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Physiology
Physiology
(/ˌfɪziˈɒlədʒi/; from Ancient Greek φύσις (physis), meaning 'nature, origin', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of'[1]) is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which works within a living system.[2] A sub-discipline of biology, its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.[3] Given the size of the field, it is divided into, among others, animal physiology (including that of humans), plant physiology, cellular physiology, microbial physiology (microbial metabolism), bacterial physiology, and viral physiology.[3] Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is its integrated nature with other disciplines such as chemistry and physics, coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, and continuous communication between cells.[4] The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
is awarded to those who make significant achievements in this discipline by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In medicine, a physiologic state is one occurring from normal body function, rather than pathologically, which is centered on the abnormalities that occur in animal diseases, including humans.[5]

Contents

1 Foundations of Physiology

1.1 Human physiology 1.2 Animal Physiology 1.3 Plant Physiology 1.4 Cellular Physiology 1.5 Microbial Physiology 1.6 Viral Physiology

2 History

2.1 The Classical Era 2.2 Early Modern Period 2.3 Late Modern Period

3 Notable Physiologists

3.1 Women in physiology

4 Subdisciplines 5 Physiological Societies 6 See also 7 References 8 External links 9 Bibliography

Foundations of Physiology[edit] Human physiology[edit] Main article: Human body
Human body
§ Physiology Human physiology
Human physiology
seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning,[3] through scientific enquiry into the nature of mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems within systems. The endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals. that integrate function in animals. Homeostasis
Homeostasis
is a major aspect with regard to such interactions within plants as well as animals. The biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of ways, both electrical and chemical.[citation needed] Changes in physiology can impact the mental functions of individuals. Examples of this would be the effects of certain medications or toxic levels of substances.[6][7] Change in behavior as a result of these substances is often used to assess the health of individuals.[8][9] Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Due to the frequent connection between form and function, physiology and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.[10] Animal Physiology[edit] Main article: Zoology
Zoology
§ Physiology Plant Physiology[edit] Main article: Plant Physiology Plant physiology
Plant physiology
is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning of plants. Closely related fields include plant morphology, plant ecology, phytochemistry, cell biology, genetics, biophysics, and molecular biology. Fundamental processes of plant physiology include photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, tropisms, nastic movements, photoperiodism, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, seed germination, dormancy, and stomata function and transpiration. Absorption of water by roots, production of food in the leaves, and growth of shoots towards light are examples of plant physiology. Cellular Physiology[edit] Main article: Cell physiology Although there are differences between animal, plant, and microbial cells, the basic physiological functions of cells can be divided into the processes of cell division, cell signaling, cell growth, and cell metabolism. Microbial Physiology[edit] Main article: Microorganism Microorganisms can be found almost everywhere on Earth. Types of microorganisms include archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, protists, fungi, and micro-plants. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures. Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly, and bacteria are also able to freely exchange genes through conjugation, transformation and transduction, even between widely divergent species. Viral Physiology[edit] Main article: Virus History[edit] The Classical Era[edit] The study of human physiology as a medical field originates in classical Greece, at the time of Hippocrates
Hippocrates
(late 5th century BC).[11] Outside of Western tradition, early forms of physiology or anatomy can be reconstructed as having been present at around the same time in China,[12] India[13] and elsewhere. Hippocrates
Hippocrates
incorporated his belief system called the theory of humours, which consisted of four basic substance: earth, water, air and fire. Each substance is known for having a corresponding humour: black bile, phlegm, blood and yellow bile, respectively. Hippocrates
Hippocrates
also noted some emotional connections to the four humours, which Claudius Galenus would later expand on. The critical thinking of Aristotle
Aristotle
and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece. Like Hippocrates, Aristotle
Aristotle
took to the humoral theory of disease, which also consisted of four primary qualities in life: hot, cold, wet and dry.[14] Claudius Galenus (c. ~130–200 AD), known as Galen
Galen
of Pergamum, was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body. Unlike Hippocrates, Galen
Galen
argued that humoral imbalances can be located in specific organs, including the entire body.[15] His modification of this theory better equipped doctors to make more precise diagnoses. Galen
Galen
also played off of Hippocrates
Hippocrates
idea that emotions were also tied to the humours, and added the notion of temperaments: sanguine corresponds with blood; phlegmatic is tied to phlegm; yellow bile is connected to choleric; and black bile corresponds with melancholy. Galen
Galen
also saw the human body consisting of three connected systems: the brain and nerves, which are responsible for thoughts and sensations; the heart and arteries, which give life; and the liver and veins, which can be attributed to nutrition and growth.[15] Galen
Galen
was also the founder of experimental physiology.[16] And for the next 1,400 years, Galenic physiology was a powerful and influential tool in medicine.[15] Early Modern Period[edit] Jean Fernel
Jean Fernel
(1497–1558), a French physician, introduced the term "physiology".[17] Galen, Ibn al-Nafis, Michael Servetus, Realdo Colombo, Amato Lusitano
Amato Lusitano
and William Harvey, are credited as making important discoveries in the circulation of the blood.[18] Santorio Santorio in 1610s was the first to use a device to measure the pulse rate (the pulsilogium), and a thermoscope to measure temperature.[19] In 1791 Luigi Galvani
Luigi Galvani
described the role of electricity in nerves of dissected frogs. In 1811, Julien Jean César Legallois studied respiration in animal dissection and lesions and found the center of respiration in the medulla oblongata. In the same year, Charles Bell finished work on what would later become known as the Bell-Magendie law, which compared functional differences between dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord. In 1824, François Magendie
François Magendie
described the sensory roots and produced the first evidence of the cerebellum’s role in equilibration to complete the Bell-Magendie law. In the 1820s, the French physiologist Henri Milne-Edwards
Henri Milne-Edwards
introduced the notion of physiological division of labor, which allowed to "compare and study living things as if they were machines created by the industry of man." Inspired in the work of Adam Smith, Milne-Edwards wrote that the "body of all living beings, whether animal or plant, resembles a factory ... where the organs, comparable to workers, work incessantly to produce the phenomena that constitute the life of the individual." In more differentiated organisms, the functional labor could be apportioned between different instruments or systems (called by him as appareils).[20] In 1858, Joseph Lister studied the cause of blood coagulation and inflammation that resulted after previous injuries and surgical wounds. He later discovered and implemented antiseptics in the operating room, and as a result decreased death rate from surgery by a substantial amount.[5][21] The Physiological Society was founded in London in 1876 as a dining club.[22] The American Physiological Society (APS) is a nonprofit organization that was founded in 1887. The Society is, "devoted to fostering education, scientific research, and dissemination of information in the physiological sciences."[23] In 1891, Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Pavlov
performed research on "conditional responses" that involved dogs' saliva production in response to a bell and visual stimuli.[21] In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, in particular with the 1838 appearance of the Cell theory of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann. It radically stated that organisms are made up of units called cells. Claude Bernard's (1813–1878) further discoveries ultimately led to his concept of milieu interieur (internal environment), which would later be taken up and championed as "homeostasis" by American physiologist Walter B. Cannon in 1929. By homeostasis, Cannon meant "the maintenance of steady states in the body and the physiological processes through which they are regulated."[24] In other words, the body's ability to regulate its internal environment. William Beaumont was the first American to utilize the practical application of physiology. Nineteenth century physiologists such as Michael Foster, Max Verworn, and Alfred Binet, based on Haeckel's ideas, elaborated what came to be called "general physiology", a unified science of life based on the cell actions,[20] later renamed in the 20th century as cell biology.[25] Late Modern Period[edit] In the 20th century, biologists became interested in how organisms other than human beings function, eventually spawning the fields of comparative physiology and ecophysiology.[26] Major figures in these fields include Knut Schmidt-Nielsen
Knut Schmidt-Nielsen
and George Bartholomew. Most recently, evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline.[27] In 1920, August Krogh
August Krogh
won the Nobel Prize for discovering how, in capillaries, blood flow is regulated.[21] In 1954, Andrew Huxley
Andrew Huxley
and Hugh Huxley, alongside their research team, discovered the sliding filaments in skeletal muscle, known today as the sliding filament theory.[21] Notable Physiologists[edit] Main article: List of Physiologists Women in physiology[edit] Initially, women were largely excluded from official involvement in any physiological society. The American Physiological Society, for example, was founded in 1887 and included only men in its ranks.[28] In 1902, the American Physiological Society elected Ida Hyde as the first female member of the society.[29] Hyde, a representative of the American Association of University Women
American Association of University Women
and a global advocate for gender equality in education,[30] attempted to promote gender equality in every aspect of science and medicine. Soon thereafter, in 1913, J.S. Haldane
J.S. Haldane
proposed that women be allowed to formally join The Physiological Society, which had been founded in 1876.[31] On 3 July 1915, six women were officially admitted: Florence Buchanan, Winifred Cullis, Ruth C. Skelton, Sarah C. M. Sowton, Constance Leetham Terry, and Enid M. Tribe.[32] The centenary of the election of women was celebrated in 2015 with the publication of the book "Women Physiologists: Centenary Celebrations And Beyond For The Physiological Society." (ISBN 978-0-9933410-0-7) Prominent women physiologists include:

Gerty Cori,[33] along with husband Carl Cori, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine in 1947 for their discovery of the phosphate-containing form of glucose known as glycogen, as well as its function within eukaryotic metabolic mechanisms for energy production. Moreover, they discovered the Cori cycle, also known as the Lactic acid cycle,[34] which describes how muscle tissue converts glycogen into lactic acid via lactic acid fermentation. Barbara McClintock
Barbara McClintock
was rewarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine for the discovery of genetic transposition McClintock is the only female recipient who has won an unshared Nobel Prize.[35] Gertrude Elion,[36] along with George Hitchings
George Hitchings
and Sir James Black, received the Nobel Prize for Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine in 1988 for their development of drugs employed in the treatment of several major diseases, such as leukemia, some autoimmune disorders, gout, malaria, and viral herpes. Linda B. Buck,[37] along with Richard Axel, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine in 2004 for their discovery of odorant receptors and the complex organization of the olfactory system. Françoise Barré-Sinoussi,[38] along with Luc Montagnier, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
in 2008 for their work on the identification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Virus
(HIV), the cause of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(AIDS). Elizabeth Blackburn,[39] along with Carol W. Greider[40] and Jack W. Szostak, was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine for the discovery of the genetic composition and function of telomeres and the enzyme called telomerase.

Subdisciplines[edit]

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Outline Category

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There are many ways to categorize the subdiscplines of physiology:[41]

based on the taxa studied: human physiology, animal physiology, plant physiology, microbial physiology, viral physiology based on the level of organization: cell physiology, molecular physiology, systems physiology, organismal physiology, ecological physiology, integrative physiology based on the process that causes physiological variation: developmental physiology, environmental physiology, evolutionary physiology based on the ultimate goals of the research: applied physiology (e.g., medical physiology), non-applied (e.g., comparative physiology)

Physiological Societies[edit] Main article: International Union of Physiological Sciences See also[edit]

Biology
Biology
portal

Outline of physiology Applied physiology Cell physiology Cybernetics Cytoarchitecture Defense physiology Ecophysiology Exercise physiology Fish physiology Insect physiology Human body List of physiologists Metabolome Neurophysiology Physiome Plant physiology

References[edit]

^ "physiology". Online Etymology Dictionary.  ^ Prosser, C. Ladd (1991). Comparative Animal Physiology, Environmental and Metabolic Animal Physiology
Physiology
(4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss. pp. 1–12. ISBN 0-471-85767-X.  ^ a b c Hall, John (2011). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (12th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders/Elsevier. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4160-4574-8.  ^ Widmaier, Eric P.; Raff, Hershel; Strang, Kevin T. (2016). Vander's Human Physiology
Physiology
The Mechanisms of Body Function. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-1-259-29409-9.  ^ a b "What is physiology?". Medical News Today.  ^ van der Linden, S. (2013). "A Response to Dolan. In A. Oliver (Ed.)" (PDF). pp. 209–2015. Retrieved April 15, 2017.  ^ "Mental disorders". World Health
Health
Organization. WHO. Retrieved 15 April 2017.  ^ "Eszopiclone" (PDF). F.A. Davis. 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017.  ^ "Zolpidem" (PDF). F.A. Davis. Retrieved April 15, 2017.  ^ Bergman, Esther M; de Bruin, Anique BH; Herrler, Andreas; Verheijen, Inge WH; Scherpbier, Albert JJA; van der Vleuten, Cees PM (19 November 2013). "Students' perceptions of anatomy across the undergraduate problem-based learning medical curriculum: a phenomenographical study". US National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. 13: 152. doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-152. PMC 4225514 . PMID 24252155. Together with physiology and biochemistry, anatomy is one of the basic sciences that are to be taught in the medical curriculum.  ^ "Physiology". Science Clarified. Advameg, Inc. Retrieved 2010-08-29.  ^ Helaine Selin, Medicine Across Cultures: History and Practice of Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2003), p. 53. ^ D. P. Burma; Maharani Chakravorty. From Physiology
Physiology
and Chemistry to Biochemistry. Pearson Education. p. 8.  ^ "Early Medicine and Physiology". ship.edu.  ^ a b c " Galen
Galen
of Pergamum". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Fell, C.; Pearson, F. (November 2007). "Historical Perspectives of Thoracic Anatomy". Thoracic Surgery Clinics. 17 (4): 443–8. doi:10.1016/j.thorsurg.2006.12.001.  ^ Wilbur Applebaum. Encyclopedia of the Scientific Revolution: From Copernicus to Newton. Routledge. p. 344.  ^ Rampling, M. W. (2016). "The history of the theory of the circulation of the blood". Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation. 64 (4): 541–549. doi:10.3233/CH-168031. ISSN 1875-8622. PMID 27791994.  ^ " Santorio Santorio
Santorio Santorio
(1561-1636): Medicina statica". Vaulted Treasures. University of Virginia, Claude Moore Health
Health
Sciences Library.  ^ a b R. M. Brain. The Pulse
Pulse
of Modernism: Physiological Aesthetics in Fin-de-Siècle Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015. 384 pp., [1]. ^ a b c d "Milestones in Physiology
Physiology
(1822-2013)" (PDF). 1 October 2013. Retrieved 2015-07-25.  ^ "The Society's history Physiological Society". www.physoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-21.  ^ " American Physiological Society > About". www.the-aps.org. Retrieved 2017-02-21.  ^ Brown Theodore M.; Fee Elizabeth (October 2002). "Walter Bradford Cannon: Pioneer Physiologist of Human Emotions". American Journal of Public Health. 92 (10): 1594–1595. doi:10.2105/ajph.92.10.1594. PMC 1447286 .  ^ Heilbron, J. L. (2003). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science, Oxford University Press, p. 649, link. ^ Feder, ME; Bennett, AF; WW, Burggren; Huey, RB (1987). New directions in ecological physiology. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-34938-3.  ^ Garland, Jr, Theodore; Carter, P. A. (1994). "Evolutionary physiology" (PDF). Annual Review of Physiology. 56 (1): 579–621. doi:10.1146/annurev.ph.56.030194.003051. PMID 8010752.  ^ " American Physiological Society > Founders". www.the-aps.org. The American Physiological Society.  ^ Tucker, GS (December 1981). "Ida Henrietta Hyde: the first woman member of the society" (PDF). The Physiologist. 24 (6): 1–9. PMID 7043502.  ^ "Ida Henrietta Hyde". jwa.org.  ^ "Women in Physiology
Physiology
Physiological Society". www.physoc.org. Retrieved 2018-01-11.  ^ "Women in Physiology". physoc.org.  ^ " Carl Cori
Carl Cori
and Gerty Cori". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ "Cori cycle". TheFreeDictionary.com.  ^ "Facts on the Nobel Prizes in Physiology
Physiology
and Medicine". nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 2016-09-23.  ^ "Gertrude B. Elion". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2004". nobelprize.org.  ^ "Francoise Barre-Sinoussi - biography - French virologist". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ "Elizabeth H. Blackburn". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ "Carol W. Greider". Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Moyes, C.D., Schulte, P.M. Principles of Animal Physiology, second edition. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. Boston, MA, 2008.

External links[edit]

Look up physiology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikisource has original works on the topic: Physiology

The Physiological Society physiologyINFO.org public information site sponsored by The American Physiological Society

Bibliography[edit] Human physiology

Widmaier, E.P., Raff, H., Strang, K.T. Vander's Human Physiology. 11th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2009. Marieb, E.N. Essentials of Human Anatomy
Anatomy
and Physiology. 10th Edition, Benjamin Cummings, 2012.

Animal physiology

Hill, R.W., Wyse, G.A., Anderson, M. Animal Physiology, 3rd ed. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, 2012. Moyes, C.D., Schulte, P.M. Principles of Animal Physiology, second edition. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. Boston, MA, 2008. Randall, D., Burggren, W., and French, K. Eckert Animal Physiology: Mechanism and Adaptation, 5th Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, 2002. Schmidt-Nielsen, K. Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Withers, P.C. Comparative animal physiology. Saunders College Publishing, New York, 1992.

Plant physiology

Larcher, W. Physiological plant ecology (4th ed.). Springer, 2001. Salisbury, F.B, Ross, C.W. Plant physiology. Brooks/Cole Pub Co., 1992 Taiz, L., Zieger, E. Plant Physiology
Plant Physiology
(5th ed.), Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer, 2010.

Fungal physiology

Griffin, D.H. Fungal Physiology, Second Edition. Wiley-Liss, New York, 1994.

Protistan physiology

Levandowsky, M. Physiological Adaptations of Protists. In: Cell physiology sourcebook: essentials of membrane biophysics. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier/AP, 2012. Levandowski, M., Hutner, S.H. (eds). Biochemistry
Biochemistry
and physiology of protozoa. Volumes 1, 2, and 3. Academic Press: New York, NY, 1979; 2nd ed. Laybourn-Parry J. A Functional Biology
Biology
of Free-Living Protozoa. Berkeley, California: University of California Press; 1984.

Algal physiology

Lobban, C.S., Harrison, P.J. Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University Press, 1997. Stewart, W. D. P. (ed.). Algal Physiology
Physiology
and Biochemistry. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1974.

Bacterial physiology

El-Sharoud, W. (ed.). Bacterial Physiology: A Molecular Approach. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2008. Kim, B.H., Gadd, M.G. Bacterial Physiology
Physiology
and Metabolism. Cambridge, 2008. Moat, A.G., Foster, J.W., Spector, M.P. Microbial Physiology, 4th ed. Wiley-Liss, Inc. New York, NY, 2002.

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Branches of life science and biology

Anatomy Astrobiology Biochemistry Biogeography Biohistory Biomechanics Biophysics Bioinformatics Biostatistics Botany Cell biology Cellular microbiology Chemical biology Chronobiology Computational biology Conservation biology Cytogenetics Developmental biology Ecology Embryology Epidemiology Epigenetics Evolutionary biology Freshwater biology Geobiology Genetics Genomics Histology Human biology Immunology Marine biology Mathematical biology Microbiology Molecular biology Mycology Neontology Neuroscience Nutrition Origin of life Paleontology Parasitology Pathology Pharmacology Phylogenetics Physiology Quantum biology Sociobiology Structural biology Systematics Systems biology Taxonomy Teratology Toxicology Virology Virophysics Zoology

v t e

Physiology
Physiology
types

Animals

Fish physiology Human physiology Insect physiology Physiology
Physiology
of dinosaurs

Plants

Plant physiology Plant perception (physiology) Physiological plant disorders

Cells

Cell physiology

Related topics

Comparative physiology Electrophysiology Evolutionary physiology Molecular physiology

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine

1901–1925

1901 Emil Behring 1902 Ronald Ross 1903 Niels Finsen 1904 Ivan Pavlov 1905 Robert Koch 1906 Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi
/ Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1907 Alphonse Laveran 1908 Élie Metchnikoff
Élie Metchnikoff
/ Paul Ehrlich 1909 Emil Kocher 1910 Albrecht Kossel 1911 Allvar Gullstrand 1912 Alexis Carrel 1913 Charles Richet 1914 Róbert Bárány 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 Jules Bordet 1920 August Krogh 1921 1922 Archibald Hill
Archibald Hill
/ Otto Meyerhof 1923 Frederick Banting
Frederick Banting
/ John Macleod 1924 Willem Einthoven 1925

1926–1950

1926 Johannes Fibiger 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg 1928 Charles Nicolle 1929 Christiaan Eijkman
Christiaan Eijkman
/ Frederick Gowland Hopkins 1930 Karl Landsteiner 1931 Otto Warburg 1932 Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
/ Edgar Adrian 1933 Thomas Morgan 1934 George Whipple
George Whipple
/ George Minot
George Minot
/ William Murphy 1935 Hans Spemann 1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi 1938 Corneille Heymans 1939 Gerhard Domagk 1940 1941 1942 1943 Henrik Dam
Henrik Dam
/ Edward Doisy 1944 Joseph Erlanger
Joseph Erlanger
/ Herbert Gasser 1945 Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
/ Ernst Chain
Ernst Chain
/ Howard Florey 1946 Hermann Muller 1947 Carl Cori
Carl Cori
/ Gerty Cori
Gerty Cori
/ Bernardo Houssay 1948 Paul Müller 1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz 1950 Edward Kendall / Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
/ Philip Hench

1951–1975

1951 Max Theiler 1952 Selman Waksman 1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann 1954 John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins 1955 Hugo Theorell 1956 André Cournand / Werner Forssmann
Werner Forssmann
/ Dickinson W. Richards 1957 Daniel Bovet 1958 George Beadle / Edward Tatum
Edward Tatum
/ Joshua Lederberg 1959 Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
/ Arthur Kornberg 1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar 1961 Georg von Békésy 1962 Francis Crick
Francis Crick
/ James Watson
James Watson
/ Maurice Wilkins 1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley 1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen 1965 François Jacob
François Jacob
/ André Lwoff / Jacques Monod 1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins 1967 Ragnar Granit
Ragnar Granit
/ Haldan Hartline / George Wald 1968 Robert W. Holley
Robert W. Holley
/ Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg 1969 Max Delbrück
Max Delbrück
/ Alfred Hershey
Alfred Hershey
/ Salvador Luria 1970 Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler
Ulf von Euler
/ Julius Axelrod 1971 Earl Sutherland Jr. 1972 Gerald Edelman
Gerald Edelman
/ Rodney Porter 1973 Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
/ Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
/ Nikolaas Tinbergen 1974 Albert Claude
Albert Claude
/ Christian de Duve
Christian de Duve
/ George Palade 1975 David Baltimore
David Baltimore
/ Renato Dulbecco
Renato Dulbecco
/ Howard Temin

1976–2000

1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek 1977 Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally
Andrew Schally
/ Rosalyn Yalow 1978 Werner Arber
Werner Arber
/ Daniel Nathans
Daniel Nathans
/ Hamilton O. Smith 1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield 1980 Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset
Jean Dausset
/ George Snell 1981 Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel
David H. Hubel
/ Torsten Wiesel 1982 Sune Bergström
Sune Bergström
/ Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane 1983 Barbara McClintock 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein 1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein 1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini 1987 Susumu Tonegawa 1988 James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion
Gertrude B. Elion
/ George H. Hitchings 1989 J. Michael Bishop
J. Michael Bishop
/ Harold E. Varmus 1990 Joseph Murray
Joseph Murray
/ E. Donnall Thomas 1991 Erwin Neher
Erwin Neher
/ Bert Sakmann 1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs 1993 Richard J. Roberts
Richard J. Roberts
/ Phillip Sharp 1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Alfred G. Gilman
/ Martin Rodbell 1995 Edward B. Lewis
Edward B. Lewis
/ Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
/ Eric F. Wieschaus 1996 Peter C. Doherty
Peter C. Doherty
/ Rolf M. Zinkernagel 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner 1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Robert F. Furchgott
/ Louis Ignarro
Louis Ignarro
/ Ferid Murad 1999 Günter Blobel 2000 Arvid Carlsson
Arvid Carlsson
/ Paul Greengard
Paul Greengard
/ Eric Kandel

2001–present

2001 Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt
Tim Hunt
/ Paul Nurse 2002 Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
/ H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston 2003 Paul Lauterbur
Paul Lauterbur
/ Peter Mansfield 2004 Richard Axel
Richard Axel
/ Linda B. Buck 2005 Barry Marshall
Barry Marshall
/ Robin Warren 2006 Andrew Fire / Craig Mello 2007 Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
/ Martin Evans
Martin Evans
/ Oliver Smithies 2008 Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
/ Luc Montagnier
Luc Montagnier
/ Françoise Barré-Sinoussi 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn
Elizabeth Blackburn
/ Carol W. Greider
Carol W. Greider
/ Jack W. Szostak 2010 Robert G. Edwards 2011 Bruce Beutler
Bruce Beutler
/ Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) 2012 John B. Gurdon
John B. Gurdon
/ Shinya Yamanaka 2013 James Rothman
James Rothman
/ Randy Schekman
Randy Schekman
/ Thomas C. Südhof 2014 John O'Keefe / May-Britt Moser
May-Britt Moser
/ Edvard Moser 2015 William C. Campbell / Satoshi Ōmura
Satoshi Ōmura
/ Tu Youyou 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi 2017 Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young

Authority control

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