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Hampi
HAMPI (Hampe) is a village and temple town recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
, listed as the Group of Monuments at Hampi. in northern Karnataka
Karnataka
, India
India
. It is located within the ruins of the city of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
, the former capital of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire . Predating the city of Vijayanagara, Hampi
Hampi
continues to be an important religious centre, housing the Virupaksha Temple and several other monuments belonging to the old city
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Manganese
MANGANESE is a chemical element with symbol MN and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in minerals in combination with iron . Manganese
Manganese
is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels . Historically, manganese is named for pyrolusite and other black minerals from the region of Magnesia in Greece, which also gave its name to magnesium and the iron ore magnetite . By the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine . Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide ) contained a new element, but they were unable to isolate it. Johan Gottlieb Gahn
Johan Gottlieb Gahn
was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, which he did by reducing the dioxide with carbon
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Tungabhadra Dam
The TUNGABHADRA DAM is constructed across the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
, a tributary of the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
. The dam is near the town of Hospet
Hospet
in Karnataka
Karnataka
. It is a multipurpose dam serving irrigation, electricity generation, flood control, etc. This is a joint project of erstwhile Hyderabad state and erstwhile Madras Presidency when the construction was started; later it became a joint project of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
after its completion in 1953. The main architect of the dam was Dr Thirumala Iyengar, an engineer from Madras. Flooding Tungabhadra dam .There is a dispute between Andhra Pradesh, Telangana
Telangana
and Karnataka for the water of Tungabhadra reservoir
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Precipitation
In meteorology , PRECIPITATION is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity . The main forms of precipitation include drizzle , rain , sleet , snow , graupel and hail . Precipitation
Precipitation
occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates". Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation
Precipitation
forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud
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Fortification
FORTIFICATIONS are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare , and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make"). From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified
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Tourism
TOURISM is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country. The World Tourism
Tourism
Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes". Tourism
Tourism
can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments . Today, tourism is a major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases being of vital importance
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Agriculture
AGRICULTURE or FARMING is the cultivation and breeding of animals , plants and fungi for food , fiber , biofuel , medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization , whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization . The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science . The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates , cultures , and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology
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Brahmi Script
BRAHMI ( IAST : Brāhmī) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in South and Central Asia
Central Asia
from the 1st millennium BCE. Brahmi is an abugida that thrived in the Indian subcontinent and uses a system of diacritical marks to associate vowels with consonant symbols. It evolved into a host of other scripts that continue in use. Brahmi is related to the ancient Kharosthi script, which was used in what is now eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan . Kharosthi
Kharosthi
died out in ancient times. The best-known Brahmi inscriptions are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka in north-central India, dating to 250–232 BCE. The script was deciphered in 1837 by James Prinsep
James Prinsep
, an archaeologist, philologist, and official of the East India Company
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Common Era
COMMON ERA or CURRENT ERA (CE) is a year-numbering system (calendar era ) for the Julian and Gregorian calendars that refers to the years since the start of this era, that is, the years beginning with AD 1. The preceding era is referred to as BEFORE THE COMMON or CURRENT ERA (BCE). The Current Era notation system can be used as an alternative to the Dionysian era system, which distinguishes eras as AD (anno Domini, " year of Lord") and BC ("before Christ"). The two notation systems are numerically equivalent; thus "2017 CE" corresponds to "AD 2017" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC". The year-numbering system for the Gregorian calendar is the most widespread civil calendar system used in the world today. For decades, it has been the global standard, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations
United Nations
and the Universal Postal Union
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Surveyor General Of India
The SURVEYOR GENERAL OF INDIA is the Head of Department of Survey of India , a Department under the Ministry of Science and Technology of Government of India
Government of India
. He also happens to be the senior most member of the Survey of India Service , an organized engineering service under the Union of India. The current Surveyor General is Major General V. P. Srivastava CONTENTS * 1 Surveyors General * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links SURVEYORS GENERALThe East India Company appointed James Rennell to survey the Bengal Presidency in 1757. Lord Clive appointed him as Surveyor General. Colin Mackenzie
Colin Mackenzie
was appointed Surveyor General of Madras Presidency in 1810 but these posts were abolished in 1815 and Mackenzie was made the first Surveyor General of India
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Military
A MILITARY, is a force authorized to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens. It typically consists of an Army
Army
, Navy
Navy
, Air Force , and in certain countries the Marines
Marines
and Coast Guard . The task of the military is usually defined as defense of the state, and its citizens, and the prosecution of war against another state. The military may also have additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within a society, including, the promotion of a political agenda , protecting corporate economic interests, internal population control , construction, emergency services, social ceremonies, and guarding important areas
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Chalukya
The CHALUKYA DYNASTY ( ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India
India
between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami
Badami
) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami
Badami
Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
. After the death of Pulakeshin II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan . They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century
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Jain
JAINISM (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/ ), traditionally known as JAIN DHARMA, is an ancient Indian religion
Indian religion
. Jainism followers are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains
Jains
trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as Tirthankaras , with the first being Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
, who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahavira
Mahavira
around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism
Jainism
is an eternal dharma with the Tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain
Jain
cosmology
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Chariot
A CHARIOT is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power. Chariots were used by armies as transport or mobile archery platforms, for hunting or for racing, and as a conveniently fast way to travel for many ancient people. The word "chariot" comes from the Latin
Latin
CARRUS, itself a loanword from Gaulish
Gaulish
. A chariot of war or one used in military parades was called a car. In ancient Rome and some other ancient Mediterranean civilizations , a biga required two horses, a triga three, and a quadriga four. The horse chariot was a fast, light, open, two-wheeled conveyance drawn by two or more horses that were hitched side by side, and was little more than a floor with a waist-high guard at the front and sides
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Masjid
A MOSQUE (/mɒsk/ ; from Arabic : مسجد‎, translit. masjid‎) is a place of worship for followers of Islam
Islam
. There are strict and detailed requirements in Sunni jurisprudence (fiqh ) for a place of worship to be considered a mosque, with places that do not meet these requirements regarded as musallas. There are stringent restrictions on the uses of the area formally demarcated as the mosque (which is often a small portion of the larger complex), and, in the Islamic Sharia
Sharia
law, after an area is formally designated as a mosque, it remains so until the Last Day . Many mosques have elaborate domes , minarets , and prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture. Mosques originated on the Arabian Peninsula , but are now found in all inhabited continents
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Bazaar
A BAZAAR is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term originates from the Persian word BāZāR, from Middle Persian WāZāR, from Old Persian VāčAR, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *WAHā-čARANA.