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Immunology
Immunology
Immunology
is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.[1] Immunology
Immunology
charts, measures, and contextualizes the: physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (such as autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, and transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo
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Tissue (biology)
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The English word is derived from the French tissu, meaning something that is woven, from the verb tisser, "to weave". The study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. For plants, the discipline is called plant anatomy. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades,[clarification needed] developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues
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Cell (biology)
The cell (from Latin
Latin
cella, meaning "small room"[1]) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life"
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In Vitro
In vitro
In vitro
(meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context. Colloquially called "test-tube experiments", these studies in biology and its subdisciplines are traditionally done in labware such as test tubes, flasks, Petri dishes, and microtiter plates. Studies conducted using components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological surroundings permit a more detailed or more convenient analysis than can be done with whole organisms; however, results obtained from in vitro experiments may not fully or accurately predict the effects on a whole organism
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In Vivo
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English[1][2][3]) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism. This is not to be confused with experiments done in vitro ("within the glass"), i.e., in a laboratory environment using test tubes, petri dishes, etc. Examples of investigations in vivo include: the pathogenesis of disease by comparing the effects of bacterial infection with the effects of purified bacterial toxins; the development of antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and new drugs generally; and new surgical procedures. Consequently, animal testing and clinical trials are major elements of in vivo research. In vivo testing is often employed over in vitro because it is better suited for observing the overall effects of an experiment on a living subject
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Adenoid
The adenoid, also known as a pharyngeal tonsil or nasopharyngeal tonsil, is the superior-most of the tonsils. It is a mass of lymphatic tissue situated posterior to the nasal cavity, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the throat. Normally, in children, it forms a soft mound in the roof and posterior wall of the nasopharynx, just above and behind the uvula.Contents1 Structure1.1 Development2 Clinical significance2.1 Adenoid
Adenoid
facies 2.2 Removal3 See also 4 References 5 External linksStructure[edit] The adenoid, unlike the palatine tonsils, has pseudostratified epithelium.[1] The adenoid is often removed along with the palatine tonsils. Development[edit] Adenoids develop from a subepithelial infiltration of lymphocytes after the 16th week of embryonic life
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Organism
In biology, an organism (from Greek: οργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea.[1] All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli. Humans are multicellular animals composed of many trillions of cells which differentiate during development into specialized tissues and organs. An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote. Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains—bacteria and archaea
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Bone Marrow
Bone
Bone
marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.[2] In birds and mammals, bone marrow is the primary site of new blood cell production or hematopoiesis.[3] It is composed of hematopoietic cells, marrow adipose tissue, and supportive stromal cells. On average, bone marrow constitutes 4% of the total body mass of humans; in an adult having 65 kilograms of mass (143 lb), bone marrow typically accounts for approximately 2.6 kilograms (5.7 lb).[4] Human marrow produces approximately 500 billion blood cells per day, which join the systemic circulation via permeable vasculature sinusoids within the medullary cavity.[5] All types of hematopoietic cells, including both myeloid and lymphoid lineages, are created in bone marrow; however, lymphoid cells must migrate to other lymphoid organs (e.g
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Tonsil
Tonsils are collections of lymphoid tissue[1] facing into the aerodigestive tract. The set of lymphatic tissue known as Waldeyer's tonsillar ring includes the adenoid tonsil, two tubal tonsils, two palatine tonsils, and the lingual tonsil. When used unqualified, the term most commonly refers specifically to the palatine tonsils, which are masses of lymphatic material situated at either side of the back of the human throat
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Transplant Rejection
Transplant rejection
Transplant rejection
occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue. Transplant rejection
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Liver
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.[2][3][4] In humans, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. Its other roles in metabolism include the regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and the production of hormones.[4] The liver is an accessory digestive gland that produces bile, an alkaline compound which helps the breakdown of fat. Bile
Bile
aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids
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Physiology
Physiology
Physiology
(/ˌfɪziˈɒlədʒi/; from Ancient Greek φύσις (physis), meaning 'nature, origin', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of'[1]) is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which works within a living system.[2] A sub-discipline of biology, its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.[3] Given the size of the field,
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List Of Biochemists
Articles about notable biochemists include:Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See alsoA[edit]John Jacob Abel, (1857-1938) American biochemist and pharmacologist. He founded and chaired the first department of pharmacology in the United States at the University of Michigan. John Abelson, (b. 1938) American biologist with expertise in biophysics, biochemistry, and genetics. He was a professor at the California Institute of Technology
California Institute of Technology
(Caltech). Gary Ackers, (1939-2011) American Professor of Biochemistry
Biochemistry
and Molecular Biophysics at Washington University in St. Louis. Julius Adler, (b. 1930) American Professor of biochemistry and genetics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. David Agard, American Professor of Biochemistry
Biochemistry
and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco
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Phytochemistry
Phytochemistry
Phytochemistry
is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants. Those studying phytochemistry strive to describe the structures of the large number of secondary metabolic compounds found in plants, the functions of these compounds in human and plant biology, and the biosynthesis of these compounds. Plants synthesize phytochemicals for many reasons, including to protect themselves against insect attacks and plant diseases. Phytochemicals in food plants are often active in human biology, and in many cases have health benefits.[1] The compounds found in plants are of many kinds, but most are in four major biochemical classes, the alkaloids, glycosides, polyphenols, and terpenes. Phytochemistry
Phytochemistry
can be considered sub-fields of botany or chemistry. Activities can be led in botanical gardens or in the wild with the aid of ethnobotany
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