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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (_Bhārat Gaṇarājya_), is a country in South Asia . It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China , Nepal , and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives . India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia . The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste , emerged in the first millennium BCE, and Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires ; the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia
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India (other)
INDIA , officially the Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya) is a country in South Asia. INDIA may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Geography and culture * 2 History * 3 Music * 4 Other uses * 5 See also GEOGRAPHY AND CULTURE * The entire Indian subcontinent , inclusive of India's neighbouring countries * Greater India , the historical extent of Indian culture beyond the Indian subcontinent * India Meridionalis ("South India"), a phantom peninsula formerly believed to lie east of Malaysia * The Three Indias , sometimes including Ethiopia or the Americas * India Superior and Alta India ("Upper India"), an area of this peninsula and/or the Americas * India, Texas , an unincorporated community in the United StatesHISTORYThe term India has historically also been used to refer to: * Epic India , prehistoric India as described in mythological epics * Mahajanapada , the ancient kingdoms and republics of India * Herodotus\'s India , a legendary land prior to Alexander's invasions * Hindustan , a name used for the northern and northwestern Indian subcontinent
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Flag Of India
The NATIONAL FLAG OF INDIA is a horizontal rectangular tricolour of India saffron , white and India green ; with the _ Ashoka Chakra _, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre. It was adopted in its present form during a meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on 22 July 1947, and it became the official flag of the Dominion of India on 15 August 1947. The flag was subsequently retained as that of the Republic of India. In India, the term "tricolour " (Hindi : तिरंगा, translit. _TIRAṅGā_) almost always refers to the Indian national flag. The flag is based on the _Swaraj_ flag, a flag of the Indian National Congress designed by Pingali Venkayya . By law, the flag is to be made of _khadi _, a special type of hand-spun cloth or silk, made popular by Mahatma Gandhi . The manufacturing process and specifications for the flag are laid out by the Bureau of Indian Standards . The right to manufacture the flag is held by the Khadi Development and Village Industries Commission , who allocates it to regional groups. As of 2009, the Karnataka Khadi Gramodyoga Samyukta Sangha has been the sole manufacturer of the flag. Usage of the flag is governed by the Flag Code of India and other laws relating to the national emblems
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State Emblem Of India
The STATE EMBLEM OF INDIA, as the national emblem of India is called, is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath , preserved in the Varanasi Sarnath Museum in India. It was adopted on 26 January 1950, the day that India became a republic. The emblem forms a part of the official letterhead of the Government of India and appears on all Indian currency as well. It also functions as the national emblem of India in many places and appears prominently on Indian passports . The Ashoka Chakra (wheel) on its base features in the centre of the national flag of India . The usage of the emblem is regulated and restricted under State Emblem of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005 . No individual or private organisation is permitted to use the emblem for official correspondence. The actual Sarnath capital features four Asiatic lions standing back to back, symbolizing power, courage, confidence and pride mounted on a circular base. At the bottom is a horse and a bull, and at its centre is a beautiful wheel (Dharma chakra). The abacus is girded with a frieze of sculptures in high relief of The Lion of the North, The Horse of the West, The Bull of the South and The Elephant of the East, separated by intervening wheels, over a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration
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Satyameva Jayate
"SATYAMEVA JAYATE" (Sanskrit : सत्यमेव जयते satyam-eva jayate; lit. "Truth alone triumphs.") is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad . Following the independence of India
India
, it was adopted as the national motto of India in May 1949. It is inscribed in script at the base of the national emblem. The emblem and the words "Satyameva Jayate" are inscribed on one side of all Indian currency. The emblem is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka which was erected around 250 BCE at Sarnath
Sarnath
, near Varanasi
Varanasi
in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
. It is inscribed on all currency notes and national documents. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Popular connotations * 3 See also * 4 References ORIGINThe origin of the motto is well-known mantra 3.1.6 from the Mundaka Upanishad
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Sanskrit Language
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India : 14135 Indians claimed Sanskrit to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India : Nepal : 1669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM Devanagari (official) Also written in various Brahmic scripts . LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 sa ISO 639-2 san ISO 639-3 san GLOTTOLOG sans1269 SANSKRIT ( IAST : _Saṃskṛtam_; Devanagari : संस्कृतम्; IPA : ) is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism ; a philosophical language of Hinduism , Sikhism , Buddhism , and Jainism ; and a literary language and lingua franca of ancient and medieval India and Nepal . As a result of transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia and parts of Central Asia , it was also a language of high culture in some of these regions during the early-medieval era
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Jana Gana Mana
JANA GANA MANA is the national anthem of India
India
. It is the Hindi version of a song originally composed in Bengali by poet Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
. The song was adopted in its Hindi
Hindi
version by the Constituent Assembly of India
India
as the National Anthem on 24 January 1950. A formal rendition of the national anthem takes approximately fifty-two seconds. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally. It was first publicly sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta
Calcutta
(now, Kolkata
Kolkata
) Session of the Indian National Congress . The Bengali version is the first of five stanzas of Tagore's song Bharot Bhagyo Bidhata . CONTENTS * 1 Lyrics * 2 English Translation * 3 History * 4 Code of conduct * 5 Controversies * 5.1 Historical significance * 5.1.1 Counter arguments * 5.2 Regional aspects * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links LYRICSThe poem is written in a literary register of the Bengali language called sadhu bhasa . The song has been written almost entirely using nouns that also can function as verbs. Most of the nouns of the song are in use in all major languages in India
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Hindi Language
HINDI ( Devanagari : हिन्दी, IAST : _Hindī_), or MODERN STANDARD HINDI ( Devanagari : मानक हिन्दी, IAST : _Mānak Hindī_) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language . Hindi is an Indo-Germanic or Indo-European language. It is descended from Sanskrit and is considered part of the New Indo-Aryan subgroup. However, it was also influenced, especially in vocabulary, by various other languages including Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Portuguese, and English. Along with the English language , Hindi written in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Government of India . It is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India . However, it is not the national language of India . Hindi is the _lingua franca _ of the so-called _ Hindi belt _ in India. Outside India, it is an official language which is known as _ Fiji Hindi _ in Fiji , and is a recognised regional language in Mauritius , Trinidad and Tobago , Guyana , and Suriname . Individually, as a linguistic variety , Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin , Spanish and English
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Vande Mataram
_VANDE MATARAM_ ( IAST : Vande Mātaram, Bengali : বন্দে মাতরম্, Devanagari
Devanagari
: वन्दे मातरम्) is a poem composed by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870s, which he included in his 1881 novel _ Anandamath _. The first two verses of the song were adopted as the National Song of India
India
in October 1937 by Congress Working Committee prior to the end of colonial rule in August 1947. An Ode to Durga
Durga
as the Mother goddess
Mother goddess
, it was written both in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and in Bengali script in the novel _Anandmath_. The title 'Vande Mataram' literally means "I praise thee, Mother" or "I bow to thee, Mother". The "mother goddess" in later verses of the song has been interpreted as the motherland of the people - Bangamata (Mother Bengal) and _ Bharat Mata _ (Mother India), though the text does not mention this explicitly. It played a vital role in the Indian independence movement , first sung in a political context by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress . It became a popular marching song for political activism and Indian freedom movement in 1905
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New Delhi
NEW DELHI (/ˌnjuː ˈdɛli/ (_ listen )) is the capital of India and one of Delhi
Delhi
city's 11 districts . Although colloquially Delhi
Delhi
_ and _New Delhi_ are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi
Delhi
forming a small part of Delhi. The National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi
Delhi
along with adjoining districts. It is surrounded by Haryana
Haryana
on three sides and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
on the east. The foundation stone of the city was laid by George V, Emperor of India
India
during the Delhi
Delhi
Durbar of 1911 . It was designed by British architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker . The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India
India
Lord Irwin . New Delhi
Delhi
has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister of India
India
Narendra Modi 's flagship Smart Cities Mission
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Mumbai
MUMBAI (/mʊmˈbaɪ/ ; also known as BOMBAY, the official name until 1995 ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra . It is the most populous city in India and the ninth most populous agglomeration in the world , with an estimated city population of 18.4 million. Along with the neighbouring regions of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region , it is one of the most populous urban regions in the world and the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 20.7 million as of 2011 . Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city . It is also the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South , West , or Central Asia . Mumbai has the highest number of billionaires and millionaires among all cities in India. The seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies . For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese and subsequently to the British East India Company when in 1661 King Charles II married the Portuguese Catherine of Braganza , and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and seven islands of Bombay
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Standard Hindi
HINDI ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: हिन्दी, IAST : _Hindī_), or MODERN STANDARD HINDI ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: मानक हिन्दी, IAST : _Mānak Hindī_) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language . Hindi
Hindi
is an Indo-Germanic or Indo-European language. It is descended from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and is considered part of the New Indo-Aryan subgroup. However, it was also influenced, especially in vocabulary, by various other languages including Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Portuguese, and English. Along with the English language
English language
, Hindi
Hindi
written in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Government of India
India
. It is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India
India
. However, it is not the national language of India
India
because it was not prescribed as such in the Indian constitution . Hindi
Hindi
is the _lingua franca _ of the so-called _ Hindi belt _ in India
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Indian English
INDIAN ENGLISH is any of the forms of English characteristic of India . English is a _lingua franca _ of India. CONTENTS * 1 English proficiency * 2 Court language * 3 Features of the dialect * 4 History * 5 Phonology * 5.1 Vowels * 5.2 Consonants * 5.3 Spelling pronunciation * 5.4 Supra-segmental features * 6 Morphology and syntax * 7 Numbering system * 8 Vocabulary * 9 Spelling and national differences * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links ENGLISH PROFICIENCYThough English is one of the two official languages of the Union Government of India, only a few hundred thousand Indians have English as their first language. According to 2001 Census , English is known to 12.6% Indians in the 2001 census. An analysis of the 2001 Census of India, concluded that approximately 86 million Indians reported English as their second language, and another 39 million reported it as their third language. No data was available whether these individuals were English speakers or users. According to the 2005 India
India
Human Development Survey , of the 41,554 surveyed households reported that 72 percent of men (29,918) did not speak any English, 28 percent (11,635) spoke at least some English, and 5 percent (2,077, roughly 17.9% of those who spoke at least some English) spoke fluent English
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Assamese Language
Ancient * Davaka * Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Medieval * Ahom Kingdom
Ahom Kingdom
* Sutiya Kingdom
Sutiya Kingdom
*
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Bengali Language
BENGALI (/bɛŋˈɡɔːli/ ), also known by its endonym BANGLA (/ˈbɑːŋlɑː/ ; বাংলা ( listen )), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian Subcontinent . It is the national and official language of the People\'s Republic of Bangladesh , and the official language of some eastern and north-eastern states of the Republic of India , including West Bengal , Tripura , Assam (Barak Valley ) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands . It is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of India . With over 250 million speakers, Bengali is the seventh most spoken native language in the world due to their population. It has been influenced by other language families prevalent in South Asia, notably the Dravidian , the Austroasiatic , and the Tibeto-Burman families, all of which contributed to Bengali vocabulary and provided the language with some structural forms. Dictionaries from the early 20th century attributed slightly more than half of the Bengali vocabulary to native words (i.e., naturally modified Sanskrit words, corrupted forms of Sanskrit words, and loanwords from non-Indo-European languages), about 30 percent to unmodified Sanskrit words, and the remainder to foreign words. Dominant in the last group was Persian , which was also the source of some grammatical forms
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Bodo Language
BODO (बर' ), or MECH, is the Sino-Tibetan language spoken primarily by the Bodo people of North East India , Nepal and Bengal . It is official language of the Bodoland Autonomous region and co-official language of the Indian state of Assam . It is also one of the 22 scheduled languages that is given a special constitutional status in India. Since 1963, the Bodo language has been written using the Devanagari script. It was formerly written using Latin and Assamese script . Some scholars have suggested that the language used to have its now lost script known as Deodhai . CONTENTS * 1 History and linguistic classification * 2 Geographic distribution * 3 History * 4 Writing system * 5 Phonology * 6 Grammar * 6.1 Sentence structure * 6.2 Numerals * 7 Education * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links HISTORY AND LINGUISTIC CLASSIFICATIONBodo is a Sino-Tibetan language of the Bodo group . It is closely related to the Dimasa language and Tiwa (Lalung) Language of Assam, the Garo language of Meghalaya and the Kokborok language of Tripura . The Bodo speaking areas of Assam stretch from Dhubri in the west to Sadiya in the east
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