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I. M. Pei
Ieoh Ming Pei, FAIA, RIBA[1] (born 26 April 1917), commonly known as I. M. Pei, is a Chinese American
Chinese American
architect. Born in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and raised in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Shanghai, Pei drew inspiration at an early age from the gardens at Suzhou. In 1935, he moved to the United States
United States
and enrolled in the University of Pennsylvania's architecture school, but quickly transferred to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was unhappy with the focus at both schools on Beaux-Arts architecture, and spent his free time researching emerging architects, especially Le Corbusier. After graduating, he joined the Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD) and became a friend of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
architects Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer. In 1948, Pei was recruited by New York City real estate magnate William Zeckendorf
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Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Chinese: 广州), formerly known as Canton,[6] is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong
Guangdong
in southern China.[7] Located on the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road[8] and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today, as well as one of China's three largest cities.[9] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is situated at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China, an area that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan, and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet
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Royal Institute Of British Architects
Coordinates: 51°31′17″N 0°08′42″W / 51.521283°N 0.14508°W / 51.521283; -0.14508Royal Institute of British ArchitectsAbbreviation RIBAFormation 1834Type Professional bodyLegal status Chartered body corporate and registered charityPurpose The architectural profession in the United Kingdom, and knowledge disseminationHeadquarters 66 Portland Place Marylebone, London W1B 1ADRegion servedUKMembershipc
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong
(Chinese: 广东) is a province in South China, located on the South China
South China
Sea coast. Traditionally romanised as Kwangtung, Guangdong
Guangdong
surpassed Henan
Henan
and Sichuan
Sichuan
to become the most populous province in China
China
in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year;[5][6] the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population.[7] This also makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside the former British Raj, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab[8] and the Indian states of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Uttar Pradesh[9]
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Wu Chinese
Wu (Shanghainese: [ɦu˨˨ ɲy˦˦]; Suzhou
Suzhou
dialect: [ɦəu˨˨ ɲy˦˦]; Wuxi
Wuxi
dialect: [ŋ˨˨˧ nʲy˨˨]) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole city of Shanghai, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province and the southern half of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province, as well as bordering areas. Major Wu varieties include those of Shanghai, Suzhou, Ningbo, Wuxi, Wenzhou/Oujiang, Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua
Jinhua
and Yongkang. Wu speakers, such as Chiang Kai-shek, Lu Xun
Lu Xun
and Cai Yuanpei, occupied positions of great importance in modern Chinese culture and politics
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Suzhounese
The Suzhou
Suzhou
dialect (simplified Chinese: 苏州话; traditional Chinese: 蘇州話; pinyin: Sūzhōu huà; Suzhounese: Sou-tsøʏ ghé-ghô 蘇州閒話), also known as Suzhounese, is the variety of Chinese traditionally spoken in the city of Suzhou
Suzhou
in Jiangsu Province, China. Suzhounese is a variety of Wu Chinese, and was traditionally considered the Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
prestige dialect. Considered one of the most flowing and elegant languages of China,[citation needed] it is rich in vowels and conservative in having many initials.Contents1 Distribution 2 History 3 Plural pronouns 4 Varieties 5 Phonology5.1 Initials 5.2 Finals 5.3 Tones6 Romanization 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksDistribution[edit] Suzhounese (or archaically Soochownese) is spoken within the city itself and the surrounding area, including migrants living in nearby Shanghai
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Cantonese
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese
Cantonese
was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p
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Jyutping
Jyutping
Jyutping
(Chinese: 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: [jỳːt̚.pʰēŋ]) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation
Romanisation
Scheme
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Fellow Of The American Institute Of Architects
An architect is a person who plans, designs, and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use.[1] Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek (arkhi-, chief + tekton, builder), i.e., chief builder.[2] Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, and thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum (or internship) for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture
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Chinese American
Chinese Americans, which includes American-born Chinese, are Americans who have full or partial Chinese ancestry. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and also a subgroup of East Asian Americans, which is a further subgroup of Asian Americans. Many Chinese Americans
Americans
are immigrants along with their descendants from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan,[5] as well as from other regions that include large populations of the Chinese diaspora, especially Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and some Western countries like Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, France
France
and Brazil. The Chinese American community is the largest overseas Chinese community outside Asia. It is also the third largest community in the Chinese diaspora, behind the Chinese communities in Thailand and Malaysia
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai
(Chinese: 上海; Wu Chinese:  Wu pronunciation; Mandarin: [ʂâŋ.xài] ( listen)) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China
China
and the most populous city in the world, with a population of more than 24 million as of 2017[update].[13][14] It is a global financial centre[15] and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port.[16] Located in the Yangtze
Yangtze
River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze
Yangtze
in the middle portion of the East China
China
coast
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University Of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City section of Philadelphia. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution.[5] Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder, advocated an educational program that focused as much on practical education for commerce and public service as on the classics and theology, though his proposed curriculum was never adopted
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Beaux-Arts Architecture
Beaux-Arts architecture
Beaux-Arts architecture
(/ˌboʊˈzɑːr/; French: [bozaʁ]) was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, particularly from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but also incorporated Gothic, and Renaissance
Renaissance
elements, and used modern materials, such as iron and glass. It was an important style in France until the end of the 19th century
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