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HAMPI (_Hampe_) is a village and temple town recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
, listed as the _Group of Monuments at Hampi_. in northern Karnataka
Karnataka
, India
India
. It is located within the ruins of the city of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
, the former capital of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire . Predating the city of Vijayanagara, Hampi
Hampi
continues to be an important religious centre, housing the Virupaksha Temple
Virupaksha Temple
and several other monuments belonging to the old city.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate

* 4 Architecture * 5 Religious buildings * 6 Civil buildings * 7 Military
Military
buildings * 8 Important sites at and near Hampi
Hampi
* 9 Global Heritage Fund efforts * 10 Access * 11 Gallery * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 External links

ETYMOLOGY

_Hampi_ — traditionally known as _Pampa-kshetra_, _Kishkindha-kshetra_ or _Bhaskara-kshetra_ — is derived from Pampa, the old name of the Tungabhadra River (Pampa was Lord Brahma's daughter, who was later married to Lord Shiva) on whose southern banks the city is built. The name "Hampi" is an anglicized version of the Kannada
Kannada
name Hampe (derived from Pampa). Over the years, it has also been referred to as Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
and Virupakshapura (from Virupaksha, the patron deity of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
rulers).

HISTORY

Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
's Rock Edicts in Nittur color:#000000;">30.9 (87.6) 33.5 (92.3) 36.5 (97.7) 37.9 (100.2) 37.5 (99.5) 33.2 (91.8) 30.8 (87.4) 31.0 (87.8) 31.2 (88.2) 31.4 (88.5) 30.5 (86.9) 29.9 (85.8) 32.86 (91.14)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 18.1 (64.6) 19.9 (67.8) 22.5 (72.5) 23.6 (74.5) 24.9 (76.8) 23.9 (75) 23.3 (73.9) 22.9 (73.2) 22.5 (72.5) 21.9 (71.4) 19.9 (67.8) 17.8 (64) 21.77 (71.17)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (0.08) 24 (0.94) 58 (2.28) 61 (2.4) 87 (3.43) 90 (3.54) 129 (5.08) 123 (4.84) 25 (0.98) 9 (0.35) 608 (23.92)

Source: Climate data: Hampi

ARCHITECTURE

Hampi
Hampi
Map, 1911 Schematic map of Hampi
Hampi
with major tourist spots Jain
Jain
Temples The remains of a giant Bukka's Aqueduct located near Anegondi Lotus Mahal at the Zenana Enclosure

The city of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
was originally encompassed by seven lines of fortifications , which had many bastions and gateways. The seventh & the innermost fortification enclosed the main city and is the best preserved. The extant monuments of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
or Hampi
Hampi
can be divided into Religious, Civil "> MALYAVANTA RAGHUNATHASWAMY TEMPLE was constructed in the ancient style of architecture; the temple of Malyavanta Raghunathaswamy stands 3 km down the road. Its inner walls carry peculiar and interesting motifs of fish and marine creatures. * HAZARA RAMA TEMPLE COMPLEX: This ruined temple complex is well known for elaborate frescoes from the Hindu
Hindu
theosophy and a sprawling courtyard well-laid with gardens. It is noted for its thousands of carvings and inscriptions around the temple which tell of Ramayana
Ramayana
. * JAIN TEMPLE : Reliefs of Jain
Jain
temples are present in this area that includes Hemkut Jain
Jain
temples, Ratnantraykut, Parsvanath Charan and Ganigatti jain temple. Most of the idols are now missing from these temples. Ruins suggest that these temples belong to 14th century. * KRISHNA TEMPLE Complex: This is an ASI-protected monument, built in 1513 CE during the reign of king Krishnadevaraya after his successful campaign against the Gajapatis of Orissa. There is a halegannada (old Kannada) stone inscription by Krishnadevaraya dating to 1513 CE in the temple's frontyard. This temple was abandoned after the fall of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
and is not used for worship at present. Krishna temple bazaar has been excavated through the last decade, and restoration work is still in progress. The temple has the Sacred Tank or the Pushkarani
Pushkarani
located on its eastern side.

The mantapas of Vittala temple The Stone Chariot
Chariot
at Vittala temple

* VITTALA TEMPLE Complex:This is perhaps the most well-known among the ruins of Hampi. The iconic stone chariot in the vicinity of this temple complex is a symbol of Karnataka
Karnataka
Tourism
Tourism
. Unfortunately it had a brick tower above it which was demolished. Of late, floodlights have been installed in the temple complex that provide illumination at dusk, thereby adding to the grandeur of the architecture. The great “swing-pavilion” of this temple is one of the technical marvels of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
architecture. The temple houses the famous musical pillars.

The road leading to the temple was once a market where horses were traded. Even today, we can see the ruins of the market on both the sides of the road. The temple contains the images of foreigners like Persians selling horses.

* Muslim Sunni masjid * Preksha temple and groups * Saasivekaalu Ganesha * VIRUPAKSHA TEMPLE known as the Pampavathi temple, an ancient temple situated in the Hampi
Hampi
Bazaar
Bazaar
. It predates the founding of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire . The temple has three _gopuras _ (entrance towers). A large 160-foot (49 m) high tower as its main entrance facing east, a smaller second entrance tower leading to inner temple courtyard after the main _gopura_, and another one facing north known as the Kanakagiri _gopura_, leading to a small enclosure with subsidiary shrines and eventually to the river Tungabhadra . The smaller inner _gopura_ and the beautiful _mandapa_ (an open pillared hall or pavilion) were dedicated to the temple by king Krishnadevaraya on his coronation in 1510 CE, making them over 500 years old. Apart from Shiva, the temple complex also contains shrines of the erotica statues Bhuvaneshwari
Bhuvaneshwari
and Pampa. * PRASANNA VIRUPAKSHA TEMPLE: This temple is popularly known as the “Underground Shiva temple” as it was almost completely covered before its discovery and excavation. * YANTRODHARAKA ANJANEYA temple

CIVIL BUILDINGS

* Aqueducts and Canals * Archaeological Museum at Kamalapura * Lotus Mahal * Zanana enclosure

MILITARY BUILDINGS

* Elephant
Elephant
stables: used to house the eleven royal elephants in King Krishnadeva Raya's army. The neighbouring building housed the riders of the royal elephants. * The King's balance

IMPORTANT SITES AT AND NEAR HAMPI

* Anegondi * Anjeyanadri Hill * Kadalekalu Ganesha * Lake (Near Sanapur ) * Tungabhadra River * Uddana Veerabhadra temple * Sri Lakshmi Narasimha * Virupapura Gaddi * Yeduru Basavanna * Talarigatta Gate * Bhim'a Gate * Tenali Rama Pavilion

GLOBAL HERITAGE FUND EFFORTS

Non-profit organization Global Heritage Fund (GHF), the Hampi Foundation, Cornell University
Cornell University
, and the State of Karnataka, have been actively involved in the conservation of Hampi's unique cultural heritage. After producing a master conservation plan for the site of Chandramouleshwara Temple , GHF's efforts have moved to "stabilization of the temple and its associated structural features."

ACCESS

Although Hampi
Hampi
is a significant historic and tourist site, its access can be challenging. One travel site recommends:

* Fly into Hubli
Hubli

* Drive to this site (rented car or taxi) - three hours travel time - or

* take the overnight train from Bangalore-Karnataka

Language can be a problem at this place most locals speak a regional dialect of Kannada
Kannada
. Not everybody in the area can communicate using English or Hindi.

Note that Hampi
Hampi
Village is on the opposite side of the Tungabhadra River from Hampi
Hampi
City (site of the ruins and temples). Ferry service to cross the river is available at times, but is not consistent, and depends also on the condition of the river. A 75-km road is available between the village and the city (2 hours travel) if the ferry service is not available.

GALLERY

Hampi
Hampi
Scenery, 360° Panorama Shot from Matanga Hill

*

The Narasimha Vigraha *

View of Virupaksha Temple
Virupaksha Temple
from Hemkuta Hill *

Sunset from Hemkuta Hill, Hampi
Hampi
*

Ruins, Hemkuta Hill, Hampi
Hampi
*

Ruins of Jain
Jain
Temple at Hemkuta hill, Hampi
Hampi
*

Farms as seen from Anjaneyadri Hill *

Stepped Tank near the Underground Temple *

Jain
Jain
Temples *

Stray Temples *

Watch Tower *

Ganigatti Jain
Jain
Temple *

The sacred tank located on the side of Krishna temple *

Zanana Enclosure *

Nandi statue carved out of a boulder at the Main Market *

Tungabhadra River in Hampi
Hampi
*

Elephant
Elephant
Stable *

Carved pillars of the Saasivekaalu Ganesha Temple at Hemakuta Hill

*

Monolithic Ganesha at the Hemakuta Hill, Hampi
Hampi
Bazaar
Bazaar
*

Sunset in Hampi, Karnataka
Karnataka
*

Ratnatraykut Jain
Jain
temple

SEE ALSO

* India
India
portal * Karnataka
Karnataka
portal * Culture portal

* Anegundi * Bukka * Kanakagiri * Krishna Deva Raya * Vidyaranya * Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire * Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Architecture

REFERENCES

* ^ " Hampi
Hampi
Village Population - Hospet - Bellary, Karnataka". Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 11 August 2015. * ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/241. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Group of Monuments at Hampi". World Heritage. Retrieved 20 December 2006. * ^ D. Devakunjari. _World Heritage Series: Hampi_. Eicher Goodearth Ltd, New Delhi - for Archaeological Survey of India
India
. p. 8. ISBN 81-87780-42-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ D. Devakunjari (2007). _World Heritage Series Hampi_. Eicher Goodearth Ltd, New Delhi - for Archaeological Survey of India. p. 11. ISBN 8187780428 . * ^ "Less Known Facts about Hampi
Hampi
Sightseeing Hampi". Karnataka.com. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015. * ^ "Group of Monuments at Hampi, Karnataka
Karnataka
- Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in. Retrieved 11 August 2015. * ^ Zones of Hampi * ^ " Hampi
Hampi
Utsav Hampi
Hampi
Festival Vurupaksha Temple". Karnataka.com. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015. * ^ Hampi: Monument Guide * ^ The three eyes of Shiva * ^ "Shimla, Himachal Pradesh – Expert Bulletin". Expertbulletin.com. Retrieved 5 October 2013. * ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. _ India
India
through the ages_. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 178. * ^ Jain: Hampi * ^ "Trip to Hampi
Hampi
- Ruins of Vijayanagara-Part 2". _Trayaan.com_. Trayaan. 15 February 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Research Project::Vitthala temple". _www.vijayanagara.org_. Retrieved 5 October 2016. * ^ "Trip to Hampi, the ruins of the magnificent Vijayanagara". _Trayaan.com_. Trayaan. 9 February 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016. * ^ "Trip to Hampi-Ruins of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
- Part 3". _trayaan.com_. Trayaan. 6 June 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016. * ^ _King’s Balance, Hampi
Hampi
– A Monument with an Interesting History_ * ^ Global Heritage Fund - Where We Work - Hampi, India. Accessed 24 April 2009. * ^ _Hampi: The remains of what was, not so long ago, the world\'s largest city_ Atlas Obscura

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to GROUP OF MONUMENTS AT HAMPI _.

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for HAMPI _.

* S.Srinivasachar, T.S.Satyan, ' Hampi
Hampi
: The fabled capital of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire_, (Directorate of Archaeology and Museums), Govt. of Karnataka, 1995_ * J.M. Fritz _et al._, _New Light on Hampi: Recent Research at Vijayanagara_, (Performing Arts Mumbai, 2001) ISBN 81-85026-53-X * A.N. Longhurst, _ Hampi
Hampi
Ruins Described and Illustrated_, (Laurier Books Ltd., 1998) ISBN 81-206-0159-9 * _The Ruins of Hampi:Travel Guide_ ISBN 81-7525-766-0 * Karnataka
Karnataka
State Gazetteer 1983.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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