that were the subject matter of Agamas.[7] Digambaras group the texts into four literary categories called anuyoga (exposition).[39] The prathmanuyoga (first exposition) contains the universal history, the karananuyoga (calculation exposition) contains works on cosmology and the charananuyoga (behaviour exposition) includes texts about proper behaviour for monks and Sravakas.[39] Most eminent Digamabara authors include Kundakunda, Samantabhadra, Pujyapada, Jinasena, Akalanka, Vidyanandi, Somadeva and Asadhara.[40] Differences with Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
sect[edit] According to Digambara
Digambara
texts, after attaining Kevala Jnana (omniscience), arihant (omniscient beings) are free from human needs like hunger, thirst, and sleep.[41] According to the Digambara tradition, a soul can attain moksha (liberation) only from the male body with complete nudity being a necessity.[42] See also[edit]

Jainism
Jainism
portal

Nudity in religion God in Jainism Kshullak Jain philosophy Timeline of Jainism Digambar Jain Mahasabha

Notes[edit]

^ Possehl 2002, p. 111. ^ a b c Zimmer 1953, p. 210. ^ Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2016, p. 444. ^ Umakant Premanand Shah
Umakant Premanand Shah
1987, p. 4. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. xi-xii. ^ a b Pereira 1977, p. 5. ^ a b Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. xii. ^ Cort 2010, p. 335. ^ a b Dundas 2002, p. 79. ^ Jaini 1991, p. 31. ^ Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2009, p. 524. ^ Satkhandagama : Dhaval (Jivasthana) Satparupana-I (Enunciation of Existence-I) An English Translation of Part 1 of the Dhavala Commentary on the Satkhandagama
Satkhandagama
of Acarya Pushpadanta & Bhutabali Dhavala
Dhavala
commentary by Acarya Virasena
Virasena
English tr. by Prof. Nandlal Jain, Ed. by Prof. Ashok Jain ISBN 978-81-86957-47-9 ^ Glasenapp, Helmuth (1999). Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation. Motilal Banarsidass
Motilal Banarsidass
Publ. p. 382. ISBN 9788120813762. Retrieved 27 November 2012.  ^ Carrithers & Humphrey 1991, p. 170. ^ Sangave 1980, pp. 51-56. ^ Long 2008, p. 39. ^ Sangave 1980, p. 299. ^ John E. Cort "A Tale of Two Cities: On the Origins of Digambara Sectarianism in North India." L. A. Babb, V. Joshi, and M. W. Meister (eds.), Multiple Histories: Culture and Society in the Study of Rajasthan, 39-83. Jaipur: Rawat, 2002. ^ a b c Sangave 1980, p. 52. ^ Ardhakathanaka: Half a tale, a Study in the Interrelationship between Autobiography and History, Mukunda Lath (trans. and ed.), Jaipur
Jaipur
2005. ISBN 978-8129105660 ^ Dundas 2002, p. 45. ^ Pramansagar 2008, p. 189–191. ^ a b c d e Vijay K. Jain 2013, pp. 189–191, 196–197. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2011, p. 93–100. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926, p. 26. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 144–145. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926, p. 32–38. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 143. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926, p. 46–47. ^ Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2009, p. 316. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926, p. 36. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926, p. 21. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1926, p. 141. ^ Harvey 2014, p. 182. ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 209–210. ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 213. ^ Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2009, p. 444. ^ Dundas 2002, pp. 63–64. ^ a b Dundas 2002, p. 80. ^ Jaini 2000, p. 28. ^ Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2009, p. 314. ^ Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2009, p. 319.

Sources[edit]

Carrithers, Michael; Humphrey, Caroline, eds. (1991), The Assembly of Listeners: Jains in Society, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-365-05-8  Jain, Vijay K. (2013), Ācārya Nemichandra's Dravyasaṃgraha, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-5-2, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Jain, Vijay K. (2012), Acharya
Acharya
Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 81-903639-4-8, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Jain, Vijay K. (2011), Acharya
Acharya
Umasvami's Tattvārthsūtra (1st ed.), (Uttarakhand) India: Vikalp Printers, ISBN 81-903639-2-1, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Possehl, Gregory L. (2002), The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2  Pramansagar, Muni (2008), Jain Tattva-Vidya, India: Bhartiya Gyanpeeth, ISBN 978-81-263-1480-5  Singh, Upinder (2009), A History Of Ancient And Early Medieval India: From The Stone Age To The 12Th Century, Pearson Education, ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0  Singh, Upinder (2016), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson Education, ISBN 978-93-325-6996-6  Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5  Dundas, Paul (2002) [1992], The Jains (Second ed.), Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X  Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1991), Gender and Salvation: Jaina Debates on the Spiritual Liberation of Women, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-06820-3  Jaini, Padmanabh S. (2000), Collected Papers On Jaina Studies (First ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1691-9  Pereira, José (1977), Monolithic Jinas, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 0-8426-1027-8  Mookerji, Radha Kumud (1988) [first published in 1966], Chandragupta Maurya and his times (4th ed.), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0433-3  Sangave, Vilas Adinath (1980) [1959], Jaina Community: A Social Survey, Popular Prakashan, ISBN 0-317-12346-7  Shah, Umakant Premanand (1987), Jaina-rūpa-maṇḍana: Jaina iconography, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 81-7017-208-X  Cort, John (2010) [1953], Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-538502-1  Zimmer, Heinrich (1953) [April 1952], Campbell, Joseph, ed., Philosophies Of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge
Routledge
& Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Jain, Champat Rai (1926), Sannyasa Dharma 

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