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v t e

Rama
Rama
or Ram (/ˈrɑːmə/;[2] Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism. He is the seventh avatar of the god Vishnu, one of his most popular incarnations along with Krishna
Krishna
and Gautama Buddha.[3][4][5] In Rama-centric traditions of Hinduism, he is considered the Supreme Being.[6] Rama
Rama
was born to Kaushalya
Kaushalya
and Dasharatha
Dasharatha
in Ayodhya, the ruler of the Kingdom of Kosala. His siblings included Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna. He married Sita. Though born in a royal family, their life is described in the Hindu texts
Hindu texts
as one challenged by unexpected changes such as an exile into impoverished and difficult circumstances, ethical questions and moral dilemmas.[7] Of all their travails, the most notable is the kidnapping of Sita
Sita
by demon-king Ravana, followed by the determined and epic efforts of Rama
Rama
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
to gain her freedom and destroy the evil Ravana
Ravana
against great odds. The entire life story of Rama, Sita
Sita
and their companions allegorically discusses duties, rights and social responsibilities of an individual. It illustrates dharma and dharmic living through model characters.[7][8] Rama
Rama
is especially important to Vaishnavism. He is the central figure of the ancient Hindu
Hindu
epic Ramayana, a text historically popular in the South Asian and Southeast Asian cultures.[9][10][11] His ancient legends have attracted bhasya (commentaries) and extensive secondary literature and inspired performance arts. Two such texts, for example, are the Adhyatma Ramayana
Ramayana
– a spiritual and theological treatise considered foundational by Ramanandi
Ramanandi
monasteries,[12] and the Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
– a popular treatise that inspires thousands of Ramlila
Ramlila
festival performances during autumn every year in India.[13][14][15] Rama
Rama
legends are also found in the texts of Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism, though he is sometimes called Pauma or Padma in these texts,[16] and their details vary significantly from the Hindu
Hindu
versions.[17]

Contents

1 Etymology and nomenclature 2 Legends

2.1 Birth 2.2 Youth, family and friends 2.3 Exile and war 2.4 Post-war rule and death 2.5 Inconsistencies

3 Dating 4 Iconography 5 Philosophy and symbolism 6 Literary sources

6.1 Ramayana 6.2 Adhyatma Ramayana 6.3 Ramacharitmanas 6.4 Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha 6.5 Other texts

7 Influence

7.1 Hinduism

7.1.1 Rama
Rama
Navami 7.1.2 Ramlila
Ramlila
and Dussehra 7.1.3 Diwali 7.1.4 Hindu
Hindu
arts in Southeast Asia

7.2 Jainism 7.3 Buddhism 7.4 Sikhism

8 Worship and temples 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Notes 10.2 Citations

11 Bibliography 12 Further reading 13 External links

Etymology and nomenclature Rāma is a Vedic Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word with two contextual meanings. In one context as found in Arthavaveda, states Monier Monier-Williams, it means "dark, dark-colored, black" and is related to the term ratri which means night. In another context as found in other Vedic texts, the word means "pleasing, delightful, charming, beautiful, lovely".[18][19] The word is sometimes used as a suffix in different Indian languages and religions, such as Pali in Buddhist texts, where -rama adds the sense of "pleasing to the mind, lovely" to the composite word.[20] Rama
Rama
as a first name appears in the Vedic literature, associated with two patronymic names – Margaveya and Aupatasvini – representing different individuals. A third individual named Rama
Rama
Jamadagnya is the purported author of hymn 10.110 of the Rigveda
Rigveda
in the Hindu tradition.[18] The word Rama
Rama
appears in ancient literature in reverential terms for three individuals:[18]

Parashu-rama, as the sixth avatar of Vishnu. He is linked to the Rama Jamadagnya of the Rigveda
Rigveda
fame. Rama-chandra, as the seventh avatar of Vishnu
Vishnu
and of the ancient Ramayana
Ramayana
fame. Bala-rama, also called Halayudha, as the elder brother of Krishna
Krishna
both of whom appear in the legends of Hinduism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism.

The name Rama
Rama
appears repeatedly in Hindu
Hindu
texts, for many different scholars and kings in mythical stories.[18] The word also appears in ancient Upanishads
Upanishads
and Aranyakas layer of Vedic literature, as well as music and other post-Vedic literature, but in qualifying context of something or someone who is "charming, beautiful, lovely" or "darkness, night".[18] The Vishnu
Vishnu
avatar named Rama
Rama
is also known by other names. He is called Ramachandra (beautiful, lovely moon[19]), or Dasarathi (son of Dasaratha), or Raghava (descendant of Raghu, solar dynasty in Hindu cosmology).[18][21] Additional names of Rama
Rama
include Ramavijaya (Javanese), Phreah Ream (Khmer), Phra Ram (Lao and Thai), Megat Seri Rama
Rama
(Malay), Raja Bantugan (Maranao), Ramudu (Telugu), Ramar (Tamil).[22] In the Vishnu sahasranama, Rama
Rama
is the 394th name of Vishnu. In some Advaita Vedanta inspired texts, Rama
Rama
connotes the metaphysical concept of Supreme Brahman
Brahman
who is the eternally blissful spiritual Self (Atman, soul) in whom yogis delight nondualistically.[12] The root of the word Rama
Rama
is ram- which means "stop, stand still, rest, rejoice, be pleased".[19] According to Douglas Adams, the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word Rama
Rama
is also found in other Indo-European languages such as Tocharian ram, reme, *romo- where it means "support, make still", "witness, make evident".[19][23] The sense of "dark, black, soot" also appears in other Indo European languages, such as *remos or Old English romig.[24][note 1] Legends

Sarayu
Sarayu
river and the Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Rama
Rama
Paidi in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
India.

This summary is a traditional legendary account, based on literary details from the Ramayana
Ramayana
and other historic mythology-containing texts of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism. According to Sheldon Pollock, the figure of Rama
Rama
incorporates more ancient "morphemes of Indian myths", such as the mythical legends of Bali
Bali
and Namuci. The ancient sage Valmiki
Valmiki
used these morphemes in his Ramayana
Ramayana
similes as in sections 3.27, 3.59, 3.73, 5.19 and 29.28.[26] Birth Rama
Rama
was born on the ninth day of the lunar month Chaitra (March–April), a day celebrated across India
India
as Ram Navami. This coincides with one of the four Navratri
Navratri
on the Hindu
Hindu
calendar, in the spring season, namely the Vasantha Navratri.[27] The ancient epic Ramayana
Ramayana
states in the Balakhanda that Rama
Rama
and his brothers were born to Kaushalya
Kaushalya
and Dasharatha
Dasharatha
in Ayodhya, a city on the banks of Sarayu
Sarayu
River.[28][29] The Jain versions of the Ramayana, such as the Paumacariya (literally deeds of Padma) by Vimalasuri, also mention the details of the early life of Rama. The Jain texts are dated variously, but generally pre-500 CE, most likely sometime within the first five centuries of the common era.[30] Dasharatha
Dasharatha
was the king of Kosala, and a part of the solar dynasty of Iksvakus. His mother's name Kaushalya
Kaushalya
literally implies that she was from Kosala. The kingdom of Kosala
Kosala
is also mentioned in Buddhist and Jaina texts, as one of the sixteen Maha janapadas of ancient India, and as an important center of pilgrimage for Jains and Buddhists.[28][31] However, there is a scholarly dispute whether the modern Ayodhya
Ayodhya
is indeed the same as the Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and Kosala
Kosala
mentioned in the Ramayana and other ancient Indian texts.[32][note 2] Youth, family and friends Main articles: Bharata (Ramayana), Lakshmana, and Shatrughna

Rama
Rama
is portrayed in Hindu
Hindu
arts and texts as a compassionate person who cares for all living beings.[34]

Rama
Rama
had three brothers, according to the Balakhanda section of the Ramayana. These were Lakshmana, Bharata and Shatrughna.[1] The extant manuscripts of the text describes their education and training as young princes, but this is brief. Rama
Rama
is portrayed as a polite, self-controlled, virtuous youth always ready to help others. His education included the Vedas, the Vedangas
Vedangas
as well as the martial arts.[35] The years when Rama
Rama
grew up is described in much greater detail by later Hindu
Hindu
texts, such as the Ramavali by Tulsidas. The template is similar to those found for Krishna, but in the poems of Tulsidas, Rama is milder and reserved introvert, rather than prank-playing extrovert personality of Krishna.[1] The Ramayana
Ramayana
mentions an archery contest organized by King Janaka, where Sita
Sita
and Rama
Rama
meet. Rama
Rama
wins the contest by breaking Lord Shiva's bow [36] and Janaka
Janaka
agrees to the marriage of Sita
Sita
and Rama. Sita
Sita
moves with Rama
Rama
to his father Dashratha's capital.[1] Sita introduces Rama's brothers to her sister and her two cousins, and they all get married.[35] While Rama
Rama
and his brothers were away, Kaikeyi, the mother of Bharata and the second wife of king Dasharatha, reminds the king that he had promised long ago to comply with one thing she asks, anything. Dasharatha
Dasharatha
remembers and agrees to do so. She demands that Rama
Rama
be exiled for fourteen years to Dandaka forest.[35] Dasharatha
Dasharatha
grieves at her request. Her son Bharata, and other family members become upset at her demand. Rama
Rama
states that his father should keep his word, adds that he does not crave for earthly or heavenly material pleasures, neither seeks power nor anything else. He talks about his decision with his wife and tells everyone that time passes quickly. Sita
Sita
leaves with him to live in the forest, the brother Lakshmana
Lakshmana
joins them in their exile as the caring close brother.[35] Exile and war See also: Ravana, Jatayu
Jatayu
(Ramayana), Hanuman, and Vibheeshana

Rama
Rama
exiled to the forest

Ravana's sister Suparnakha attempts to seduce Rama
Rama
and cheat on Sita. He refuses and spurns her (above).

Rama
Rama
heads outside the Kosala
Kosala
kingdom, crosses Yamuna river and initially stays at Chitrakuta, on the banks of river Mandakini, in the hermitage of sage Vasishtha.[37] This place is believed in the Hindu tradition to be the same as Chitrakoot on the border of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The region has numerous Rama
Rama
temples and is an important Vaishnava pilgrimage site.[37] The texts describe nearby hermitages of Vedic rishis (sages) such as Atri, and that Rama
Rama
roamed through forests, lived a humble simple life, provided protection and relief to ascetics in the forest being harassed and persecuted by demons, as they stayed at different ashrams.[37][38]

Ravana
Ravana
kidnapping Sita
Sita
while Jatayu
Jatayu
on the left tried to help her. 9th century Prambanan
Prambanan
bas-relief, Java, Indonesia

After ten years of wandering and struggles, Rama
Rama
arrives at Panchavati, on the banks of river Godavari. This region had numerous demons (rakshasha). One day, a demoness called Shurpanakha saw Rama, became enamored of him, and tried to seduce him.[35] Rama
Rama
refused her. Shurpanakha retaliated by threatening Sita. Lakshmana, the younger brother protective of his family, in turn retaliated by cutting off the nose and ears of Shurpanakha. The cycle of violence escalated, ultimately reaching demon king Ravana, who was the brother of Shurpanakha. Ravana
Ravana
comes to Panchavati to take revenge on behalf of his family, sees Sita, gets attracted, and kidnaps Sita
Sita
to his kingdom of Lanka
Lanka
(believed to be modern Sri Lanka).[35][38]

Hanuman
Hanuman
meets Shri Rama
Rama
in the Forest

Rama
Rama
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
discover the kidnapping, worry about Sita's safety, despair at the loss and their lack of resources to take on Ravana. Their struggles now reach their heights. They travel south, meet Sugriva, marshall an army of monkeys, and attract dedicated commanders such as Hanuman
Hanuman
who is a minister of Sugriva.[39] Meanwhile, Ravana harasses Sita
Sita
and tries to make her into a concubine. Sita
Sita
refuses him. Ravana
Ravana
is enraged. Rama
Rama
ultimately reaches Lanka, fights in a war that has many ups and downs, but ultimately prevails, kills Ravana
Ravana
and forces of evil, and rescues his wife Sita. They return to Ayodhya.[35][40] Post-war rule and death The return of Rama
Rama
to Ayodhya
Ayodhya
is celebrated with his coronation. It is called Rama
Rama
rajya, described to be a just and fair rule.[41][42] Upon Rama's accession as king, rumors emerge that Sita
Sita
may have gone willingly when she was with Ravana; Sita
Sita
protests that her capture was forced. Rama
Rama
responds to public gossip by renouncing his wife, and asking her to undergo a test before Agni
Agni
(fire). She does, and passes the test. Rama
Rama
and Sita
Sita
live happily together in Ayodhya, have twin sons named Luv and Kush, in the Ramayana
Ramayana
and other major texts.[38] However, in some revisions, the story is different and tragic, with Sita
Sita
dying of sorrow for her husband not trusting her, making Sita
Sita
a moral heroine and leaving the reader with moral questions about Rama.[43][44] In these revisions, the death of Sita
Sita
leads Rama
Rama
to drown himself. Through death, he joins her in afterlife.[45] Rama dying by drowning himself is found in the Myanmar
Myanmar
version of Rama's life story called Thiri Rama.[46] Inconsistencies Rama's legends vary significantly by the region and across manuscripts. While there is a common foundation, plot grammar and an essential core of values associated with a battle between good and evil, there is neither a correct version nor a single verifiable ancient one. According to Paula Richman, there are hundreds of versions of "the story of Rama
Rama
in India, southeast Asia and beyond".[47][48] The versions vary by region reflecting local preoccupations and histories, and these cannot be called "divergences or different tellings" from the "real" version, rather all the versions of Rama
Rama
story are real and true in their own meanings to the local cultural tradition, according to scholars such as Richman and Ramanujan.[47] The stories vary in details, particularly where the moral question is clear, but the appropriate ethical response is unclear or disputed.[49][50] For example, when demoness Shurpanakha disguises as a woman to seduce Rama, then stalks and harasses Rama's wife Sita after Rama
Rama
refuses her, Lakshmana
Lakshmana
is faced with the question of appropriate ethical response. In the Indian tradition, states Richman, the social value is that "a warrior must never harm a woman".[49] The details of the response by Rama
Rama
and Lakshmana, and justifications for it, has numerous versions. Similarly, there are numerous and very different versions to how Rama
Rama
deals with rumors against Sita
Sita
when they return victorious to Ayodhya, given that the rumors can neither be objectively investigated nor summarily ignored.[51] Similarly the versions vary on many other specific situations and closure such as how Rama, Sita
Sita
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
die.[49][52] The variation and inconsistencies are not limited to the texts found in the Hinduism
Hinduism
traditions. The Rama
Rama
story in the Jainism
Jainism
tradition also show variation by author and region, in details, in implied ethical prescriptions and even in names – the older versions using the name Padma instead of Rama, while the later Jain texts just use Rama.[53] Dating

The Rama
Rama
story is carved into stone as an 8th-century relief artwork in the largest Shiva
Shiva
temple of the Ellora Caves, suggesting its importance to the Indian society by then.[54]

The historicity of Rama, and when he lived in case he indeed reflected a real individual, is a disputed subject with wide variation among authors. In some Hindu
Hindu
texts, Rama
Rama
is stated to have lived in the Treta yuga or Dvapar yuga that their authors estimate existed before about 5,000 BCE, while a few others place Rama
Rama
to have lived in 102, 67 or 8 BCE. According to Dhirajlal Hasmukhlal, this is all "pure speculation".[55] According to Arthur Bonner, "what may have happened" is that some early Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
king built his capital on Sarayu
Sarayu
river, called this new city as Ayodhya, claimed that Rama
Rama
was born "millions of years earlier" on this exact spot so as to link his dynasty with the gods, and this belief got widely accepted in India
India
after the Gupta Empire ended.[56] The composition of Rama's epic story, the Ramayana, in its current form is usually dated between 7th and 4th century BCE.[57][58] According to John Brockington, a professor of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
at Oxford known for his publications on the Ramayana, the original text was likely composed and transmitted orally in more ancient times, and modern scholars have suggested various centuries in the 1st millennium BCE. In Brockington's view, "based on the language, style and content of the work, a date of roughly the fifth century BCE is the most reasonable estimate".[59] Iconography

Rama
Rama
iconography widely varies, and typically show him in context of some legend. Above, Rama
Rama
trying to cross the sea.

Rama
Rama
iconography shares elements of Vishnu
Vishnu
avatars, but has several distinctive elements. It never has more than two hands, he holds (or has nearby) a bana (arrow) in his right hand, while he holds the dhanus (bow) in his left.[60] The most recommended icon for him is that he be shown standing in tribhanga pose (thrice bent "S" shape). He is shown black, blue or dark color, typically wearing reddish color clothes. If his wife and brother are a part of the iconography, Lakshamana is on his left side while Sita
Sita
always on the right of Rama, both of golden-yellow complexion.[60] Philosophy and symbolism Rama's life story is imbued with symbolism. According to Sheldon Pollock, the life of Rama
Rama
as told in the Indian texts is a masterpiece that offers a framework to represent, conceptualize and comprehend the world and the nature of life. Like major epics and religious stories around the world, it has been of vital relevance because it "tells the culture what it is". Rama's life is more complex than the Western template for the battle between the good and the evil, where there is a clear distinction between immortal powerful gods or heroes and mortal struggling humans. In the Indian traditions, particularly Rama, the story is about a divine human, a mortal god, incorporating both into the exemplar who transcends both humans and gods.[61]

Responding to evil

A superior being does not render evil for evil, this is the maxim one should observe; the ornament of virtuous persons is their conduct. (...) A noble soul will ever exercise compassion even towards those who enjoy injuring others.

Ramayana
Ramayana
6.115, Valmiki (Abridged, Translator: Roderick Hindery)[62]

As a person, Rama
Rama
personifies the characteristics of an ideal person (purushottama),[44] He had within him all the desirable virtues that any individual would seek to aspire, and he fulfils all his moral obligations. Rama
Rama
is considered a maryada purushottama or the best of upholders of Dharma.[63] According to Rodrick Hindery, Book 2, 6 and 7 are notable for ethical studies.[64][50] The views of Rama
Rama
combine "reason with emotions" to create a "thinking hearts" approach. Second, he emphasizes through what he says and what he does a union of "self-consciousness and action" to create an "ethics of character". Third, Rama's life combines the ethics with the aesthetics of living.[64] The story of Rama
Rama
and people in his life raises questions such as "is it appropriate to use evil to respond to evil?", and then provides a spectrum of views within the framework of Indian beliefs such as on karma and dharma.[62] Rama's life and comments emphasize that one must pursue and live life fully, that all three life aims are equally important: virtue (dharma), love (kama), and legitimate acquisition of wealth (artha). Rama
Rama
also adds, such as in section 4.38 of the Ramayana, that one must also introspect and never neglect what one's proper duties, appropriate responsibilities, true interests and legitimate pleasures are.[34] Literary sources

Valmiki
Valmiki
composing the Ramayana.

Ramayana The primary source of the life of Rama
Rama
is the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epic Ramayana composed by Rishi
Rishi
Valmiki.

Rama(left third from top) depicted in the Dashavatara(ten avatars) of Vishnu. Painting from Jaipur, now at the Victoria and Albert Museum

The epic had many versions across India's regions. The followers of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
believe that an older version of the Ramayana, the mula-Ramayana, previously existed. The Madhva tradition considers it to have been more authoritative than the version by Valmiki.[citation needed] Versions of the Ramayana
Ramayana
exist in most major Indian languages; examples that elaborate on the life, deeds and divine philosophies of Rama
Rama
include the epic poem Ramavataram, and the following vernacular versions of Rama's life story:[65]

Kamba-Ramayanam by the 12th-century poet Kambar in Tamil; Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
in Hindi
Hindi
by the 16th-century saint Tulsidas; Sri Ramayana
Ramayana
Darshanam by Kuvempu
Kuvempu
and Pampa Ramayana
Ramayana
in Kannada; Ramayana
Ramayana
Kalpavruksham by Viswanatha Satyanarayana
Viswanatha Satyanarayana
and Ramayana
Ramayana
by Ranganatha in Telugu; Vilanka Ramayana
Ramayana
in Odia; Kriyyivas Ramayana
Ramayana
in Bengali; Eluttachan in Malayali (this text is closer to the Advaita Vedanta-inspired rendition Adhyatma Ramayana).[66]

The epic is found across India, in different languages and cultural traditions.[67] Adhyatma Ramayana Adhyatma Ramayana
Ramayana
is a late medieval Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text extolling the spiritualism in the story of Ramayana. It is embedded in the latter portion of Brahmānda Purana, and constitutes about a third of it.[68] The text philosophically attempts to reconcile Bhakti
Bhakti
in god Rama
Rama
and Shaktism
Shaktism
with Advaita Vedanta, over 65 chapters and 4,500 verses.[69][70] The text represents Rama
Rama
as the Brahman
Brahman
(metaphysical reality), mapping all attributes and aspects of Rama
Rama
to abstract virtues and spiritual ideals.[70] Adhyatma Ramayana
Ramayana
transposes Ramayana
Ramayana
into symbolism of self study of one's own soul, with metaphors described in Advaita terminology.[70] The text is notable because it influenced the popular Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
by Tulsidas,[68][70] and inspired the most popular version of Nepali Ramayana
Ramayana
by Bhanubhakta Acharya.[71] This kriti was also translated by Thunchath Ezhuthachan
Thunchath Ezhuthachan
to Malayalam, which lead the foundation of the language itself. Ramacharitmanas The Ramayana
Ramayana
is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text, while Ramacharitamanasa
Ramacharitamanasa
retells the Ramayana
Ramayana
in a vernacular dialect of Hindi
Hindi
language,[72] commonly understood in northern India.[73][74][75] Ramacharitamanasa
Ramacharitamanasa
was composed in the 16th century by Tulsidas.[76][77][72] The popular text is notable for synthesizing the epic story in a Bhakti
Bhakti
movement framework, wherein the original legends and ideas morph in an expression of spiritual bhakti (devotional love) for a personal god.[72][78][note 3] Tulsidas
Tulsidas
was inspired by Adhyatma Ramayana, where Rama
Rama
and other characters of the Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayana
Ramayana
along with their attributes (saguna narrative) were transposed into spiritual terms and abstract rendering of an Atma (soul, self, Brahman) without attributes (nirguna reality).[68][70][80] According to Kapoor, Rama's life story in the Ramacharitamanasa
Ramacharitamanasa
combines mythology, philosophy and religious beliefs into a story of life, a code of ethics, a treatise on universal human values.[81] It debates in its dialogues the human dilemmas, the ideal standards of behavior, duties to those one loves, and mutual responsibilities. It inspires the audience to view their own lives from a spiritual plane, encouraging the virtuous to keep going, and comforting those oppressed with a healing balm.[81] The Ramacharitmanas is notable for being the Rama-based play commonly performed every year in autumn, during the weeklong performance arts festival of Ramlila.[15] The "staging of the Ramayana
Ramayana
based on the Ramacharitmanas" was inscribed in 2008 by UNESCO as one of the Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity.[82] Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Main article: Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha

Human effort can be used for self-betterment and that there is no such thing as an external fate imposed by the gods.

Yoga Vasistha
Yoga Vasistha
( Vasistha
Vasistha
teaching Rama) Tr: Christopher Chapple[83]

Yoga Vasistha
Yoga Vasistha
is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text structured as a conversation between young Prince Rama
Rama
and sage Vasistha
Vasistha
who was called as the first sage of the Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy by Adi Shankara.[84] The complete text contains over 29,000 verses.[84] The short version of the text is called Laghu Yogavasistha and contains 6,000 verses.[85] The exact century of its completion is unknown, but has been estimated to be somewhere between the 6th century to as late as the 14th century, but it is likely that a version of the text existed in the 1st millennium.[86] The Yoga Vasistha
Yoga Vasistha
text consists of six books.[87] The first book presents Rama's frustration with the nature of life, human suffering and disdain for the world.[87] The second describes, through the character of Rama, the desire for liberation and the nature of those who seek such liberation.[87] The third and fourth books assert that liberation comes through a spiritual life, one that requires self-effort, and present cosmology and metaphysical theories of existence embedded in stories.[87] These two books are known for emphasizing free will and human creative power.[87][88] The fifth book discusses meditation and its powers in liberating the individual, while the last book describes the state of an enlightened and blissful Rama.[87][89] Yoga Vasistha
Yoga Vasistha
is considered one of the most important texts of the Vedantic
Vedantic
philosophy.[90] The text, states David Gordon White, served as a reference on Yoga
Yoga
for medieval era Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
scholars.[91] The Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha, according to White, was one of the popular texts on Yoga
Yoga
that dominated the Indian Yoga
Yoga
culture scene before the 12th century.[91] Other texts Other important historic Hindu texts
Hindu texts
on Rama
Rama
include Bhusundi Ramanaya, Prasanna raghava, and Ramavali by Tulsidas.[1][92] The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poem Bhaṭṭikāvya
Bhaṭṭikāvya
of Bhatti, who lived in Gujarat
Gujarat
in the seventh century CE, is a retelling of the epic that simultaneously illustrates the grammatical examples for Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī as well as the major figures of speech and the Prakrit
Prakrit
language.[93] Another historically and chronologically important text is Raghuvamsa authored by Kalidasa.[94] Its story confirms many details of the Ramayana, but has novel and different elements. It mentions that Ayodhya
Ayodhya
was not the capital in the time of Rama's son named Kusha, but that he later returned to it and made it the capital again. This text is notable because the poetry in the text is exquisite and called a Mahakavya in the Indian tradition, and has attracted many scholarly commentaries. It is also significant because Kalidasa has been dated to between the 4th and 5th century CE, suggesting that the Ramayana legend was well established by the time of Kalidasa.[94] The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
has a summary of the Ramayana. The Jainism
Jainism
tradition has extensive literature of Rama
Rama
as well, but generally refers to him as Padma, such as in the Paumacariya by Vimalasuri.[30] Rama
Rama
and Sita legend is mentioned in the Jataka tales of Buddhism, as Dasaratha-Jataka (Tale no. 461), but with slightly different spellings such as Lakkhana for Lakshmana
Lakshmana
and Rama-pandita for Rama.[95][96][97] The chapter 4 of Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, chapter 112 of Padma Purana, chapter 143 of Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana
and chapters 5 through 11 of Agni Purana
Agni Purana
also summarize the life story of Rama.[98] Additionally, the Rama
Rama
story is included in the Vana Parva
Vana Parva
of the Mahabharata, which has been a part of evidence that the Ramayana
Ramayana
is likely more ancient, and it was summarized in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
epic in ancient times.[99] Influence

Rama
Rama
(Yama) and Sita
Sita
(Thida) in Yama Zatdaw, the Burmese version of the Ramayana

Rama's story has had a major socio-cultural and inspirational influence across South Asia and Southeast Asia.[9][100]

Few works of literature produced in any place at any time have been as popular, influential, imitated and successful as the great and ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epic poem, the Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayana.

– Robert Goldman, Professor of Sanskrit, University of California at Berkeley[9]

According to Arthur Anthony Macdonell, a professor at Oxford and Boden scholar of Sanskrit, Rama's ideas as told in the Indian texts are secular in origin, their influence on the life and thought of people having been profound over at least two and a half millennia.[101][102] Their influence has ranged from being a framework for personal introspection to cultural festivals and community entertainment.[9] His life stories, states Goldman, have inspired "painting, film, sculpture, puppet shows, shadow plays, novels, poems, TV serials and plays".[101] Hinduism See also: List of Hindu
Hindu
festivals Rama
Rama
Navami Main article: Rama
Rama
Navami Rama Navami
Rama Navami
is a spring festival that celebrates the birthday of Rama. The festival is a part of the spring Navratri, and falls on the ninth day of the bright half of Chaitra
Chaitra
month in the traditional Hindu calendar. This typically occurs in the Gregorian months of March or April every year.[103][104] The day is marked by recital of Rama
Rama
legends in temples, or reading of Rama
Rama
stories at home. Some Vaishnava Hindus visit a temple, others pray within their home, and some participate in a bhajan or kirtan with music as a part of puja and aarti.[105] The community organizes charitable events and volunteer meals. The festival is an occasion for moral reflection for many Hindus.[106][107] Some mark this day by vrata (fasting) or a visit to a river for a dip.[106][108][109] The important celebrations on this day take place at Ayodhya, Sitamarhi,[110] Janakpurdham
Janakpurdham
(Nepal), Bhadrachalam, Kodandarama Temple, Vontimitta and Rameswaram. Rathayatras, the chariot processions, also known as Shobha yatras of Rama, Sita, his brother Lakshmana
Lakshmana
and Hanuman, are taken out at several places.[106][111][112] In Ayodhya, many take a dip in the sacred river Sarayu
Sarayu
and then visit the Rama
Rama
temple.[109] Rama Navami
Rama Navami
day also marks the end of the nine-day spring festival celebrated in Karnataka
Karnataka
and Andhra Pradesh called Vasanthothsavam (Festival of Spring), that starts with Ugadi. Some highlights of this day are Kalyanam (ceremonial wedding performed by temple priests) at Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam
on the banks of the river Godavari
Godavari
in Bhadradri Kothagudem district of Telangana, preparing and sharing Panakam which is a sweet drink prepared with jaggery and pepper, a procession and Rama
Rama
temple decorations.[citation needed] Ramlila
Ramlila
and Dussehra Main article: Vijayadashami

In Northern, Central and Western states of India, the Ramlila
Ramlila
play is enacted during Navratri
Navratri
by rural artists (above).

Rama's life is remembered and celebrated every year with dramatic plays and fireworks in autumn. This is called Ramlila, and the play follows Ramayana
Ramayana
or more commonly the Ramcharitmanas.[113] It is observed through thousands[13] of Rama-related performance arts and dance events, that are staged during the festival of Navratri
Navratri
in India.[114] After the enactment of the legendary war between Good and Evil, the Ramlila
Ramlila
celebrations climax in the Dussehra
Dussehra
(Dasara, Vijayadashami) night festivities where the giant grotesque effigies of Evil such as of demon Ravana
Ravana
are burnt, typically with fireworks.[82][115] The Ramlila
Ramlila
festivities were declared by UNESCO as one of the "Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity" in 2008. Ramlila
Ramlila
is particularly notable in historically important Hindu
Hindu
cities of Ayodhya, Varanasi, Vrindavan, Almora, Satna
Satna
and Madhubani – cities in Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.[82][116] The epic and its dramatic play migrated into southeast Asia in the 1st millennium CE, and Ramayana
Ramayana
based Ramlila
Ramlila
is a part of performance arts culture of Indonesia, particularly the Hindu
Hindu
society of Bali, Myanmar, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Thailand.[117] Diwali Main article: Diwali In some parts of India, Rama's return to Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and his coronation is the main reason for celebrating Diwali, also known as the Festival of Lights. In Guyana, Diwali
Diwali
is marked as a special occasion and celebrated with a lot of fanfare. It is observed as a national holiday in this part of the World and some ministers of the Government also take part in the celebrations publicly. Just like Vijayadashmi, Diwali
Diwali
is celebrated by different communities across India
India
to commemorate different events in addition to Rama's return to Ayodhya. For example, many communities celebrate one day of Diwali
Diwali
to celebrate the Victory of Krishna
Krishna
over the demon Narakasur.[citation needed] Hindu
Hindu
arts in Southeast Asia

Rama's story is a major part of the artistic reliefs found at Angkor Wat, Cambodia. Large sequences of Ramayana
Ramayana
reliefs are also found in Java, Indonesia.[118]

Rama's life story, both in the written form of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Ramayana
Ramayana
and the oral tradition arrived in southeast Asia in the 1st millennium CE.[119] Rama
Rama
was one of many ideas and cultural themes adopted, others being the Buddha, the Shiva
Shiva
and host of other Brahmanic and Buddhist ideas and stories.[120] In particular, the influence of Rama and other cultural ideas grew in Java, Bali, Malaya, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Laos.[120] The Ramayana
Ramayana
was translated from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
into old Javanese around 860 CE, while the performance arts culture most likely developed from the oral tradition inspired by the Tamil and Bengali versions of Rama-based dance and plays.[119] The earliest evidence of these performance arts are from 243 CE according to Chinese records. Other than the celebration of Rama's life with dance and music, Hindu temples built in southeast Asia such as the Prambanan
Prambanan
near Yogyakarta (Java), and at the Panataran
Panataran
near Blitar
Blitar
(east Java), show extensive reliefs depicting Rama's life.[119][121] The story of Rama's life has been popular in southeast Asia.[122] In the 14th century, the Ayutthaya Kingdom
Ayutthaya Kingdom
and its capital Ayuttaya was named after the Hindu
Hindu
holy city of Ayodhya, with the official religion of the state being Theravada Buddhism.[123][124] Thai kings, continuing into the contemporary era, have been called Rama, a name inspired by Rama
Rama
of Ramakien
Ramakien
– the local version of Sanskrit Ramayana, according to Constance Jones and James Ryan. For example, King Chulalongkorn
Chulalongkorn
(1853-1910) is also known as Rama
Rama
V, while King Vajiralongkorn
Vajiralongkorn
who succeeded to the throne in 2016 is called Rama X.[125] Jainism See also: Rama
Rama
in Jainism
Jainism
and Salakapurusa In Jainism, the earliest known version of Rama
Rama
story is variously dated from the 1st to 5th century CE. This Jaina text credited to Vimalasuri shows no signs of distinction between Digambara-Svetambara (sects of Jainism), and is in a combination of Marathi and Sauraseni languages. These features suggest that this text has ancient roots.[126] In Jain cosmology, characters continue to be reborn as they evolve in their spiritual qualities, until they reach the Jina state and complete enlightenment. This idea is explained as cyclically reborn triads in its Puranas, called the Baladeva, Vasudeva
Vasudeva
and evil Prati-vasudeva.[127][128] Rama, Lakshmana
Lakshmana
and evil Ravana
Ravana
are the eighth triad, with Rama
Rama
being the reborn Baladeva, and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
as the reborn Vasudeva.[52] Rama
Rama
is described to have lived long before the 22nd Jain Tirthankara called Neminatha. In the Jain tradition, Neminatha
Neminatha
is believed to have been born 84,000 years before the 9th-century BCE Parshvanatha.[129] Jain texts tell a very different version of the Rama
Rama
legend than the Hindu texts
Hindu texts
such as by Valmiki. According to the Jain version, Lakshmana
Lakshmana
(Vasudeva) is the one who kills Ravana
Ravana
(Prativasudeva).[52] Rama, after all his participation in the rescue of Sita
Sita
and preparation for war, he actually does not kill, thus remains a non-violent person. The Rama
Rama
of Jainism
Jainism
has numerous wives as does Lakshmana, unlike the virtue of monogamy given to Rama
Rama
in the Hindu texts. Towards the end of his life, Rama
Rama
becomes a Jaina monk then successfully attains siddha followed by moksha.[52] His first wife Sita
Sita
becomes a Jaina nun at the end of the story. In the Jain version, Lakshmana
Lakshmana
and Ravana
Ravana
both go to the hell of Jain cosmology, because Ravana
Ravana
killed many, while Lakshmana
Lakshmana
killed Ravana
Ravana
to stop Ravana's violence.[52] Buddhism The Dasaratha-Jataka (Tale no. 461) provides a version of the Rama story. It calls Rama
Rama
as Rama-pandita.[95][96] At the end of this Dasaratha-Jataka discourse, the Buddhist text declares that the Buddha
Buddha
in his prior rebirth was Rama:

The Master having ended this discourse, declared the Truths, and identified the Birth (...): 'At that time, the king Suddhodana was king Dasaratha, Mahamaya was the mother, Rahula's mother was Sita, Ananda was Bharata, and I myself was Rama-pandita. — Jataka Tale No. 461, Translator: W.H.D. Rouse[96]

While the Buddhist Jataka texts co-opt Rama
Rama
and make him an incarnation of Buddha
Buddha
in a previous life,[96] the Hindu texts
Hindu texts
co-opt the Buddha
Buddha
and make him an avatar of Vishnu.[130][131] The Jataka literature of Buddhism
Buddhism
is generally dated to be from the second half of the 1st millennium BCE, based on the carvings in caves and Buddhist monuments such as the Bharhut
Bharhut
stupa.[132][note 4] The 2nd-century BCE stone relief carvings on Bharhut
Bharhut
stupa, as told in the Dasaratha-Jataka, is the earliest known non-textual evidence of Rama story being prevalent in ancient India.[134] Sikhism Rama
Rama
is mentioned as Rama
Rama
Avtar in the Chaubis Avtar, a composition in Dasam Granth traditionally and historically attributed to Guru Gobind Singh.[citation needed] Worship and temples

The UNESCO World Heritage Site of Hampi
Hampi
monuments in Karnataka, built by the Vijayanagara Empire, includes a major Rama
Rama
temple. Its numerous wall reliefs tell the life story of Rama.[135]

Rama
Rama
Temple at Ramtek
Ramtek
(10th century, restored). A medieval inscription here calls Rama
Rama
as Advaitavadaprabhu or "Lord of the Advaita doctrine".[136]

Rama
Rama
is a revered Vaishanava deity, one who is worshipped privately at home or in temples. He was a part of the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement focus, particularly because of efforts of poet-saint Ramananda
Ramananda
who created the Ramanandi
Ramanandi
Sampradaya, a sannyasi community. This sampradaya has grown to become the largest Hindu
Hindu
monastic community in modern times.[137][138] This Rama-inspired movement has championed social reforms, accepting members without discriminating anyone by gender, class, caste or religion since the time of Ramananda
Ramananda
who accepted Muslims wishing to leave Islam.[139] Traditional scholarship holds that his disciples included later Bhakti
Bhakti
movement poet-sants such as Kabir, Ravidas, Bhagat Pipa
Bhagat Pipa
and others.[138][140] Temples dedicated to Rama
Rama
are found all over India
India
and in places where Indian migrant communities have resided. In most temples, the iconography of Rama
Rama
is accompanied by that of his wife Sita
Sita
and brother Lakshmana. In some instances, Hanuman
Hanuman
is also included either near them or in the temple premises.[citation needed] Hindu
Hindu
temples dedicated to Rama
Rama
were built by early 5th century, according to copper plate inscription evidence, but these have not survived. The oldest surviving Rama
Rama
temple is near Raipur (Chhattisgarh), called the Rajiva-locana temple at Rajim
Rajim
near the Mahanadi river. It is a Vishnu
Vishnu
temples complex dated to be from the 7th-century with some restoration work done around 1145 CE based on epigraphical evidence.[141][142] The temple remains important to Rama devotees in the contemporary times, with devotees and monks gathering there on dates such as Rama
Rama
Navami.[143] Important Rama
Rama
temples include:[citation needed]

Ram Janmabhoomi, Ayodhya Kalaram Temple, Nashik—built in 1788 Raghunath Temple, Jammu—built in 1827 Ram Mandir, Bhubaneswar, Odisha Kodandarama Temple, Chikmagalur Kothandarama Temple, Thillaivilagam Kothandaramaswamy Temple, Rameswaram Odogaon Raghunath Temple, Odisha—dates from Middle Ages Ramchaura Mandir, Bihar Sri Rama
Rama
Temple, Ramapuram Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam
Temple, Telangana—built in 1674 Shree Rama
Rama
Temple, Triprayar, Kerala

See also

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal Hindu
Hindu
mythology portal Indian religions portal India
India
portal

Ayodhya
Ayodhya
dispute Culture of India Genealogy of Rama Hindu
Hindu
philosophy Natyashastra Ram Nam

References Notes

^ The legends found about Rama, state Mallory and Adams, have "many of the elements found in the later Welsh tales such as Branwen Daughter of Llyr and Manawydan Son of Lyr. This may be because the concept and legends have deeper ancient roots.[25] ^ Kosala
Kosala
is mentioned in many Buddhist texts and travel memoirs. The Buddha
Buddha
idol of Kosala
Kosala
is important in the Theravada Buddhism tradition, and one that is described by the 7th-century Chinese pilgrim Xuanzhang. He states in his memoir that the statue stands in the capital of Kosala
Kosala
then called Shravasti, midst ruins of a large monastery. He also states that he brought back to China two replicas of the Buddha, one of the Kosala
Kosala
icon of Udayana and another the Prasenajit icon of Prasenajit.[33] ^ For example, like other Hindu
Hindu
poet-saints of the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement before the 16th century, Tulsidas
Tulsidas
in Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
recommends the simplest path to devotion is Nam-simran (absorb oneself in remembering the divine name "Rama"). He suggests either vocally repeating the name (jap) or silent repetition in mind (ajapajap). This concept of Rama moves beyond the divinized hero, and connotes "all pervading Being" and equivalent to atmarama within. The term atmarama is a compound of "Atma" and "Rama", it literally means "he who finds joy in his own self", according to the French Indologist Charlotte Vaudeville known for her studies on Ramayana
Ramayana
and Bhakti
Bhakti
movement.[79] ^ Richard Gombrich suggests that the Jataka tales were composed by the 3rd century BCE.[133]

Citations

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of Valmiki. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-06662-2.  ^ Ramashraya Sharma (1986). A Socio-political Study of the Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-81-208-0078-6.  ^ Gregory Claeys (2010). The Cambridge Companion to Utopian Literature. Cambridge University Press. pp. 240–241. ISBN 978-1-139-82842-0.  ^ Roderick Hindery (1978). Comparative Ethics in Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist Traditions. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 100. ISBN 978-81-208-0866-9.  ^ a b Hess, L. (2001). "Rejecting Sita: Indian Responses to the Ideal Man's Cruel Treatment of His Ideal Wife". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 67 (1): 1–32. doi:10.1093/jaarel/67.1.1. PMID 21994992. Retrieved 2008-04-12.  ^ Northrop Frye (2015). Northrop Frye's Uncollected Prose. University of Toronto Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-4426-4972-9.  ^ Dawn F. Rooney (2017). The Thiri Rama: Finding Ramayana
Ramayana
in Myanmar. Taylor & Francis. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-315-31395-5.  ^ a b Paula Richman (1991). Many Rāmāyaṇas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia. University of California Press. pp. 7–9 (by Richman), pp. 22–46 (Ramanujan). ISBN 978-0-520-07589-4.  ^ A.N. Jani (2005). Kodaganallur R.S. Iyengar, ed. Asian Variations in Ramayana: Papers Presented at the International Seminar on 'Variations in Ramayana
Ramayana
in Asia. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 29–55. ISBN 978-81-260-1809-3.  ^ a b c Paula Richman (1991). Many Rāmāyaṇas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia. University of California Press. pp. 10–12, 67–85. ISBN 978-0-520-07589-4.  ^ a b Monika Horstmann (1991). Rāmāyaṇa and Rāmāyaṇas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 9–21. ISBN 978-3-447-03116-5.  ^ Paula Richman (1991). Many Rāmāyaṇas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia. University of California Press. pp. 11–12, 89–108. ISBN 978-0-520-07589-4.  ^ a b c d e Padmanabh S Jaini (1993). Wendy Doniger, ed. Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu
Hindu
and Jaina Texts. State University of New York Press. pp. 216–219. ISBN 978-0-7914-1381-4.  ^ Umakant P. Shah (2005). Kodaganallur R.S. Iyengar, ed. Asian Variations in Ramayana: Papers Presented at the International Seminar on 'Variations in Ramayana
Ramayana
in Asia. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 57–76. ISBN 978-81-260-1809-3.  ^ Kapila
Kapila
Vatsyayan (2004). Mandakranta Bose, ed. The Ramayana Revisited. Oxford University Press. pp. 335–339. ISBN 978-0-19-516832-7.  ^ Dhirajlal Sankalia, Hasmukhlal (1982). The Ramayana
Ramayana
in historical perspective. Macmillan India. pp. 4–5, 51.  ^ Bonner, Arthur (1990). Averting the Apocalypse: Social Movements in India
India
Today. Duke University Press. p. 354. ISBN 9780822310488.  ^ Swami Parmeshwaranand , Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Puranas
Puranas
- Volume 1, 2001. p. 44 ^ Simanjuntak, Truman (2006). Archaeology: Indonesian Perspective : R.P. Soejono's Festschrift. p. 361.  ^ John Brockington; Mary Brockington (2016). The Other Ramayana
Ramayana
Women: Regional Rejection and Response. Routledge. pp. 3–6. ISBN 978-1-317-39063-3.  ^ a b T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu
Hindu
iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 189–193. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.  ^ Vālmīki; Sheldon I. Pollock (2007). The Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki: An Epic of Ancient India. Araṇyakāṇḍa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 41–43. ISBN 978-81-208-3164-3.  ^ a b Roderick Hindery (1978). Comparative Ethics in Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist Traditions. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 103–106. ISBN 978-81-208-0866-9.  ^ Gavin Flood (2008-04-17). THE BLACKWELL COMPANION TO HINDUISM. ISBN 978-81-265-1629-2.  ^ a b Roderick Hindery (1978). Comparative Ethics in Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist Traditions. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 100–101. ISBN 978-81-208-0866-9.  ^ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. p. 355. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.  ^ Roshen Dalal (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6.  ^ "The Oral Tradition and the many 'Ramayanas'", Moynihan @Maxwell, Maxwell School of Syracuse University's South Asian Center ^ a b c John Nicol Farquhar (1920). An Outline of the Religious Literature of India. Oxford University Press. pp. 324–325.  ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 158-159 with footnotes. ^ a b c d e RC Prasad (1989). Tulasīdāsa's Sriramacharitmanasa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. xiv–xv, 875–876. ISBN 978-81-208-0443-2.  ^ R. Barz (1991). Monika Horstmann, ed. Rāmāyaṇa and Rāmāyaṇas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 32–35. ISBN 978-3-447-03116-5.  ^ a b c Ramcharitmanas, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2012) ^ Lutgendorf 1991. ^ Miller 2008, p. 217 ^ Varma 2010, p. 1565 ^ Poddar 2001, pp. 26–29 ^ Das 2010, p. 63 ^ Schomer & McLeod 1987, p. 75. ^ Schomer & McLeod 1987, pp. 31-32 with footnotes 13 and 16 (by C. Vaudeville).. ^ Schomer & McLeod 1987, pp. 31, 74-75 with footnotes, Quote: "What is striking about the dohas in the Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
however is that they frequently have a sant-like ring to them, breaking into the very midst of the saguna narrative with a statement of nirguna reality".. ^ a b A Kapoor (1995). Gilbert Pollet, ed. Indian Epic Values: Rāmāyaṇa and Its Impact. Peeters Publishers. pp. 181–186. ISBN 978-90-6831-701-5.  ^ a b c Ramlila, the traditional performance of the Ramayana, UNESCO ^ Chapple 1984, pp. x-xi with footnote 4 ^ a b Chapple 1984, pp. ix-xi ^ Leslie 2003, pp. 105 ^ Chapple 1984, p. x ^ a b c d e f Chapple 1984, pp. xi-xii ^ Surendranath Dasgupta, A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 2, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521047791, pages 252-253 ^ Venkatesananda, S (Translator) (1984). The Concise Yoga Vāsiṣṭha. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-87395-955-8.  ^ Pandit Rajmani Tigunait, Irene Petryszak (2002), The Himalayan Masters: A Living Tradition, pp 37, ISBN 978-0-89389-227-2 ^ a b White, David Gordon (2014). The " Yoga
Yoga
Sutra of Patanjali": A Biography. Princeton University Press. pp. xvi–xvii, 51. ISBN 978-0691143774.  ^ Edmour J. Babineau (1979). Love of God and Social Duty in the Rāmcaritmānas. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-0-89684-050-8.  ^ Fallon, Oliver. 2009. Bhatti's Poem: The Death of Rávana (Bhaṭṭikāvya). New York: Clay Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Library [1]. ISBN 978-0-8147-2778-2 ISBN 0-8147-2778-6 ^ a b Roshen Dalal (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6.  ^ a b H. T. Francis; E. J. Thomas (1916). Jataka Tales. Cambridge University Press (Reprinted: 2014). pp. 325–330. ISBN 978-1-107-41851-6.  ^ a b c d E.B. Cowell; WHD Rouse (1901). The Jātaka: Or, Stories of the Buddha's Former Births. Cambridge University Press. pp. 78–82.  ^ Jaiswal, Suvira (1993). "Historical Evolution of Ram Legend". Social Scientist. 21 (3 / 4 March April 1993): 89–96.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Rocher 1986, p. 84 with footnote 26. ^ J. A. B. van Buitenen (1973). The Mahabharata, Volume 2: Book 2: The Book of Assembly; Book 3: The Book of the Forest. University of Chicago Press. pp. 207–214. ISBN 978-0-226-84664-4.  ^ Paula Richman (1991). Many Rāmāyaṇas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia. University of California Press. pp. 17 note 11. ISBN 978-0-520-07589-4.  ^ a b Robert Goldman (2013), The Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayana, Center for South Asia Studies, University of California at Berkeley ^ P S Sundaram (2002). Kamba Ramayana. Penguin Books. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-93-5118-100-2.  ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 562. ISBN 978-0-8239-3180-4.  ^ The nine-day festival of Navratri
Navratri
leading up to Sri Rama Navami
Rama Navami
has bhajans, kirtans and discourses in store for devotees Indian Express, Friday , March 31, 2006. ^ Ramnavami The Times of India, Apr 2, 2009. ^ a b c Ram Navami BBC. ^ "President and PM greet people as India
India
observes Ram Navami today". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 8 April 2014.  ^ Ramnavami Govt. of India
India
Portal. ^ a b Hindus around the world celebrate Ram Navami today, DNA, 8 Apr 2014 ^ Sitamarhi, Encyclopedia Britannica (2014), Quote: "A large Ramanavami fair, celebrating the birth of Lord Rama, is held in spring with considerable trade in pottery, spices, brass ware, and cotton cloth. A cattle fair held in Sitamarhi
Sitamarhi
is the largest in Bihar state. The town is sacred as the birthplace of the goddess Sita
Sita
(also called Janaki), the wife of Rama." ^ On Ram Navami, we celebrate our love for the ideal Indian Express, Monday , March 31, 2003. ^ Shobha yatra on Ram Navami eve Archived 7 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Indian Express, Thursday, March 25, 1999. ^ James G. Lochtefeld 2002, p. 389. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica 2015. ^ Ramlila
Ramlila
Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle, by Asha Kasbekar. Published by ABC-CLIO, 2006. ISBN 1-85109-636-1. Page 42. ^ James G. Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 561-562. ^ Mandakranta Bose (2004). The Ramayana
Ramayana
Revisited. Oxford University Press. pp. 342–350. ISBN 978-0-19-516832-7.  ^ Willem Frederik Stutterheim (1989). Rāma-legends and Rāma-reliefs in Indonesia. Abhinav Publications. pp. 109–160. ISBN 978-81-7017-251-2.  ^ a b c James R. Brandon (2009). Theatre in Southeast Asia. Harvard University Press. pp. 22–27. ISBN 978-0-674-02874-6.  ^ a b James R. Brandon (2009). Theatre in Southeast Asia. Harvard University Press. pp. 15–21. ISBN 978-0-674-02874-6.  ^ Jan Fontein (1973), The Abduction of Sitā: Notes on a Stone Relief from Eastern Java, Boston Museum Bulletin, Vol. 71, No. 363 (1973), pp. 21-35 ^ Kats, J. (1927). "The Ramayana
Ramayana
in Indonesia". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Cambridge University Press. 4 (03): 579. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00102976.  ^ Francis D. K. Ching; Mark M. Jarzombek; Vikramaditya Prakash (2010). A Global History of Architecture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 456. ISBN 978-0-470-40257-3. , Quote: "The name of the capital city [Ayuttaya] derives from the Hindu
Hindu
holy city Ayodhya
Ayodhya
in northern India, which is said to be the birthplace of the Hindu
Hindu
god Rama." ^ Michael C. Howard (2012). Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies: The Role of Cross-Border Trade and Travel. McFarland. pp. 200–201. ISBN 978-0-7864-9033-2.  ^ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.  ^ John E Cort (1993). Wendy Doniger, ed. Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu
Hindu
and Jaina Texts. State University of New York Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-7914-1381-4.  ^ Jacobi, Herman (2005). Vimalsuri's Paumachariyam (2nd ed.). Ahemdabad: Prakrit
Prakrit
Text Society.  ^ Iyengar, Kodaganallur Ramaswami Srinivasa (2005). Asian Variations In Ramayana. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-1809-3.  ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 226. ^ Daniel E Bassuk (1987). Incarnation in Hinduism
Hinduism
and Christianity: The Myth of the God-Man. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-349-08642-9.  ^ Edward Geoffrey Parrinder (1997). Avatar
Avatar
and Incarnation: The Divine in Human Form in the World's Religions. Oxford: Oneworld. pp. 19–24, 35–38, 75–78, 130–133. ISBN 978-1-85168-130-3.  ^ Peter J. Claus; Sarah Diamond; Margaret Ann Mills (2003). South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 306–307. ISBN 978-0-415-93919-5.  ^ Naomi Appleton (2010). Jātaka Stories in Theravāda Buddhism: Narrating the Bodhisatta Path. Ashgate Publishing. pp. 51–54. ISBN 978-1-4094-1092-8.  ^ Mandakranta Bose (2004). The Ramayana
Ramayana
Revisited. Oxford University Press. pp. 337–338. ISBN 978-0-19-803763-7.  ^ Monika Horstmann (1991). Rāmāyaṇa and Rāmāyaṇas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 72–73 with footnotes. ISBN 978-3-447-03116-5.  ^ Hans Bakker (1990). The History of Sacred Places in India
India
As Reflected in Traditional Literature: Papers on Pilgrimage in South Asia. BRILL. pp. 70–73. ISBN 90-04-09318-4.  ^ Selva Raj and William Harman (2007), Dealing with Deities: The Ritual Vow in South Asia, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791467084, pages 165-166 ^ a b James G Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931804, pages 553-554 ^ Gerald James Larson (1995), India's Agony Over Religion, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791424124, page 116 ^ David Lorenzen, Who Invented Hinduism: Essays on Religion in History, ISBN 978-8190227261, pages 104-106 ^ J. L. Brockington (1998). The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Epics. BRILL. pp. 471–472. ISBN 90-04-10260-4.  ^ Meister, Michael W. (1988). "Prasada as Palace: Kutina Origins of the Nagara Temple". Artibus Asiae. 49 (3/4): 254–280 (Figure 21). doi:10.2307/3250039.  ^ James C. Harle (1994). The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. Yale University Press. pp. 148–149, 207–208. ISBN 978-0-300-06217-5. 

Bibliography

Chapple, Christopher (1984). "Introduction". The Concise Yoga Vāsiṣṭha. Translated by Venkatesananda, Swami. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-87395-955-8. OCLC 11044869.  Das, Krishna
Krishna
(15 February 2010), Chants of a Lifetime: Searching for a Heart of Gold, Hay House, Inc, ISBN 978-1-4019-2771-4  " Navratri
Navratri
Hindu
Hindu
festival". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2017-02-21. Retrieved 2017-02-21.  Flood, Gavin (17 April 2008). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Wiley India
India
Pvt. Limited. ISBN 978-81-265-1629-2.  Hertel, Bradley R.; Humes, Cynthia Ann (1993). Living Banaras: Hindu Religion in Cultural Context. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-1331-9.  Miller, Kevin Christopher (2008). A Community of Sentiment: Indo-Fijian Music and Identity Discourse in Fiji and Its Diaspora. ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-549-72404-9.  Leslie, Julia (2003). Authority and meaning in Indian religions: Hinduism
Hinduism
and the case of Vālmīki. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-7546-3431-0.  Morārībāpu (1987). Mangal Ramayan. Prachin Sanskriti Mandir.  Poddar, Hanuman
Hanuman
Prasad (2001). Balkand. 94 (in Awadhi and Hindi). Gorakhpur, India: Gita Press. ISBN 81-293-0406-6.  James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1.  Lutgendorf, Philip (1991). The Life of a Text: Performing the Rāmcaritmānas of Tulsidas. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06690-8.  Naidu, S. Shankar Raju (1971). A Comparative Study of Kamba Ramayanam and Tulasi Ramayan. University of Madras.  Platvoet, Jan. G.; Toorn, Karel Van Der (1995). Pluralism and Identity: Studies in Ritual Behaviour. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-10373-2.  Rocher, Ludo (1986). The Puranas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3447025225.  Schomer, Karine; McLeod, W. H. (1 January 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3  Stasik, Danuta; Trynkowska, Anna (1 January 2006). Indie w Warszawie: tom upamiętniający 50-lecie powojennej historii indologii na Uniwersytecie Warszawskim (2003/2004). Dom Wydawniczy Elipsa. ISBN 978-83-7151-721-1.  Varma, Ram (1 April 2010). Ramayana : Before He Was God. Rupa & Company. ISBN 978-81-291-1616-1.  Zimmer, Heinrich (1953) [April 1952], Campbell, Joseph, ed., Philosophies Of India, Routledge
Routledge
& Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6 

Further reading

Jain Rāmāyaṇa of Hemchandra (English translation), book 7 of the Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra, 1931  Ramayana, translated in English by Griffith, from Project Gutenberg Willem Frederik Stutterheim (1989). Rāma-legends and Rāma-reliefs in Indonesia. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-251-2.  Vyas, R.T. (ed.) Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Text as Constituted in its Critical Edition, Oriental Institute, Vadodara, 1992. Valmiki, Ramayana, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, India. Ramesh Menon, The Ramayana: A Modern Retelling of the Great Indian Epic ISBN 0-86547-660-8 F.S. Growse, The Ramayana
Ramayana
of Tulsidas Jonah Blank, Arrow of the Blue-Skinned God: Retracing the Ramayana Through India
India
ISBN 0-8021-3733-4 Kambar, Kamba Ramayanam.

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