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Herbaceous
Herbaceous plants (in botanical use frequently simply herbs) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground.[1] Herbaceous plants may be annuals, biennials or perennials.[2], and include both forbs and graminoids. Annual herbaceous plants die completely at the end of the growing season or when they have flowered and fruited, and they then grow again from seed.[3] Herbaceous perennial and biennial plants may have stems that die at the end of the growing season, but parts of the plant survive under or close to the ground from season to season (for biennials, until the next growing season, when they flower and die). New growth develops from living tissues remaining on or under the ground, including roots, a caudex (a thickened portion of the stem at ground level) or various types of underground stems, such as bulbs, corms, stolons, rhizomes and tubers
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Potato
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum
Solanum
tuberosum. Potato
Potato
may be applied to both the plant and the edible tuber.[2] Potatoes have become a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. Potatoes are the world's fourth-largest food crop, following maize (corn), wheat, and rice.[3] The green leaves and green skins of tubers exposed to the light are toxic. In the Andes, where the species is indigenous, some other closely related species are cultivated. Potatoes were introduced to Europe in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish
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Pioneer Species
Pioneer species
Pioneer species
are hardy species which are the first to colonize previously biodiverse steady-state ecosystem.[1] Some lichens grow on rocks without soil, so may be among the first of life forms, and break down the rocks into soil for plants.[2] Since some uncolonized land may have thin, poor quality soils with few nutrients, pioneer species are often hardy plants with adaptations such as long roots, root nodes containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and leaves that employ transpiration. Note that they are often photosynthetic plants, as no other source of energy (such as other species) except light energy is often available in the early stages of succession, thus making it less likely for a pioneer species to be non-photosynthetic
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Carrot
The carrot ( Daucus
Daucus
carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.[1] Carrots are a domesticated form of the wild carrot, Daucus
Daucus
carota, native to Europe and southwestern Asia. The plant probably originated in Persia and was originally cultivated for its leaves and seeds. The most commonly eaten part of the plant is the taproot, although the greens are sometimes eaten as well. The domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its greatly enlarged, more palatable, less woody-textured taproot. The carrot is a biennial plant in the umbellifer family Apiaceae. At first, it grows a rosette of leaves while building up the enlarged taproot. Fast-growing cultivars mature within three months (90 days) of sowing the seed, while slower-maturing cultivars are harvested four months later (120 days)
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Tuber
Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients. They are used for the plant's perennation (survival of the winter or dry months), to provide energy and nutrients for regrowth during the next growing season, and as a means of asexual reproduction.[1] Stem tubers form from thickened rhizomes (underground stems) or stolons (horizontal connections between organisms). Common plant species with stem tubers include potato and yam
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Stolon
In biology, stolons (from Latin
Latin
stolō "branch"), also known as runners, are horizontal connections between organisms. They may be part of the organism, or of its skeleton; typically, animal stolons are external skeletons.Contents1 In botany1.1 Morphology 1.2 Plants with stolons2 In mycology 3 In zoology 4 Palaeontology 5 See also 6 ReferencesIn botany[edit] In botany, stolons are stems which grow at the soil surface or just below ground that form adventitious roots at the nodes, and new plants from the buds.[1][2] Stolons are often called runners. Rhizomes, in contrast, are root-like stems that may either grow horizontally at the soil surface or in other orientations underground.[1] Thus, not all horizontal stems are called stolons
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Trientalis Latifolia
Trientalis latifolia[1][2][3] is a species in the genus Trientalis in the family Primulaceae. It is also known as starflower,[2][3][4] chickweed-wintergreen,[4] or Pacific starflower.[citation needed]Contents1 Description 2 Propagation 3 Habitat 4 Distribution 5 Etymology 6 References 7 External linksDescription[edit]Height and spread: Low-growing, creeping perennial[4][5] reaching (5 to 30 cm (2.0 to 11.8 in)).[citation needed] Roots: Tuberous,[4][5] creeping rhizomes.[5] Stems: Erect,[5] 10–20 cm (4–8 in) high.[4] Leaves: 5 to 7 whorled, lanceolate, entire leaves distributed levelly in a single group.[5] Flowers: White[4][5] or pink[4] flowers are borne in April[4] or May.[4][5] Calyx (the collective term for sepals) is 5- to 9-parted and persistent. Corolla (the collective term for petals) is also 5- to 9-parted, rotate,[4][5] with a very short tube[5] and elliptic-lanceolate segments
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Poaceae
Gramineae Juss.Blades of grass Poaceae
Poaceae
(Poe-ay-see-ay) or Gramineae (Grammy-nee-ay) is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. Poaceae
Poaceae
includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns and pasture. Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks. The lower part of each leaf encloses the stem, forming a leaf-sheath
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Underground Stem
Underground stems are modified plant structures that derive from stem tissue but exist under the soil surface.[1] They function as storage tissues for food and nutrients, propagation of new clones, and perennation (survival from one growing season to the next).[2] Types include bulbs, corms, rhizomes, stolon, spindle - shaped and tubers Plants have two axes of growth, which can be best seen from seed germination and growth. Seedlings develop two structures or axes of growth, one that develops upward out of the soil, called stems, and structures that develop downward which are called roots. The roots are modified to have root hairs and branch indiscriminately with cells that take in water and nutrients, while the stems are modified to move water and nutrients to and from the leaves and flowers. Stems have nodes with buds where leaves and flowers arise at specific locations, while roots do not
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Caudex
A caudex (plural: caudices) of a plant is a stem,[1] but the term is also used to mean a rootstock[2] and particularly a basal stem structure from which new growth arises.[3] In the strict sense of the term, meaning a stem, "caudex" is most often used with plants that have a different stem morphology from the typical angiosperm dicotyledon stem:[1] examples of this include palms, ferns, and cycads. The related term caudiciform, literally meaning stem-like, is sometimes used to mean pachycaul, thick-stemmed.[3]Contents1 Etymology 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksEtymology[edit] The term is from the Latin caudex, a noun meaning "tree trunk".[2][4] See also[edit]StipeReferences[edit]^ a b Hickey, M.; King, C. (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms. Cambridge University Press.  ^ a b Stearn, W.T. (1992). Botanical Latin: History, grammar, syntax, terminology and vocabulary, Fourth edition. David and Charles.  ^ a b Simpson, M.G. (2010)
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Habitat
In ecology, a habitat is the kind of natural environment in which a particular organism species lives. It is characterized by both physical and biological features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction. The physical factors are for example soil, moisture, range of temperature, and light intensity as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence or absence of predators. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, but some are tolerant of wide variations while others are very specific in their requirements
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Senecio Jacobaea
Senecio jacobaea L.Jacobaea vulgaris, syn. Senecio jacobaea,[2] is a very common wild flower in the family Asteraceae that is native to northern Eurasia, usually in dry, open places, and has also been widely distributed as a weed elsewhere. Common names include ragwort, common ragwort,[4] stinking willie,[5] tansy ragwort, benweed, St. James-wort, stinking nanny/ninny/willy, staggerwort, dog standard, cankerwort, stammerwort. In the western United States it is generally known as tansy ragwort, or tansy, though its resemblance to the true tansy is superficial. Although the plant is often unwanted by landowners because it is considered a weed by many, it provides a great deal of nectar for pollinators
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Meadow
A meadow is a field habitat vegetated by grass and other non-woody plants (grassland).[1] Meadows are of ecological importance because they are open, sunny areas that attract and support flora and fauna that could not thrive in other conditions. Meadows may be naturally occurring or artificially created from cleared shrub or woodland. They often host a multitude of wildlife, providing areas for courtship displays, nesting, food gathering and sometimes sheltering if the vegetation is high enough
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Desert
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location. Deserts are formed by weathering processes as large variations in temperature between day and night put strains on the rocks which consequently break in pieces. Although rain seldom occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods
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Biennial Plant
A biennial plant is a flowering plant that takes two years to complete its biological lifecycle.[1][2] In the first year, the plant grows leaves, stems, and roots (vegetative structures), then it enters a period of dormancy over the colder months. Usually the stem remains very short and the leaves are low to the ground, forming a rosette. Many biennials require a cold treatment, or vernalization, before they will flower. During the next spring or summer, the stem of the biennial plant elongates greatly, or "bolts". This typically makes biennial vegetables such as spinach, fennel and lettuce unusable as food.[3] The plant then flowers, producing fruits and seeds before it finally dies. There are far fewer biennials than either perennial plants or annual plants. Under extreme climatic conditions, a biennial plant may complete its life cycle rapidly (e.g., in three months instead of two years)
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Annual Plant
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies. Summer annuals germinate during spring or early summer and mature by autumn of the same year. Winter annuals germinate during the autumn and mature during the spring or summer of the following calendar year.[1] One seed-to-seed life cycle for an annual can occur in as little as a month in some species, though most last several months. Oilseed rapa can go from seed-to-seed in about five weeks under a bank of fluorescent lamps. This style of growing is often used in classrooms for education
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