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Ligands
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex. The bonding with the metal generally involves formal donation of one or more of the ligand's electron pairs. The nature of metal–ligand bonding can range from covalent to ionic. Furthermore, the metal–ligand bond order can range from one to three. Ligands are viewed as Lewis bases, although rare cases are known to involve Lewis acidic "ligands". Metals and metalloids are bound to ligands in virtually all circumstances, although gaseous "naked" metal ions can be generated in high vacuum. Ligands in a complex dictate the reactivity of the central atom, including ligand substitution rates, the reactivity of the ligands themselves, and redox
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Medical Subject Headings
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
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Cell Signaling
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in signaling interactions and cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and diabetes. By understanding cell signaling, diseases may be treated more effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues may be created. Traditional work in biology has focused on studying individual parts of cell signaling pathways. Systems biology research helps us to understand the underlying structure of cell signaling networks and how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information (signal transduction)
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NM_013611
RefSeq (protein)
NP_001316835
NP_060525
NP_038639
Location (UCSC) Chr 10: 70.43 – 70.45 Mb Chr 10: 61.42 – 61.43 Mb PubMed search Wikidata
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Nodal is a secretory protein that in humans is encoded by the NODAL gene which is located on chromosome 10q22.1. It belongs to the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β) superfamily
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Myostatin
NM_005259
NM_010834
RefSeq (protein)
NP_005250
NP_034964
Location (UCSC) Chr 2: 190.06 – 190.06 Mb Chr 1: 53.06 – 53.07 Mb PubMed search Wikidata
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In human, the MSTN gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 2 at position 32.2.
Myostatin (also known as growth differentiation factor 8, abbreviated GDF-8) is a myokine, a protein produced and released by myocytes that acts on muscle cells' autocrine function to inhibit myogenesis: muscle cell growth and differentiation
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Growth Differentiation Factor-9
NM_005260
NM_008110
RefSeq (protein)
NP_032136
Location (UCSC) Chr 5: 132.86 – 132.87 Mb Chr 11: 53.43 – 53.44 Mb PubMed search Wikidata
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Growth/differentiation factor 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF9 gene. Growth factors synthesized by ovarian somatic cells directly affect oocyte growth and function. Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) is expressed in oocytes and is thought to be required for ovarian folliculogenesis
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GDF11
NM_005811
NM_010272
RefSeq (protein)
NP_005802
NP_034402
Location (UCSC) Chr 12: 55.74 – 55.76 Mb Chr 10: 128.88 – 128.89 Mb PubMed search Wikidata
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Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the growth differentiation factor 11 gene. It acts as a cytokine. The bone morphogenetic protein group is characterized by a polybasic proteolytic processing site, which is cleaved to produce a protein containing seven conserved cysteine residues. GDF11 is a myostatin(GDF8)-homologous protein that acts as an inhibitor of nerve tissue growth
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Activin And Inhibin
Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects. Identified in 1986, activin enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Many other functions have been found to be exerted by activin, including roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, homeostasis, immune response, wound repair, and endocrine function. Conversely, inhibin downregulates FSH synthesis and inhibits FSH secretion. The existence of inhibin was hypothesized as early as 1916; however, it was not demonstrated to exist until Neena Schwartz and Cornelia Channing's work in the mid 1970s, after which both proteins were molecularly characterized ten years later. Activin is a dimer composed of two identical or very similar beta subunits
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