DELHI (/ˈdɛli/ , Hindustani pronunciation: _DILLI_), officially the NATIONAL CAPITAL TERRITORY OF DELHI or NCT, is a city and a union territory of India . It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to 2011 census, Delhi's city population was about 11 million, the second highest in India after Mumbai , while the whole NCT population was about 16.8 million, making it the world's 3rd largest city proper by population . Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundary to include an estimated population of over 26 million people making it the world's second largest urban area . As of 2016 recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the top or second most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second wealthiest city after Mumbai in India, with a total wealth of $450 billion and home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.
Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BC. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and empires. It has been captured, ransacked and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. A union territory , the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister . New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi , and is the capital of the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 respectively, 1983 NAM Summit , 2010 Men\'s Hockey World Cup , 2010 Commonwealth Games , 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup .
* 1 Toponymy * 2 History
* 3 Ecology
* 3.1 Climate * 3.2 Air pollution
* 4 Civic administration * 5 Government and politics * 6 Economy * 7 Utility services
* 8 Transport
* 8.1 Air * 8.2 Road * 8.3 Railway * 8.4 Metro * 8.5 Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) * 8.6 Roads of 2006 and 2007
* 9 Demographics
* 9.1 Religion * 9.2 Languages * 9.3 Slums
* 10 Culture
* 10.1 Festivals * 10.2 Cuisine
* 11 Tourism * 12 Education * 13 Media * 14 Sports * 15 World Heritage status * 16 Notable people * 17 International relations * 18 See also * 19 References * 20 Further reading * 21 External links
There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name _Delhi_. One of them is derived from _Dhillu_ or _Dilu_, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BC and named it after himself. Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi / Prakrit word _dhili_ (_loose_) and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the Iron Pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved. The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called _dehliwal_. According to the Bhavishya Purana , King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and later named the fort _dehali_. Some historians believe that the name is derived from _Dilli_, a corruption of the Hindustani words _dehleez_ or _dehali_—both terms meaning 'threshold' or 'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain . Another theory suggests that the city's original name was Dhillika.
The people of Delhi are referred to as _Delhiites_ or _Dilliwalas_. The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages . Examples include:
* _Abhi Dilli door hai_ or its Persian version, _Hanouz Dehli dour ast_, literally meaning _ Delhi is still far away_, which is generically said about a task or journey still far from completion. * _Dilli dilwalon ka shehr_ or _Dilli Dilwalon ki_ meaning _Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring_. * _Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse_, literally meaning _it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched_. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty.
The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before the second millennium BC and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BC. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to Mahabharata, this land was initially a huge mass of forests called 'Khandavaprastha' which was burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha. The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period (c. 300 BC); in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273–235 BC) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi. The first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. Gurjara-Pratihara King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in AD 736. Prithviraj Chauhan conquered Lal Kot in 1178 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora . The iron pillar of Delhi , is said to have been fashioned at the time of Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375–413) of the Gupta Empire .
The king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori , a Tajik invader from Afghanistan , who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India. By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India was to last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India and then Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor . He died in 1206 AD. He had no heirs and so his generals declared themselves independent in different parts of his empire. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions. He laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk Dynasty . he began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (Might of Islam) mosque, the earliest extant mosque in India. Qutb-ud-din faced widespread Hindu rebellions because he broke several ancient temples to acquire wealth and material to build mosques and other monuments. It was his successor, Iltutmish (1211–36), who consolidated the Turkic conquest of northern India. Razia Sultan, daughter of Iltutmish, succeeded him as the Sultan of Delhi. She is the first and only woman to rule over Delhi. At 72.5 m (238 ft), A UNESCO World Heritage Site , the Qutub Minar is the world's tallest free-standing brick minaret .
For the next three hundred years, Delhi was ruled by a succession of Turkic and an Afghan , Lodhi dynasty . They built several forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi . Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during this period. The Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) was overthrown in 1290 by Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji (1290–1320). Under the second Khilji ruler, Ala-ud-din Khilji , the Delhi sultanate extended its control south of the Narmada River in the Deccan. The Delhi sultanate reached its greatest extent during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351). In an attempt to bring the whole of the Deccan under control, he moved his capital to Daulatabad, Maharashtra in central India. However, by moving away from Delhi he lost control of the north and was forced to return to Delhi to restore order. The southern provinces then broke away. In the years following the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), the Delhi sultanate rapidly began to lose its hold over its northern provinces. Delhi was captured and sacked by Timur Lenk in 1398, who massacred 100,000 captives. Delhi's decline continued under the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), until the sultanate was reduced to Delhi and its hinterland. Under the Afghan Lodhi dynasty (1451–1526), the Delhi sultanate recovered control of the Punjab and the Gangetic plain to once again achieve domination over Northern India. However, the recovery was short-lived and the sultanate was destroyed in 1526 by Babur , founder of the Mughal dynasty .
Babur , was a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, from the Fergana Valley in modern-day Uzbekistan . In 1526, he invaded India, defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi and Agra . The Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reigns of Sher Shah Suri and Hemu from 1540 to 1556. In 1553, the Hindu king, Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi by defeating forces of Mughal Emperor Humayun at Agra and Delhi. However, the Mughals re-established their rule after Akbar's army defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556. Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name _ Shahjahanabad _, which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638 and is today known as the _Old City_ or _Old Delhi_. A UNESCO World Heritage Site , Red Fort is the location from which the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation on Independence Day
After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Maratha Empire from Deccan Plateau rose to prominence. In 1737, Maratha forces sacked Delhi following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi . In 1739, the Mughal Empire lost the huge Battle of Karnal in less than three hours against the numerically outnumbered but militarily superior Persian army led by Nader Shah of Persia. After his invasion , he completely sacked and looted Delhi , carrying away immense wealth including the Peacock Throne , the Daria-i-Noor , and Koh-i-Noor . The Mughals, severely further weakened, could never overcome this crushing defeat and humiliation which also left the way open for more invaders to come, including eventually the British . Nader eventually agreed to leave the city and India after forcing the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah I to beg him for mercy and granting him the keys of the city and the royal treasury. A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi. A UNESCO World Heritage Site , built in 1560, Humayun\'s Tomb is the first example of Mughal tomb complexes .
In 1757, the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Durrani , sacked Delhi. He returned to Afghanistan leaving a Mughal puppet ruler in nominal control. The Marathas again occupied Delhi in 1758, and were in control until their defeat in 1761 at the third battle of Panipat when the city was captured again by Ahmad Shah. However, in 1771, the Marathas established a protectorate over Delhi when the Maratha ruler, Mahadji Shinde , recaptured Delhi and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II was installed as a puppet ruler in 1772. In 1783, Sikhs under Baghel Singh captured Delhi and Red Fort but due to the treaty signed, Sikhs withdrew from Red Fort and agreed to restore Shah Alam II as the emperor. In 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War , the forces of British East India Company defeated the Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi .
During the Indian Rebellion of 1857 , Delhi fell to the forces of East India Company after a bloody fight known as the Siege of Delhi . The city came under the direct control of the British Government in 1858. It was made a district province of the Punjab . In 1911, it was announced that the capital of British held territories in India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi. The name "New Delhi" was given in 1927, and the new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931. New Delhi, also known as _Lutyens' Delhi_, was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947. During the partition of India , thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees, mainly from West Punjab fled to Delhi, while many Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues (as of 2013 ), contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining. Aerial view of Delhi, March 2016
The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 and the _States Reorganisation Act, 1956_ created the Union Territory of Delhi from the its predecessor the _Chief Commissioner\'s Province of Delhi_. The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly along Civil lines, though with limited powers. In December 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants, killing six security personnel. India suspected Pakistan-based militant groups were behind the attack, which caused a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries. There were further terrorist attacks in Delhi in October 2005 and September 2008 , resulting in a total of 103 deaths.
Main article: Environment of Delhi
BIRD House sparrow
Delhi is located at 28°37′N 77°14′E / 28.61°N 77.23°E / 28.61; 77.23 , and lies in Northern India . It borders the Indian states of Haryana on the north, west and south and Uttar Pradesh (UP) to the east. Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge . The Yamuna river was the historical boundary between Punjab and UP, and its flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture but are prone to recurrent floods. The Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi. The Hindon River separates Ghaziabad from the eastern part of Delhi. The Delhi ridge originates from the Aravalli Range in the south and encircles the west, north-east and north-west parts of the city. It reaches a height of 318 m (1,043 ft) and is a dominant feature of the region.
The National Capital Territory of Delhi covers an area of 1,484 km2 (573 sq mi), of which 783 km2 (302 sq mi) is designated rural, and 700 km2 (270 sq mi) urban therefore making it the largest city in terms of area in the country. It has a length of 51.9 km (32 mi) and a width of 48.48 km (30 mi).
Delhi is included in India's seismic zone-IV , indicating its vulnerability to major earthquakes.
See also: Climate of Delhi
Delhi features an atypical version of the humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cwa_) bordering a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen _BSh_). The warm season lasts from 9 April to 8 July with an average daily high temperature above 36 °C (97 °F). The hottest day of the year is 22 May, with an average high of 38 °C (100 °F) and low of 25 °C (77 °F). The cold season lasts from 11 December to 11 February with an average daily high temperature below 18 °C (64 °F). The coldest day of the year is 4 January, with an average low of 2 °C (36 °F) and high of 15 °C (59 °F). In early March, the wind direction changes from north-westerly to south-westerly. From April to October the weather is hot. The monsoon arrives at the end of June, along with an increase in humidity. The brief, mild winter starts in late November, peaks in January and heavy fog often occurs.
Temperatures in Delhi usually range from 5 to 40 °C (41.0 to 104.0 °F), with the lowest and highest temperatures ever recorded being −2.2 and 48.4 °C (28.0 and 119.1 °F) respectively. The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 13 to 32 °C (55 to 90 °F). The highest temperature recorded in July was 45 °C (113 °F) in 1931. The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 mm (28.1 in), most of which falls during the monsoon in July and August. The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29 June.
CLIMATE DATA FOR DELHI (SAFDARJUNG) 1971–1990
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 30.0 (86) 34.1 (93.4) 40.6 (105.1) 45.6 (114.1) 47.2 (117) 46.7 (116.1) 45.0 (113) 42.0 (107.6) 40.6 (105.1) 39.4 (102.9) 36.1 (97) 29.3 (84.7) 47.2 (117)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 21.0 (69.8) 23.5 (74.3) 29.2 (84.6) 36.0 (96.8) 39.2 (102.6) 38.8 (101.8) 34.7 (94.5) 33.6 (92.5) 34.2 (93.6) 33.0 (91.4) 28.3 (82.9) 22.9 (73.2) 31.2 (88.2)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 16.8 (62.2) 22.3 (72.1) 28.8 (83.8) 32.5 (90.5) 33.4 (92.1) 30.8 (87.4) 30.0 (86) 29.5 (85.1) 26.3 (79.3) 20.8 (69.4) 15.7 (60.3) 25.1 (77.2)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 7.6 (45.7) 10.1 (50.2) 15.3 (59.5) 21.6 (70.9) 25.9 (78.6) 27.8 (82) 26.8 (80.2) 26.3 (79.3) 24.7 (76.5) 19.6 (67.3) 13.2 (55.8) 8.5 (47.3) 19.0 (66.2)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) −0.6 (30.9) 1.6 (34.9) 4.4 (39.9) 10.7 (51.3) 15.2 (59.4) 18.9 (66) 20.3 (68.5) 20.7 (69.3) 17.3 (63.1) 9.4 (48.9) 3.9 (39) 1.1 (34) −0.6 (30.9)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 19 (0.75) 20 (0.79) 15 (0.59) 21 (0.83) 25 (0.98) 70 (2.76) 237 (9.33) 235 (9.25) 113 (4.45) 17 (0.67) 9 (0.35) 9 (0.35) 790 (31.1)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 1.7 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.8 5.5 13.0 12.1 5.7 1.7 0.6 1.6 51.7
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 63 55 47 34 33 46 70 73 62 52 55 62 54
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 214.6 216.1 239.1 261.0 263.1 196.5 165.9 177.0 219.0 269.3 247.2 215.8 2,684.6
Source #1: NOAA
Source #2: Indian Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)
See also: Environmental issues in Delhi Urban sustainability analysis of the greater urban area of the city using the 'Circles of Sustainability' method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme
According to WHO Delhi was the most polluted city in the world in 2014. In 2016 WHO downgraded Delhi to eleventh-worst in the urban air quality database. According to one estimate, air pollution causes the death of about 10,500 people in Delhi every year. During 2013–14, peak levels of fine particulate matter (PM) in Delhi increased by about 44%, primarily due to high vehicular and industrial emissions, construction work and crop burning in adjoining states. Delhi has the highest level of the airborne particulate matter, PM2.5 considered most harmful to health, with 153 micrograms. Rising air pollution level has significantly increased lung-related ailments (especially asthma and lung cancer) among Delhi's children and women. The dense smog in Delhi during winter season results in major air and rail traffic disruptions every year. According to Indian meteorologists, the average maximum temperature in Delhi during winters has declined notably since 1998 due to rising air pollution. Dense smog blankets Connaught Place, Delhi.
Environmentalists have criticised the Delhi government for not doing enough to curb air pollution and to inform people about air quality issues. Most of Delhi's residents are unaware of alarming levels of air pollution in the city and the health risks associated with it; however, as of 2015 , awareness, particularly among the foreign diplomatic community and high-income Indians, was noticeably increasing. Since the mid-1990s, Delhi has undertaken some measures to curb air pollution – Delhi has the third highest quantity of trees among Indian cities and the Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of environmentally friendly compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In 1996, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) started a public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India that ordered the conversion of Delhi's fleet of buses and taxis to run on compressed natural gas (CNG) and banned the use of leaded petrol in 1998. In 2003, Delhi won the United States Department of Energy\'s first 'Clean Cities International Partner of the Year' award for its "bold efforts to curb air pollution and support alternative fuel initiatives". The Delhi Metro has also been credited for significantly reducing air pollutants in the city.
However, according to several authors, most of these gains have been lost, especially due to stubble burning , a rise in the market share of diesel cars and a considerable decline in bus ridership. According to CSE and System of Air Quality Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), burning of agricultural waste in nearby Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh regions results in severe intensification of smog over Delhi. The state government of Uttar Pradesh is considering imposing a ban on crop burning to reduce pollution in Delhi NCR and an environmental panel has appealed to India's Supreme Court to impose a 30% cess on diesel cars.
The Circles of Sustainability assessment of Delhi gives a marginally more favourable impression of the ecological sustainability of the city only because it is based on a more comprehensive series of measures than only air pollution. Part of the reason that the city remains assessed at basic sustainability is because of the low resource-use and carbon emissions of its poorer neighbourhoods.
As of July 2007, the National Capital Territory of Delhi comprises nine districts, 27 tehsils , 59 census towns, 300 villages, and three statutory towns, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) – 1,397.3 km2 or 540 sq mi, the New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) – 42.7 km2 or 16 sq mi and the Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB) – 43 km2 or 17 sq mi).
Since the trifurcation of the DMC at the start of 2012, Delhi has been run by five local municipal corporations: the North Delhi, South Delhi and East Delhi Municipal Corporations, the New Delhi Municipal Council and Delhi Cantonment Board. In July of that year, shortly after the MCD trifurcation, the Delhi Government increased the number of districts in Delhi from nine to eleven.
Delhi (civic administration) was ranked 5th out of 21 Cities for best governance the Magistrate Court and the Sessions Court for criminal cases has jurisdiction over Delhi. The city is administratively divided into eleven police-zones which are subdivided into 95 local police stations.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
The National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative Assembly , Lieutenant Governor , council of ministers and Chief Minister . Members of the legislative assembly are directly elected from territorial constituencies in the NCT. The legislative assembly was abolished in 1956, after which direct federal control was implemented until it was re-established in 1993. The Municipal co-operation handles civic. administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. The Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi jointly administer New Delhi, where both bodies are located. The Parliament of India , the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), Cabinet Secretariat and the Supreme Court of India are located in the municipal district of New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi. The Indian National Congress (Congress) formed all the governments in Delhi until the 1990s, when the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Madan Lal Khurana , came to power. In 1998, the Congress returned to power under the leadership of Sheila Dikshit , who was subsequently re-elected for 3 consecutive terms. But in 2013 , the Congress was ousted from power by the newly formed Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) led by Arvind Kejriwal forming the government with outside support from the Congress. However, that government was short-lived, collapsing only after 49 days. Delhi was then under President\'s rule till February 2015. On 10 February 2015, the Aam Aadmi Party returned to power after a landslide victory, winning 67 out of the 70 seats in the Delhi Legislative Assembly.
Delhi is the largest commercial centre in northern India. As of 2016 recent estimates of the economy of the Delhi urban area have ranged from $167 to $370 billion (PPP metro GDP ) ranking it either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. The nominal GSDP of the NCT of Delhi for 2016-17 was estimated at ₹6,224 billion (US$97 billion), 13% higher than in 2015–16.
As per the Economic survey of Delhi (2005–2006), the tertiary sector contributes 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors with 25.20% and 3.85% contributions respectively. Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population, and increased by 52.52% between 1991 and 2001. Delhi's unemployment rate decreased from 12.57% in 1999–2000 to 4.63% in 2003. In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with various employment exchange programmes in Delhi. In 2001 the total workforce in national and state governments and the quasi-government sector was 620,000, and the private sector employed 219,000. Key service industries are information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism. Construction, power, health and community services and real estate are also important to the city's economy. Delhi has one of India's largest and fastest growing retail industries. Manufacturing also grew considerably as consumer goods companies established manufacturing units and headquarters in the city. Delhi's large consumer market and the availability of skilled labour has also attracted foreign investment. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers and the city had 129,000 industrial units.
Delhi's municipal water supply is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). As of June 2005 , it supplied 650 million gallons per day (MGD), whereas the estimated consumption requirement is 963 MGD. The shortfall is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps . At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is DJB's largest water source, followed by the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. Delhi's groundwater level is falling and its population density is increasing, so residents often encounter acute water shortage. Research on Delhi suggests that up to half of the city's water use is unofficial groundwater. In Delhi, daily domestic solid waste production is 8000 tonnes which is dumped at three landfill locations by MCD. The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD. A large portion of the sewage flows untreated into the Yamuna river.
The city's electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh per capita but the actual demand is higher. In Delhi power distribution is managed by Tata Power Distribution and BSES Yamuna max-width:204px"> Indira Gandhi International Airport 's new terminal in Delhi. It is the busiest airport in South Asia. Shown here is the immigration counter at Terminal 3 of the airport. Anand Vihar Terminal railway station, opened in 2009 The Delhi Metro A view of Delhi Faridabad Skyway The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway , connecting Delhi to the Indira Gandhi International Airport A Delhi underground metro station
Indira Gandhi International Airport , situated to the southwest of Delhi, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2015–16, the airport handled more than 48 million passengers, making it the busiest airport in India and South Asia. Terminal 3, which cost ₹96.8 billion (US$1.5 billion) to construct between 2007 and 2010, handles an additional 37 million passengers annually.
The _ Delhi Flying Club_, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named _Delhi_ and _Roshanara_, was based at _Safdarjung Airport _ which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India. The airport functioned until 2001, however in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following the New York attacks in September 2001 . Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VIP including the president and the prime minister.
Buses are the most popular means of road transport catering to about 60% of Delhi's total demand. Delhi has one of India's largest bus transport systems. Buses are operated by the state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC), which owns the largest fleet of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled buses in the world. Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on Delhi roads. Delhi has the highest number of registered cars compared to any other metropolitan city in India. Taxis, auto rickshaws, and cycle rickshaws also ply on Delhi roads in large numbers.
IMPORTANT ROADS IN DELHI
Some roads and expressways serve as important pillars of Delhi's road infrastructure:
* The Inner Ring Road is one of the most important "state highways" in Delhi. It is a 51 km long circular road which connects important areas in Delhi. Owing to more than 2 dozen grade-separators/flyovers, the road is almost signal-free. * The Outer Ring Road is another major artery in Delhi that links far-flung areas of Delhi. * The Delhi Noida Direct Flyway or DND Flyway is an eight-laned access controlled tolled expressway which connects Delhi to Noida (an important satellite city of Uttar Pradesh ). * The Delhi Gurgaon Expressway is a 28 km (17 mi) expressway connecting Delhi to Gurgaon , an important satellite city of Haryana . * The Delhi Faridabad Skyway is controlled tolled expressway which connects Delhi to Faridabad , an important satellite city of Haryana .
NATIONAL HIGHWAYS PASSING THROUGH DELHI
Delhi is connected by Road to various parts of the country through several National Highways:
* National Highway 1 (India) or (NH 1) is a National Highway in Northern India that links the National capital New Delhi to the town of Attari in Punjab near the Indo- Pakistan border. * National Highway 2 (India) (NH 2) commonly referred as Delhi- Kolkata Road is a busy Indian National Highway that runs through the states of Delhi, Haryana , Uttar Pradesh , Bihar , Jharkhand and West Bengal . * National Highway 8 (India) (NH 8) is a National Highway in India that connects the Indian capital city of New Delhi with the Indian Financial capital city of Mumbai. * National Highway 10 (India) (NH 10) is a National Highway in northern India that originates at Delhi and ends at the town of Fazilka in Punjab near the Indo- Pakistan border. * National Highway 24 (India) (NH 24) is a National Highway in India that connects the National capital Delhi to Uttar Pradesh state capital Lucknow running 438 kilometres (272 miles) in length.
Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway . The five main railway stations are New Delhi railway station , Old Delhi Railway Station , Hazrat Nizamuddin Railway Station , Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Sarai Rohilla . The Delhi Metro , a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi and the neighbouring cities Faridabad , Gurgaon , Noida and Ghaziabad . As of August 2011, the metro consists of six operational lines with a total length of 189 km (117 mi) and 146 stations , and several other lines are under construction. The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional ₹216 billion (US$3.4 billion). Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010. Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day. In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.
The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Faridabad , Gurgaon , Noida and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro is the world's 10th largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi Metro was India's second modern public transportation system, which has revolutionised travel by providing a fast, reliable, safe, and comfortable means of transport. The network consists of six lines with a total length of 189.63 kilometres (117.83 miles) with 142 stations, of which 35 are underground, five are at-grade, and the remainder are elevated. All stations have escalators, lifts, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi-ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi-ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. The Phase-I of Delhi Metro was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional ₹216 billion (US$3.4 billion). Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010. Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day. In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.
Delhi Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the organisation is under the administrative control of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides construction and operation of Delhi Metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail, and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. The Delhi Metro project was spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan E. Sreedharan , the Managing Director of DMRC and popularly known as the "Metro Man" of India. He famously resigned from DMRC taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse, which took five lives. Sreedharan was awarded the prestigious Legion of Honour by the French Government for his contribution to Delhi Metro.
Metro services are being extended to important hubs in the cities that are close to offices, colleges, and tourist spots. This will facilitate easy conveyance for the citizens, who otherwise have to rely on public buses that are heavily crowded and are often stuck in traffic jams.
REGIONAL RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM (RRTS)
The 08 RRTS Corridors have been proposed by National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) to facilitate the people travelling from nearby cities in NCR to Delhi. The three main corridors in the first phase are as follows which are expected to become operational before 2019:
* DELHI – ALWAR via Gurgaon * DELHI – PANIPAT via Sonepat * DELHI – MEERUT via Ghaziabad
Remaining five corridors are also approved by National Capital Region Planning Board but are planned in the second phase.
To make the project operational NCRPB has formed a separate body named as " National Capital Region Transport Corporation _on the lines of DMRC to independently formalise and monitor its progress._
ROADS OF 2006 AND 2007
As of 2007 , private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport. Delhi has 1922.32 km of road length per 100 km2, one of the highest road densities in India. It is connected to other parts of India by five National Highways : NH 1 , 2 , 8 , 10 and 24 . The city's road network is maintained by MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority . The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway connects Delhi with Gurgaon and the international airport. "The Delhi- Faridabad Skyway". connects Delhi with the neighbouring industrial town of Faridabad. The DND Flyway and Noida- Greater Noida Expressway connect Delhi with the suburbs of Noida and Greater Noida. Delhi's rapid rate of economic development and population growth has resulted in an increasing demand for transport, creating excessive pressure on the city's transport infrastructure. As of 2008 , the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, Delhi NCR, is 11.2 million (11.2 million). In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents.
To meet the transport demand, the State and Union government constructed a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered that all public transport vehicles in Delhi must be fuelled by compressed natural gas (CNG). Buses are the most popular means of public transport, catering to about 60% of the total demand. The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider which operates the world's largest fleet of CNG-fuelled buses. Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.
See also: Ethnic groups in Delhi
POPULATION GROWTH OF DELHI
source: † Huge population rise in 1951 due to large scale migration after Partition of India in 1947.
According to the 2011 census of India , the population of NCT of Delhi is 16,753,235. The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km2 with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per 1000 population were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08 respectively. In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by 215,000 as a result of natural population growth, which made Delhi one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Dwarka Sub City , Asia's largest planned residential area, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Urban expansion has resulted in Delhi's urban area now being considered as extending beyond NCT boundaries to incorporate towns and cities of neighbouring states including Gurgaon and Faridabad of Haryana , and Ghaziabad and Noida of Uttar Pradesh , the total population estimated by the United Nations at over 26 million. According to the UN this makes Delhi urban area the world's second largest , after Tokyo , although Demographia declares the Jakarta urban area to be the second largest. The 2011 census provided two figures for urban area population: 16,314,838 within the NCT boundary, and 21,753,486 for the _Extended Urban Area_.
RELIGION IN NCT OF DELHI (2011)
Hinduism is Delhi's predominant religious faith, with 81.68% of Delhi's population, followed by Islam (12.86%), Sikhism (3.4%), Jainism (0.99%), Christianity (0.87%), and others (0.12%). Other minority religions include Buddhism , Zoroastrianism , Baha\'ism and Judaism .
According to the 50th report of the commissioner for linguistic minorities in India, which was submitted in 2014, Hindi is the Delhi's most spoken language, with 80.94% speakers, followed by Punjabi (7.14%) and Urdu (6.31%). Hindi is also the official language of Delhi while Urdu and Punjabi have been declared as the additional official languages. 5.61% of the Delhites speak different languages.
Around half of the population of Delhi lives in slum areas with "inadequate provision of basic services". Majority of these slums has inadequate provisions to the basic facilities and according to DUSIB report only 16% of people use toilets and almost 22% of the people do open defecation.
Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India. This is exemplified by many significant monuments in the city. Delhi is also identified as the location of Indraprastha , the ancient capital of the Pandavas . The Archaeological Survey of India recognises 1200 heritage buildings and 175 monuments as national heritage sites. In the Old City, the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architecturally significant buildings, such as the Jama Masjid – India's largest mosque built in 1656 and the Red Fort . Three World Heritage Sites – the Red Fort, Qutab Minar and Humayun\'s Tomb – are located in Delhi. Other monuments include the India Gate , the Jantar Mantar – an 18th-century astronomical observatory – and the Purana Qila – a 16th-century fortress. The Laxminarayan temple , Akshardham temple , the Bahá\'í Lotus temple and the ISKCON temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of British colonial architecture, including the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat , Rajpath , the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk . Safdarjung\'s Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style. Some regal _havelis_ (palatial residences) are in the Old City.
Lotus Temple , is a Bahá'í House of Worship completed in 1986. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. The Lotus Temple has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles. Like all other Bahá\'í Houses of Worship , is open to all regardless of religion, or any other distinction, as emphasised in Bahá\'í texts . The Bahá'í laws emphasise that the spirit of the House of Worship be that it is a gathering place where people of all religions may worship God without denominational restrictions. The Bahá'í laws also stipulate that only the holy scriptures of the Bahá\'í Faith and other religions can be read or chanted inside in any language; while readings and prayers can be set to music by choirs, no musical instruments can be played inside. Furthermore, no sermons can be delivered, and there can be no ritualistic ceremonies practised.
Chandni Chowk , a 17th-century market, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewellery and _Zari_ saris . Delhi's arts and crafts include, _ Zardozi _ – an embroidery done with gold thread – and _ Meenakari _ – the art of enamelling.
Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays like Republic Day , Independence Day (15 August) and _Gandhi Jayanti _. On Independence Day, the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom. The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military strength. Over the centuries, Delhi has become known for its composite culture, and a festival that symbolises this is the _ Phool Walon Ki Sair _, which takes place in September. Flowers and _pankhe_ – fans embroidered with flowers – are offered to the shrine of 13th century Sufi saint Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki and the Yogmaya temple , both situated in Mehrauli . _ The Pragati Maidan in Delhi hosts the World Book Fair_ biennially.
Religious festivals include _ Diwali _ (the festival of lights), _ Mahavir Jayanti _, Guru Nanak\'s Birthday , _ Raksha Bandhan _, _Durga Puja _, _ Holi _, _ Lohri _, _ Chauth _, _ Krishna Janmastami _, _Maha Shivratri _, Eid ul-Fitr , _Moharram _ and _ Buddha Jayanti _. The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as a backdrop. Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and _ Vasant Panchami _ (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. The Auto Expo , Asia's largest auto show, is held in Delhi biennially. The New Delhi World Book Fair , held biennially at the Pragati Maidan , is the second largest exhibition of books in the world. Delhi is often regarded as the " Book Capital" of India because of high readership. India International Trade Fair (IITF) , organised by ITPO is the biggest cultural and shopping fair of Delhi which takes place in November each year and is visited by more than 15 lakh people.
As India's national capital and centuries old Mughal capital, Delhi influenced the food habits of its residents and is where Mughlai cuisine originated. Along with Indian cuisine, a variety of international cuisines are popular among the residents. The dearth of food habits among the city's residents created a unique style of cooking which became popular throughout the world, with dishes such as _ Kebab _, _biryani _, _tandoori _. The city's classic dishes include butter chicken , _aloo chaat _, _chaat _, _dahi vada _, _kachori _, _gol gappe _, _samosa _, _chole bhature _, _chole kulche_, _jalebi _ and _lassi _. :40–50, 189–196
The fast living habits of Delhi's people has motivated the growth of street food outlets. :41 A trend of dining at local _dhabas _ is popular among the residents. High-profile restaurants have gained popularity in recent years, among the popular restaurants are the Karim Hotel, the Punjab Grill and Bukhara. The _ Gali Paranthe Wali _ (the street of fried bread) is a street in Chandni Chowk particularly for food eateries since the 1870s. Almost the entire street is occupied by fast food stalls or street vendors . It has nearly become a tradition that almost every prime minister of India has visited the street to eat _paratha _ at least once. Other Indian cuisines are also available in this area even though the street specialises in north Indian food . :40–50
According to Euromonitor International, Delhi ranked as 28th most visited city in the world and first in India by foreign visitors in 2015. There are numerous tourist attractions in Delhi, both historic and modern. The three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Delhi, Qutb Complex , Red Fort and Humayun\'s Tomb are among the finest examples of Indo-Islamic architecture . Another prominent landmark of Delhi is India Gate , a 1931 built war memorial to soldiers of British Indian Army who died during First World War . Delhi has several famous places of worship of various religions. One of the largest Hindu temple complexes in the world, Akshardham is a major tourist attraction in the city. Other famous religious sites include Laxminarayan Temple , Gurudwara Bangla Sahib , Lotus Temple , Jama Masjid and ISKCON Temple . Delhi is also a hub for shopping of all kinds. Connaught Place , Chandni Chowk , Khan Market and Dilli Haat are some of the major retail markets in Delhi. Major shopping malls include Select Citywalk , DLF Promenade, DLF Emporio , Metro Walk and Ansal Plaza .
Private schools in Delhi – which use either English or Hindi as the language of instruction – are affiliated to one of three administering bodies, the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education _(CBSE) or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). In 2004–05, approximately 15.29 lakh (1.529 million) students were enrolled in primary schools, 8.22 lakh (0.822 million) in middle schools and 6.69 lakh (0.669 million) in secondary schools across Delhi. Female students represented 49% of the total enrolment. The same year, the Delhi government spent between 1.58% and 1.95% of its gross state domestic product on education. _ _ _ _ _ _University of Delhi _
_Schools and higher educational institutions in Delhi are administered either by the Directorate of Education , the NCT government or private organisations. In 2006, Delhi had 165 colleges, five medical colleges and eight engineering colleges, seven major universities and nine deemed universities . _
The premier management colleges of Delhi such as Faculty of Management Studies (Delhi) and Indian Institute of Foreign Trade rank the best in India. All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi is a premier medical school for treatment and research. National Law University, Delhi is a prominent law school and is affiliated to the Bar Council of India .
Delhi Technological University (formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology , Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology , Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and National Law University, Delhi are the only state universities . University of Delhi , Jawaharlal Nehru University and Jamia Millia Islamia are the central universities , and Indira Gandhi National Open University is for distance education . As of 2008 , about 16% of all Delhi residents possessed at least a college graduate degree.
As the capital of India, Delhi is the focus of political reportage, including regular television broadcasts of Parliament sessions. Many national media agencies, including the state-owned Press Trust of India , Media Trust of India and Doordarshan , is based in the city. Television programming includes two free terrestrial television channels offered by Doordarshan, and several Hindi, English, and regional-language cable channels offered by multi system operators . Satellite television has yet to gain a large quantity of subscribers in the city.
Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Delhi. The city's Hindi newspapers include _ Navbharat Times _, _ Hindustan Dainik _, _ Punjab Kesari _, _Pavitra Bharat_, _ Dainik Jagran _, _Dainik Bhaskar _, _ Amar Ujala _ and _Dainik Desbandhu_. Amongst the English language newspapers, _The Hindustan Times _, with a daily circulation of over a million copies, is the single largest daily. Other major English newspapers include _Times of India _, _ The Hindu _, _ Indian Express _, _ Business Standard _, _The Pioneer _, _ The Statesman _, and _The Asian Age _. Regional language newspapers include the Malayalam daily _ Malayala Manorama _ and the Tamil dailies _ Dinamalar _ and _Dinakaran _.
Radio is a less popular mass medium in Delhi, although FM radio has gained popularity since the inauguration of several new stations in 2006. A number of state-owned and private radio stations broadcast from Delhi.
Main article: Sports in Delhi
Delhi has hosted many major international sporting events, including the first and also the ninth Asian Games, the 2010 Hockey World Cup , the 2010 Commonwealth Games and the 2011 Cricket World Cup . Delhi lost bidding for the 2014 Asian Games , and considered making a bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics . However, sports minister Manohar Singh Gill later stated that funding infrastructure would come before a 2020 bid. There are indications of a possible 2028 bid. Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium
The 2010 Commonwealth Games , which ran from 3 to 14 October 2010, was one of the largest sports event held in India. The opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium , the main stadium of the event, in New Delhi at 7:00 pm Indian Standard Time on 3 October 2010. The ceremony featured over 8,000 performers and lasted for two and a half hours. It is estimated that ₹3.5 billion (US$54 million) were spent to produce the ceremony. Events took place at 12 competition venues. 20 training venues were used in the Games, including seven venues within Delhi University . The rugby stadium in Delhi University North Campus hosted rugby games for Commonwealth Games. The mess left behind after the Commonwealth Games prompted Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to replace Sports and Youth Affairs minister Manohar Singh Gill with Ajay Maken in 19 January 2011 Cabinet reshuffle.
Cricket and football are the most popular sports in Delhi. There are several cricket grounds, or _maidans_, located across the city. The Feroz Shah Kotla Ground (known commonly as the _Kotla_) is one of the oldest cricket grounds in India and is a venue for international cricket matches. It is the home ground of the Delhi cricket team , which represents the city in the Ranji Trophy , the premier Indian domestic first-class cricket championship. The Delhi cricket team has produced several world-class international cricketers such as Virender Sehwag , Virat Kohli , Gautam Gambhir , Madan Lal , Chetan Chauhan , Ishant Sharma and Bishan Singh Bedi to name a few. The Railways and Services cricket teams in the Ranji Trophy also play their home matches in Delhi, in the Karnail Singh Stadium and the Harbax Singh Stadium respectively. The city is also home to the Indian Premier League team Delhi Daredevils , who play their home matches at the Kotla, and was the home to the Delhi Giants team (previously Delhi Jets) of the now defunct Indian Cricket League .
Ambedkar Stadium , a football stadium in Delhi which holds 21,000 people, was the venue for the Indian football team's World Cup qualifier against UAE on 28 July 2012. Delhi hosted the Nehru Cup in 2007 and 2009 , in both of which India defeated Syria 1–0. In the Elite Football League of India , Delhi's first professional American football franchise, the Delhi Defenders played its first season in Pune . Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida, a suburb of Delhi, hosts the annual Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix . The Indira Gandhi Arena is also in Delhi.
CURRENT REGIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SPORTS TEAMS FROM DELHI
TEAM/CLUB TOURNAMENT/LEAGUE SPORT VENUE ESTABLISHED
* ^ _A_ _B_ "The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956". _ Ministry of Law and Justice (India) _. 1956. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "The States Reorganisation Act, 1956" (PDF). _Ministry of Law and Justice (India) _. 1956. Retrieved 16 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "THE CONSTITUTION (SIXTY-NINTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1991". _Government of India_. National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India. Retrieved 8 January 2007. * ^ " Anil Baijal takes over as new Lt Governor of Delhi". _Times of India _. Delhi. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2016. * ^ "Amulya Kumar Patnaik Officially Takes Charge As Delhi Police Commissioner". Retrieved 31 January 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Delhi Metropolitan/City Population section of " Delhi Population Sex Ratio in Delhi Literacy rate Delhi NCR". _2011 Census of India _. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Delhi (India): Union Territory, Major Agglomerations & Towns - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". _City Population_. Retrieved 28 February 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "The World\'s Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations . October 2016. p. 4. Retrieved 4 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Official Language Act 2000" (PDF). Government of Delhi. 2 July 2003. Retrieved 17 July 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution . Retrieved 8 May 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Global city GDP rankings 2008-2025". PwC . Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Lewis, Clara. "Delhi, not Mumbai, India’s economic capital - Times of India". _The Times of India _. Retrieved 24 February 2017. * ^ "The Constitution (Sixty-Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991". Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India . Retrieved 23 November 2014.
* ^ Habib, Irfan (1999). _The agrarian system of Mughal India, 1556–1707_. Oxford University Press . ISBN 978-0-19-562329-1 . _... The current Survey of India spellings are followed for place names except where they vary rather noticeably from the spellings in our sources: thus I read "Dehli" not " Delhi ..._
* Royal Asiatic Society (1834). "Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland". Cambridge University Press . _... also Dehli or Dilli, not Delhi..._ * Karamchandani, L.T (1968). "India, the beautiful". Sita Publication. _... According to available evidence the present Delhi, spelt in Hindustani as Dehli or Dilli, derived its name from King ..._
* "The National geographical journal of India, Volume 40". National Geographical Society of India. 1994. _... The name which remained the most popular is "Dilli" with variation in its pronunciation as Dilli, Dehli, or Delhi ..._
* ^ _A_ _B_ "The Most Dynamic Cities of 2025". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 24 August 2012. * ^ " Mumbai richest Indian city with total wealth of $820 billion, Delhi comes second: Report". _The Indian Express _. 27 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Asher, Catherine B (2000) . "Chapter 9: Delhi walled: Changing Boundaries". In James D. Tracy. _City Walls_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 247–281. ISBN 978-0-521-65221-6 . Retrieved 1 November 2008. * ^ "Rationale". _ncrpb.nic.in_. NCR Planning Board . The National Capital Region (NCR) in India was constituted under the NCRPB Act, 1985 * ^ "Census 2011" (PDF). _ National Capital Region Planning Board_. National Informatics Centre. p. 3. Retrieved 26 March 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ "Chapter 1: Introduction" (PDF). _Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006_. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 1–7. Retrieved 21 December 2011. * ^ Bakshi, S.R. (1995) . _ Delhi Through Ages_. Whispering Eye Bangdat. p. 2. ISBN 978-81-7488-138-0 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Smith, George (1882). _The Geography of British India, Political & Physical_. J. Murray. pp. 216–217. Retrieved 1 November 2008. * ^ "Our Pasts II, History Textbook for Class VII". NCERT. Archived from the original on 23 June 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2007. * ^ Delhi City The Imperial Gazetteer of India , 1909, v. 11, _p. 236._. * ^ _A Dictionary of_ Urdu , Classical Hindi, and English. Dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 24 October 2011. * ^ Cohen, Richard J. (October–December 1989). "An Early Attestation of the Toponym Dhilli". _Journal of the American Oriental Society_. 109 (4): 513–519. JSTOR 604073 . doi :10.2307/604073 . * ^ Austin, Ian; Thhakur Nahar Singh Jasol. "Chauhans (Cahamanas, Cauhans)". _The Mewar Encyclopedia_. mewarindia.com. Archived from the original on 14 November 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2006. * ^ "Why developers charge a premium for upper storeys in Delhi/NCR region". _Economic Times_. 5 August 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2012. * ^ John Murray (1924). "A handbook for travellers in India, Burma and Ceylon". J. Murray, 1924. _... "Dilli hanoz dur ast" (" Delhi is still far off")— has passed into the currency of a proverb ..._ * ^ _A_ _B_ S. W. Fallon; Dihlavi Fakir Chand (1886). "A dictionary of Hindustani proverbs". Printed at the Medical hall press, 1886. _... Abhi Dilli dur hai ..._ * ^ " India today, Volume 31, Issues 13–25". Thomson Living Media India Ltd., 2006. 2006. _... As the saying in Hindustani goes: "Dilli dilwalon ki ( Delhi belongs to those with a heart)". So shed your inhibitions and try out your hand ..._ * ^ Balasubramaniam, R. 2002 * ^ Arnold Silcock; alt=The black coloured Iron pillar against the sky (2003). _Wrought iron and its decorative use: with 241 illustrations_ (reprint ed.). Mineola, N.Y.: Dover. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-486-42326-5 . * ^ "INDIA: Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi" (PDF). _State of Conservation of the World Heritage Properties in the Asia-Pacific Region: : Summaries of Periodic Reports 2003 by property, Section II_. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. pp. 71–72. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2006. * ^ "Under threat: The Magnificent Minaret of Jam". _The New Courier No 1_. UNESCO. October 2002. Retrieved 3 May 2006. * ^ "Battuta\'s Travels: Delhi, capital of Muslim India". Sfusd.k12.ca.us. Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2009. * ^ _Travel Delhi, India_. History section: Google books. p. 10. Retrieved 10 June 2012. * ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Timurid Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2009. * ^ "_Genocide: a history_". W. D. Rubinstein (2004). p.28. ISBN 978-0-582-50601-5 * ^ "Sher Shah – The Lion King". _India's History: Medieval India_. indhistory.com. Retrieved 22 December 2006. * ^ Akbar the Great, Srivastva, A.L.Vol.1 pages 24–26 * ^ Himu-a forgotten Hindu Hero," Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan, p100 * ^ Kar, L. Colonel H.C."Military History of India"' Calcutta 1980, p 283 * ^ _Travel Delhi, India_. Google Books. p. 12. * ^ Thomas, Amelia. _Rajasthan, Delhi and Agra_. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-690-8 . * ^ _Later Mughal_. Retrieved 2 June 2014. * ^ _Territories and States of India_. Retrieved 2 June 2014. * ^ " Iran in the Age of the Raj". Avalanchepress.com. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * ^ _Soul and Structure of Governance in India_. Retrieved 2 June 2014. * ^ Gordon, Stewart. _The Marathas 1600–1818, Volume 2_. Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7 . * ^ Petersen, Andrew (1999). _Dictionary of Islamic Architecture_. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-21332-5 . Retrieved 14 November 2008. * ^ "In 1761, battle of Panipat cost Marathas Rs 93 lakh, say papers – The Times of India". _The Times of India_. 17 December 2011. * ^ Cole, Juan Ricardo; Momen, Moojan (1984). _From Iran East and West_. ISBN 9780933770409 . Retrieved 28 July 2015. * ^ Mayaram, Shail. _Against history, against state: counter perspective from the margins Cultures of history_. Columbia University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-231-12731-8 . * ^ "Shifting pain". _Times of India_. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2012. * ^ "Lutyens\' Delhi in race for UN heritage status". _Hindustan Times_. 11 June 2012. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012. * ^ _Travel Delhi_. Google books. 2007-01-01. p. 8. ISBN 9781605010519 . * ^ "Fall in Delhi birth rate fails to arrest population rise". _The Hindu_. Chennai, India. 3 January 2005. Retrieved 19 December 2006. * ^ "Terrorists attack Parliament; five intruders, six cops killed". rediff.com. 13 December 2001. Retrieved 2 November 2008. * ^ " India and Pakistan: Who will strike first?". _Economist_. 20 December 2001. Retrieved 2 November 2008. * ^ Tripathi, Rahul (14 September 2008). "Serial blasts rock Delhi; 30 dead, 90 injured-India-The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 3 November 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ "State Animals, Birds, Trees and Flowers of India". ENVIS Centre on Forestry. 2 July 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2016. * ^ "Symbols of Delhi". _knowindia.gov.in_. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "Symbols of Delhi" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "State Trees of India". _www.bsienvis.nic.in_. Retrieved 16 February 2016. * ^ Mohan, Madan (April 2002). "GIS-Based Spatial Information Integration, Modeling and Digital Mapping: A New Blend of Tool for Geospatial Environmental Health Analysis for Delhi Ridge" (PDF). _Spatial Information for Health Monitoring and Population Management_. FIG XXII International Congress. p. 5. Retrieved 3 February 2007. * ^ "Hazard profiles of Indian districts" (PDF). _National Capacity Building Project in Disaster Management_. UNDP . Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 May 2006. Retrieved 23 August 2006. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Average weather for New Delhi, India". Weatherspark.com. Retrieved 2 July 2013. * ^ "Climate of Delhi". Delhitrip.in. Retrieved 17 May 2012. * ^ "Fog continues to disrupt flights, trains". _The Hindu_. Chennai, India. 7 January 2005. * ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2016. * ^ "Mercury touches new high for July, Met predicts rain relief". 3 July 2012. * ^ "Weatherbase entry for Delhi". Canty and Associates LLC. Retrieved 16 January 2007. * ^ Kurian, Vinson (28 June 2005). "Monsoon reaches Delhi two days ahead of schedule". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 9 January 2007.
* ^ " New Delhi (SFD) 1971-1990" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 6, 2015. * ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). Indian Meteorological Department. Retrieved June 6, 2015. * ^ " Delhi is most polluted city in world, Beijing much better: WHO study". _Hindustan Times_. Retrieved 8 May 2014. * ^ Kumar, Rahul (July 2016). "Fancy Schemes for a Dirty Business". _Digital Development Debates_. Retrieved 5 September 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Delhi\'s Air Has Become a Lethal Hazard and Nobody Seems to Know What to Do About It". Time magazine. 10 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "India\'s Air Pollution Triggers Comparisons with China". Voice of America. Retrieved 20 February 2014. * ^ "A Delhi particular". _The Economist_. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012. * ^ "How Crop Burning Affects Delhi\'s Air". Wall Street Journal. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ HARRIS, GARDINER (25 January 2014). "Beijing\'s Bad Air Would Be Step Up for Smoggy Delhi". _New York Times_. Retrieved 27 January 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ BEARAK, MAX (7 February 2014). "Desperate for Clean Air, Delhi Residents Experiment with Solutions". _New York Times_. Retrieved 8 February 2014. * ^ Madison Park (8 May 2014). "Top 20 most polluted cities in the world". CNN. * ^ "Children in Delhi have lungs of chain-smokers!". India Today. Retrieved 22 February 2014. * ^ "Pollution increasing lung cancer in Indian women". DNA. Retrieved 3 February 2014. * ^ " Delhi blanketed in thick smog, transport disrupted". Reuters. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013. * ^ January days getting colder, tied to rise in pollution, Times of India, 27 January 2014 * ^ Gardiner Harris (14 February 2015). " Delhi Wakes Up to an Air Pollution Problem It Cannot Ignore". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 15 February 2015. * ^ " Delhi \'third greenest\' city". Ndtv.com. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Express India". Cities.expressindia.com. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * ^ Delhi Metro helps reduce vehicular air pollution, indicates research, India Today, 28 April 2013 * ^ R. Kumari; A.K. Attri; L. Int Panis; B.R. Gurjar (April 2013). "Emission estimates of Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals from Mobile sources in Delhi (India)". _J. Environ. Science & Engg_. 55 (2): 127–142. * ^ "HWhat is the status of air pollution in Delhi?". CSE, India. Retrieved 2 March 2014. * ^ "Delhi\'s air quality deteriorating due to burning of agriculture waste". Economic Times. 6 November 2014. * ^ "Thick blanket of smog envelopes Delhi, northern India". India Today. * ^ Straw burning ban soon to reduce smog in NCR, Times of India, 4 January 2014 * ^ Impose 30% cess on diesel cars, panel tells Supreme Court, Times of India, 11 February 2014 * ^ " Circles of Sustainability Urban Profile Process". The Cities Programme. 27 July 2012. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2014. * ^ _Urbanization and social change: a ... – Google Books_. Books.google.com. 14 August 2006. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * ^ "Table 3.1: Delhi Last 10 Years (1991–2001) — Administrative Set Up" (PDF). _Economic Survey of India_. Retrieved 3 July 2007. * ^ "Introduction". _THE NEW DELHI MUNICIPAL COUNCIL ACT, 1994_. New Delhi Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 3 July 2007. * ^ "The Delhi Municipal Corporation (Amendment) Act 2011( Delhi Act 12 of 2011)". _delhi.gov.in_. Department of Law, Justice & Legislative Affairs. 29 December 2011. * ^ "From 9 to 11 districts for better governance in city". 17 July 2012. * ^ Nair, Ajesh. "Annual Survey of India\'s City-Systems" (PDF). _Janaagraha.org_. Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy. Retrieved 12 March 2015. * ^ "Poile Stations". Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. Retrieved 19 December 2006. * ^ "Delhi: Assembly Constituencies". Compare Infobase Limited. Archived from the original on 1 January 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2006. * ^ " Lok Sabha constituencies get a new profile". _The Hindu_. Chennai, India. 7 September 2006. Retrieved 19 December 2006. * ^ "Politics of Delhi". INDFY. Retrieved 17 May 2012. * ^ " Arvind Kejriwal to be Delhi Chief Minister, swearing-in at Ramleela Maidan". _timesofindia-economictimes_. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2015. * ^ Mohammad Ali; Vishal Kant; Sowmiya Ashok (14 February 2014). " Arvind Kejriwal quits over Jan Lokpal". _The Hindu_. Chennai, India. Retrieved 28 July 2015. * ^ "President\'s rule imposed in Delhi". _The Times of India_. Retrieved 28 July 2015. * ^ Niharika Mandhana (10 February 2015). "Upstart Party Wins India State Elections – WSJ". _WSJ_. Retrieved 28 July 2015. * ^ " Delhi Budget Analysis 2017-18" (PDF). _PRS Legislative Research _. 8 March 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017. * ^ "Chapter 2: State Income" (PDF). _Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06_. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 8–16. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Chapter 5: Employment and Unemployment" (PDF). _Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06_. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 59–65. * ^ "Industries in Delhi". Mapsofindia.com. Retrieved 7 September 2009. * ^ " Delhi hot favourite retail destination in India – Corporate Trends – News By Company -News". _The Economic Times_. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2008. * ^ "Chapter 9: Industrial Development" (PDF). _Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06_. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 94–107. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Chapter 13: Water Supply and Sewerage" (PDF). _Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006_. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 147–162. Retrieved 21 December 2006. * ^ Birkinshaw, Matt (July 2016). "Unequal, Unreliable and Running Out". _Digital Development Debates_. Retrieved 5 September 2016. * ^ Joshi, Sandeep (19 June 2006). "MCD developing new landfill site". _The Hindu_. Chennai, India. Retrieved 19 December 2006. * ^ _A_ _B_ Gadhok, Taranjot Kaur. "Risks in Delhi: Environmental concerns". _Natural Hazard Management_. GISdevelopment.net. Retrieved 19 December 2006. * ^ "Chapter 11: Energy" (PDF). _Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06_. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 117–129. Retrieved 21 December 2006. * ^ "About Us". _ Delhi Fire Service_. Govt. of NCT of Delhi. Retrieved 9 January 2007. * ^ " Delhi Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGI)". Airport-delhi.com. 2 May 1986. Retrieved 7 September 2009. * ^ "Delhi\'s CNG success inspiring many countries: Naik". _outlookindia.com_. Outlook Publishing (India) Private Limited. Press Trust of India . 11 December 2002. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2008. * ^ Indira Gandhi International Airport * ^ "TRAFFIC STATISTICS - DOMESTIC ">(jsp). Airports Authority of India . p. 3. Retrieved 5 May 2016. * ^ " India begins $1.94b Delhi airport revamp". Dailytimes.com.pk. 18 February 2007. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Mecca for young aviators". _Hindustan Times_. 23 September 2011. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. * ^ "Ministries in row over Safdarjung Airport land". _The Times of India_. 13 April 2011. * ^ "Search". _ India News Analysis Opinions on Niti Central_. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2015. * ^ Pritha Chatterjee (6 April 2015). "The road that larger particles travel". The Indian Express . Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016. * ^ Dipak K. Dash (5 February 2017). " Delhi traffic chaos costs Rs 60,000 crore annually". _ The Economic Times _. Retrieved 23 March 2017. * ^ "DTC records highest single-day collection". _ NDTV _. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Chapter 12: Transport" (PDF). _Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006_. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 130–146. Retrieved 21 December 2006. * ^ " Faridabad Metro Corridor – Press Brief". Delhimetrorail.com. Retrieved 24 December 2015. * ^ " Delhi metro to JLN Stadium rolls out, Phase-II almost complete". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). 3 October 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Bloomberg.com: Opinion". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 3 November 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Get ready for revolution on wheels- Shipping / Transport-Transportation-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. 6 August 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ "10 years of Delhi Metro". delhimetrorail.com. 24 January 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Changing Delhi map makes Ring Railway redundant". _ Indian Express _. 22 February 2011. * ^ I.Prasada Rao; Dr. P.K. Kanchan; Dr. P.K. Nanda. "GIS Based Maintenance Management System (GMMS) For Major Roads of Delhi". _Map India 2006: Transportation_. GISdevelopment.net. Retrieved 14 January 2007. * ^ "Noida: An idea that has worked". _The Times of India _. 4 June 2003. * ^ "DND Flyway". DND Flyway. Retrieved 17 May 2012. * ^ "Traffic snarl snaps 42 Cr man-hour from Delhi, NCR workers at iGovernment". Igovernment.in. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008. * ^ "Every 12th Delhiite owns a car- Automobiles-Auto-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. 2 January 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008. * ^ Armin Rosencranz; Michael Jackson. "Introduction" (PDF). _The Delhi Pollution Case: The Supreme Court of India and the Limits of Judicial Power_. indlaw.com. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2007. * ^ "Citizen Charter". Delhi Transport Corporation. Retrieved 21 December 2006. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Census of India: Provisional Population Totals for Census 2011: NCT of Delhi". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2 May 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Chapter 3: Demographic Profile" (PDF). _Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006_. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 17–31. Retrieved 21 December 2006. * ^ Can\'t afford to fall ill in Dwarka Archived 27 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine ., _Hindustan Times_, 16 July 2009 * ^ Demographia (April 2016). _ Demographia World Urban Areas_ (PDF) (12th ed.). Retrieved November 17, 2016. * ^ "Urban agglomerations/cities having population 1 million and above" (PDF). _Provisional population totals, census of India 2011_. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2012. * ^ " India Stats : Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011". _pibmumbai.gov.in_. Retrieved 7 September 2015. * ^ "Religion Data - Population of Hindu / Muslim / Sikh / Christian". _www.census2011.co.in_. Census 2011 India. * ^ "Religion PCA". _censusindia.gov.in_. Government of India . Archived from the original on 7 July 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016. * ^ "Data on Religion". Census of India 2001. p. 1. Archived from the original on 12 August 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2006. * ^ "50th REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). _nclm.nic.in_. Ministry of Minority Affairs . p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016. * ^ Dhananjay Mahapatra (4 October 2012). "\'Half of Delhi’s population lives in slums\'". _The Times of India _. Retrieved 1 January 2016. * ^ "52 per cent of Delhi lives in slums without basic services". _ The Hindu _. 17 December 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2016. * ^ Mayura Janwalkar (20 April 2015). "Delhi: Slum shame". _The Indian Express _. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016. * ^ PTI (27 February 2009). "Promote lesser-known monuments of Delhi\'-Delhi-Cities". _The Times of India_. Retrieved 7 September 2009. * ^ " Delhi Circle (NCT of Delhi)". _List of Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains of National Importance_. Archaeological Survey of India . Retrieved 27 December 2006. * ^ "Jama Masjid, India\'s largest mosque". Terra Galleria. Retrieved 13 March 2009. * ^ "Know India". India.gov. Retrieved 22 January 2010. * ^ "Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List: India". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 13 January 2007. * ^ Jacob, Satish (July 2002). "Wither, the walled city". _Seminar (web edition)_ (515). Retrieved 19 January 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ Rafati, V.; Sahba, F. (1989). "Bahai temples". _Encyclopædia Iranica_. * ^ "Shopping in Delhi". _ Delhi Tours_. About Palace on Wheels. Retrieved 4 January 2007. * ^ _The Textile Book_. Google Books. 2002-05-01. p. 99. ISBN 9781859735121 . * ^ "Ancient and modern metal craft works attract visitors". _Times of India_. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012. * ^ " Delhi Handicrafts". Indian Handicrafts suppliars. Retrieved 18 June 2012. * ^ "Independence Day". _123independenceday.com_. Compare Infobase Limited. Retrieved 4 January 2007. * ^ Ray Choudhury, Ray Choudhury (28 January 2002). "R-Day parade, an anachronism?". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 13 January 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Fairs & Festivals of Delhi". _ Delhi Travel_. India Tourism.org. Archived from the original on 19 March 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2007. * ^ _Delhi: a portrait_, by Khushwant Singh , Raghu Rai , Published by Delhi Tourism Development Corp. , 1983. ISBN 978-0-19-561437-4 . _Page 15_. * ^ Tankha, Madhur (15 December 2005). "It\'s Sufi and rock at Qutub Fest". _The Hindu_. Chennai, India. Retrieved 13 January 2007. * ^ "The Hindu: Front Page: Asia\'s largest auto carnival begins in Delhi tomorrow". _Thehindu_. Chennai, India. 9 January 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008. * ^ " Delhi Metro records 10% rise in commuters-Delhi-Cities-The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008. * ^ Sunil Sethi / New Delhi 9 February 2008. "Sunil Sethi: Why Delhi is India\'s Book Capital". Business-standard.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2008. * ^ "Report of IITF 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2015. * ^ "Daulat Ki Chaat: In search of Delhi\'s secret delicacy". * ^ _A_ _B_ Swamy, M.R.Narayan (2006). _New Delhi_. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 14–17. ISBN 978-981-232-996-7 . Retrieved 23 June 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Singh, Chetananand (2010). "Commonwealth games guide to Delhi" (PDF). Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation Ltd. Retrieved 23 June 2012. * ^ Duncan, Fiona (6 March 2011). "Delhi, India: hotels, restaurants and transport". _ The Daily Telegraph _. London. Retrieved 23 June 2012. * ^ Brown, Lindsay; Thomas, Amelia (2008). _Rajasthan, Delhi and Agra_ (second ed.). Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet. pp. 20–31. ISBN 978-1-74104-690-8 . ASIN 1741046904. * ^ Bremner, Caroline. "Top 100 City Destinations Ranking" (PDF). _Euromonitor International_. Retrieved 9 August 2016. * ^ "Indo - Islamic Architecture". _Centre for Cultural Resources and Training _. Retrieved 28 February 2017. * ^ " India Gate". _ Delhi Tourism_. Retrieved 28 February 2017. * ^ "Akshardham Temple". _ Delhi Tourism_. Retrieved 28 February 2017. * ^ "Shopping in Delhi". _ Delhi Tourism_. Retrieved 28 February 2017. * ^ "6 Best Shopping Malls in Delhi for Shopping". _Traveljee_. Retrieved 28 February 2017. * ^ "Schools in Delhi". Archived from the original on 21 September 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Chapter 15: Education" (PDF). _Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06_. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 173–187. Retrieved 21 December 2006.
* ^ "List of State Universities". Retrieved 11 May 2013. * ^ "THE INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ACT, 198" (PDF). Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012. * ^ "outlookindia.com wired". Outlookindia.com. Archived from the original on 4 November 2005. Retrieved 3 November 2008. * ^ Rediff Business Desk (5 September 2006). "What is CAS? What is DTH?". _rediff news: Business_. Rediff.com . Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Hindi Newspapers". _ Amar Ujala _. Retrieved 23 May 2016. * ^ "Biographical Data of Vir Sanghvi". Retrieved 17 May 2012. * ^ Naqvi, Farah (14 November 2006). "Chapter4: Towards a Mass Media Campaign: Analysing the relationship between target audiences and mass media" (PDF). _Images and icons: Harnessing the Power of Mass Media to Promote Gender Equality and Reduce Practices of Sex Selection_. BBC World Service Trust. pp. 26–36. Retrieved 8 January 2007. * ^ "Delhi: Radio Stations in Delhi, India". _ASIAWAVES: Radio and TV Broadcasting in South and South-East Asia_. Alan G. Davies. 15 November 2006. Retrieved 7 January 2007. * ^ "All India Radio". Indian government. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012. * ^ "Radio Stations in Delhi, India". Asiawaves asiawaves.net. Retrieved 30 May 2012. * ^ " India to bid for 2014 Asian Games". _South Asia_. BBC. 29 March 2005. Retrieved 21 December 2006. * ^ " New Delhi loses bid". _The Hindu_. Chennai, India. 18 April 2007. Retrieved 18 April 2007. * ^ " Delhi To Bid For 2020 Summer Games". _gamesbids.com_. Menscerto Inc. 28 April 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2007. * ^ " India Won\'t Bid For 2020 Games". Gamesbids.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * ^ Burke, Jason (3 October 2010). "\' India has arrived\': spectacular ceremony opens Commonwealth Games". London: The Guardian, UK. Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010. * ^ Hart, Simon (3 October 2010). " Commonwealth Games 2010: India opens doors to the world at opening ceremony". _The Telegraph_. London. Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010. * ^ PTI (3 October 2010). "Biggest ever Commonwealth Games begins in Delhi – The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 14 October 2010. * ^ "CWG: 8,000 artists to show 5,000-year-old culture". One India News. 3 October 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2011. * ^ "The CWG opening show reality: Rs 350 crore". Times of India. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Non-Competition Venues". Commonwealth Games Organising Committee. Archived from the original on 27 September 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010. * ^ " Commonwealth Games hit by more bad luck after giant scoreboard collapse". London: Daily Mail. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012. * ^ "New Sports Minister". Sify.com. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * ^ Camenzuli, Charles. " Cricket may be included in the 2010 Games". _Interview_. International Sports Press Association. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007. * ^ Cricinfo staff. "A Brief History: The Ranji Trophy". _Cricinfo_. The Wisden Group. Retrieved 6 January 2007. * ^ "Virat Kohli: Delhi\'s golden boy since 2002 – Times of India". _indiatimes.com_. * ^ "Ambedkar stadium to host India\'s World Cup qualifier". _Times of Inia_. 28 June 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2012. * ^ "Bob Houghton\'s Boys made India proud with a superb victory over Syria". _17 May 2012_. KolkataFootballs.com. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. * ^ " India vs Syria Nehru Cup 2009 Football Final Results, Highlights". CLbuzz. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2012. * ^ \'They Need TV Product\': Why American Football Is Coming To India – TIME NewsFeed. Newsfeed.time.com (4 August 2011). Retrieved 24 October 2011. * ^ " India company says on track for 2011 F1 race". Reuters. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2009. * ^ " UNESCO to examine Delhi\'s bid for World Heritage City in Sept". 29 June 2014. * ^ "Centre kills Delhi\'s heritage city dream". _The Times of India_. Retrieved 28 July 2015. * ^ "SISTER-CITY AGREEMENTS/ MEMORANDUM". _Department of Urban Development, Government of Delhi _. Retrieved 28 February 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Arun Kumar Das (7 July 2002). " Delhi to London, it’s a sister act". _The Times of India _. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
http://www.viralcoil.com/2017/07/07/best-places-to-visit-in-delhi 7 BEST PLACES TO VISIT IN DELHI from Viral Coil
* Economic Survey of Delhi 2005–2006. Planning Department. Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. Retrieved on 12 February 2007 * Dalrymple, W (2003). _City of Djinns_ (1 ed.). Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-200100-4 . * Dalrymple, W (2003). _Vidhya Society, (2009). Vidhya Society (NGO) is a leading charitable organization of Uttar Pradesh (India) established under society registration act 21-1860 on the special occasion of World Disable Year 2009. Director Mr. Pavan Upadhyay www.vidhyasociety.com_ (1 ed.). Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-200100-4 . * Prager, D (2013). _Delirious Delhi_ (1 ed.). Arcade Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61145-832-9 . * Brown, L (2011). _Lonely Planet Rajasthan, Delhi & Agra_ (5 ed.). Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 978-1-74179-460-1 . * Rowe, P; Coster, P (2004). _ Delhi (Great Cities of the World)_. World Almanac Library. ISBN 978-0-8368-5197-7 . * Four-part series on Delhi (30 May – 2 June 2012). "Metrocity Journal: Delhi\'s Changing Landscape". _The Wall Street Journal_.
Find more aboutDELHIat's sister projects
* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage *