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Holotype
A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described. It is either the single such physical example (or illustration) or one of several such, but explicitly designated as the holotype. Under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), a holotype is one of several kinds of name-bearing types. In the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and ICZN the definitions of types are similar in intent but not identical in terminology or underlying concept. For example, the holotype for the butterfly Lycaeides idas
Lycaeides idas
longinus is a preserved specimen of that species, held by the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University
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London
London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Jurassic
The Jurassic
Jurassic
( /dʒʊˈræsɪk/; from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya.[note 1] The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era, also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event
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Species Description
A species description is a formal description of a newly discovered species, usually in the form of a scientific paper. Its purpose is to give a clear description of a new species of organism and explain how it differs from species which have been described previously or are related. The species description often contains photographs or other illustrations of the type material and states in which museums it has been deposited. The publication in which the species is described gives the new species a formal scientific name. Today, some 1.9 million species have been described and named, out of some 8.7 million that may actually exist on Earth.[1] Millions more have become extinct. It is customary for scientists to introduce all relevant new findings and research in a scientific manuscript, which is sent to other scientists for peer review
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Encarsia
See textEncarsia is a large genus of minute parasitic wasps of the family Aphelinidae. The genus is very diverse with currently about 400 described species and worldwide distribution.[1] The number of existing species is expected to be several times higher because many species are still undescribed.[2] Encarsia is a very complex genus, with specimens showing both inter- and intra-specific variations, making morphological classification difficult.[3] The adult wasps, tiny insects about 1 or 2 millimeters in size, are primarily parasitoids of sessile stages of Sternorrhyncha, in particular whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) and scale insects (Diaspididae). A few species are known to parasitize aphids, eggs of shield-back bugs (Plataspidae), and eggs of Lepidoptera. Females mostly develop as primary endoparasitoids, and males are commonly hyperparasitoids of the same or other species
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International Commission On Zoological Nomenclature
The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals". Founded in 1895, it currently comprises 27 members from 19 countries,[1] mainly practicing zoological taxonomists.[2]Contents1 Organization 2 Activities 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksOrganization[edit] The ICZN is governed by the "Constitution of the ICZN", which is usually published together with the ICZN Code.[3] Members are elected by the Section of Zoological Nomenclature,[4] established by the International Union of Biological Sciences
International Union of Biological Sciences
(IUBS). The regular term of service of a member of the Commission is 6 years. Members can be re-elected up to a total of three full six-year terms in a row
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Sankar Chatterjee
Sankar Chatterjee is a paleontologist, and is the Paul W. Horn Professor of Geosciences at Texas Tech University and Curator of Paleontology at the Museum of Texas Tech University.[1] He earned his Ph. D. from the University of Calcutta in 1970 and was a Post-doctoral Fellow at the Smithsonian Institution from 1977-1978.[2] Dr. Chatterjee's has focused on the origin, evolution, functional anatomy, and systematics of Mesozoic vertebrates, including basal archosaurs, dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and birds.[3] He has researched Late Triassic reptiles in India, such as phytosaurs, rhynchosaurs, and prolacertiformes. He is best known for his work on vertebrates recovered in the 1980s from the Post Quarry in the Late Triassic Cooper Canyon Formation (Dockum Group) of West Texas. The material includes the large rauisuchian Postosuchus, which was named for the nearby town of Post. It also included controversial specimens Chatterjee identified as being avian (Protoavis)
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Rostrum (anatomy)
In anatomy, the term rostrum (from the Latin
Latin
rostrum meaning beak) is used for a number of phylogenetically unrelated structures in different groups of animals.Contents1 Invertebrates 2 Vertebrates 3 See also 4 ReferencesInvertebrates[edit]In crustaceans, the rostrum is the forward extension of the carapace in front of the eyes.[1] It is generally a rigid structure, but can be connected by a hinged joint, as seen in Leptostraca.[2] Among insects, the rostrum is the name for the piercing mouthparts of the order Hemiptera
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Premaxilla
The premaxilla (or praemaxilla) is one of a pair of small cranial bones at the very tip of the upper jaw of many animals, usually, but not always, bearing teeth. In humans, they are fused with the maxilla and usually termed as the incisive bone. Other terms used for this structure include premaxillary bone or os premaxillare, and intermaxillary bone or os intermaxillare.Contents1 Human anatomy1.1 Embryology2 Evolutionary variation 3 ReferencesHuman anatomy[edit] In humans, the premaxilla is referred to as the incisive bone and is the part of the maxilla which bears the incisor teeth, and encompasses the anterior nasal spine and alar region. In the nasal cavity, the premaxillary element projects higher than the maxillary element behind. The palatal portion of the premaxilla is a bony plate with a generally transverse orientation. The incisive foramen is bound anteriorly and laterally by the premaxilla and posteriorly by the palatine process of the maxilla
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Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
(25 July 1849 – 16 April 1915) was an English naturalist, geologist and writer of numerous books on natural history.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Biogeography 3 First cuckoo 4 Awards 5 Works 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External linksBiography[edit]Map showing Lydekker's line in relation to those of Wallace and Weber, as well as the probable extent of land at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum, when the sea level was more than 110 m lower than today. Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
was born at Tavistock Square
Tavistock Square
in London. His father was Gerard Wolfe Lydekker, a barrister-at-law with Dutch ancestry
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Archosaur
Arctopoda Haeckel, 1895 Avesuchia Benton, 1999Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians. This group also includes all extinct non-avian dinosaurs, extinct crocodilian relatives, and pterosaurs. Archosauria, the archosaur clade, is a crown group that includes the most recent common ancestor of living birds and crocodilians
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MHNT
The Muséum de Toulouse, sometimes known as MHNT or Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de la ville de Toulouse, is a museum of natural history in Toulouse, France. It is located in the Busca-Montplaisir, and houses a collection of more than 2.5 million items.Contents1 History 2 Permanent exhibitions 3 Collections3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Botany 3.3 Entomology3.3.1 Coleoptera 3.3.2 Lepidoptera 3.3.3 Orthoptera3.4 Mineralogy 3.5 Ornithology 3.6 Osteology 3.7 Paleontology3.7.1 Invertebrates 3.7.2 Vertebrates4 Henri Gaussen
Henri Gaussen
Botanical Garden 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2011)The museum was founded in 1796 by the naturalist Philippe-Isidore Picot de Lapeyrouse. It was at that time housed in the old buildings of the monastery of the carmelite friars. It was opened to the public in 1865 in its present location and under the directorship of Édouard Filhol
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet
Internet
Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California, United States.Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capabilities 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy3 Uses3.1 In legal evidence3.1.1 Civil litigation3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska3.1.2 Patent law 3.1.3 Limitations of utility4 Legal status 5 Archived content legal issues5.1 Scientology 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc. 5.3 Suzanne Shell 5.4 Daniel Davydiuk6 Censorship and other threats 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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Natural History Museum, London
The Natural History Museum
Museum
in London
London
is a natural history museum that exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history. It is one of three major museums on Exhibition Road
Exhibition Road
in South Kensington, the others being the Science Museum
Museum
and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The Natural History Museum's main frontage, however, is on Cromwell Road. The museum is home to life and earth science specimens comprising some 80 million items within five main collections: botany, entomology, mineralogy, paleontology and zoology. The museum is a centre of research specialising in taxonomy, identification and conservation. Given the age of the institution, many of the collections have great historical as well as scientific value, such as specimens collected by Charles Darwin
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Dinosaur
Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs
are a diverse group of reptiles[note 1] of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic
Triassic
period, between 243 and 231 million years ago,[1] although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research.[2] They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic– Jurassic
Jurassic
extinction event 201 million years ago; their dominance continued through the Jurassic
Jurassic
and Cretaceous
Cretaceous
periods
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