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Geologist
A GEOLOGIST is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth
Earth
as well as the processes that shape it. Geologists usually study geology , although backgrounds in physics , chemistry , biology , and other sciences are also useful. Field work is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work. Some geologists work in the mining business searching for metals, oils, and other Earth
Earth
resources. They are also in the forefront of natural hazards and disasters prevention and mitigation, studying natural hazards such as earthquakes , volcanic activity, tsunamis , weather storms. Their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events. Geologists are also important contributors to climate change discussions. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Training / Schooling * 2.1 Areas of specialization * 3 Employment * 4 Professional designation * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORY Scotsman James Hutton, father of modern geology James Hutton
James Hutton
is often viewed as the first modern geologist. In 1785 he presented a paper entitled _Theory of the Earth_ to the Royal Society of Edinburgh
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Animal Collective
ANIMAL COLLECTIVE is an American experimental pop band formed in Baltimore
Baltimore
, Maryland in 2003. Its members and founders are Avey Tare (David Portner), Panda Bear (Noah Lennox), Deakin (Josh Dibb), and Geologist (Brian Weitz). The band's music is characterized by studio experimentation , vocal harmonies , and an exploration of various genres which include freak folk , noise rock , ambient drone , and psychedelia . Records released under the name "Animal Collective" may include contributions from any or all of its members. In the case of Dibb, who often takes breaks from recording and performing with the band, his time off does not constitute full leave. The band members met in school and started recording together in various forms of collaboration from a young age. Originally a duo comprising Lennox and Portner, the collective was not officially established until all four members came together for the album _Here Comes the Indian _ (2003). Most prior collaborations between the band members were then retroactively classified under Animal Collective's discography. In 1999, they established the record label Paw Tracks , issuing what is now considered their debut album, _Spirit They\'re Gone, Spirit They\'ve Vanished _ (2000), as well as work by other artists
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Geologist (musician)
BRIAN ROSS WEITZ (March 26, 1979), also known by his stage name GEOLOGIST, is a founding member of Animal Collective . He provides electronic sound manipulations and samples for the band. Weitz grew up in Philadelphia and Baltimore and currently lives in Washington, DC. His nickname comes from a friend mistaking his major in college, as well as the headlamp he wears in order to see his electronic equipment during live shows. CONTENTS * 1 Animal Collective * 2 Other musical projects * 3 Personal life * 4 Musical equipment * 5 References ANIMAL COLLECTIVEGeologist attended the Park School of Baltimore where he met future Animal Collective bandmates David Portner (aka Avey Tare) and Josh Dibb (aka Deakin). Avey Tare, Geologist and Deakin first started an indie-rock band called "Automine" with two other schoolmates. Deakin introduced his childhood friend Noah Lennox (aka Panda Bear) to Avey Tare and Geologist. Throughout their high school years and winter/summer college breaks, the four of them played music in different variations and often solo, swapping homemade recordings and sharing ideas. Geologist went on to study at Columbia University , while Avey Tare went to NYU , Panda Bear to Boston University , and Deakin to Brandeis University
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Carl Spitzweg
CARL SPITZWEG (February 5, 1808 – September 23, 1885) was a German romanticist painter, especially of genre subjects. He is considered to be one of the most important artists of the Biedermeier era. CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 Forgeries * 3 Paintings * 4 References and sources * 5 External links LIFE AND CAREER Dirndln auf der Alm, c. 1870s In the Alpine High Valley in Mt. Wendelstein, c. 1871 Jugendfreunde, c.1855 Begegnung im Walde, A Woodland Meeting, c. 1860 He was born in Unterpfaffenhofen , the second of three sons of Franziska (née Schmutzer) and Simon Spitzweg. His father, a wealthy merchant, had Carl trained as a pharmacist . He attained his qualification from the University of Munich but, while recovering from an illness, he also took up painting. Spitzweg was self-taught as an artist, starting out by copying the works of Flemish masters. He contributed his first work to satiric magazines. Upon receiving an inheritance in 1833, he was able to dedicate himself to painting. Later, Spitzweg visited European art centers in Prague , Venice , Paris, London, and Belgium studying the works of various artists and refining his technique and style. His later paintings and drawings are often humorous genre works . Many of his paintings depict sharply characterized eccentrics, for example The Bookworm (1850) and The Hypochondriac (c
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Profession
A PROFESSION is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training , the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain. The term is a truncation of the term "liberal profession", which is, in turn, an Anglicization of the French term "profession libérale". Originally borrowed by English users in the 19th century, it has been re-borrowed by international users from the late 20th, though the (upper-middle) class overtones of the term do not seem to survive retranslation: "liberal professions" are, according to the European Union
European Union
's Directive on Recognition of Professional
Professional
Qualifications (2005/36/EC) "those practiced on the basis of relevant professional qualifications in a personal, responsible and professionally independent capacity by those providing intellectual and conceptual services in the interest of the client and the public"
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Mining
MINING is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody , lode , vein , seam , reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals , coal , oil shale , gemstones , limestone , chalk , dimension stone , rock salt , potash , gravel , and clay . Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water . Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. Mining operations usually create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, and modern practices have significantly improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are generally low
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Petroleum Industry
The PETROLEUM INDUSTRY, also known as the OIL INDUSTRY or the OIL PATCH, includes the global processes of exploration , extraction , refining , transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines ), and marketing of petroleum products . The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline (petrol). Petroleum
Petroleum
(oil) is also the raw material for many chemical products , including pharmaceuticals , solvents , fertilizers , pesticides , synthetic fragrances, and plastics . The industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream , midstream and downstream . Midstream operations are often included in the downstream category. Petroleum
Petroleum
is vital to many industries, and is of importance to the maintenance of industrial civilization in its current configuration, and thus is a critical concern for many nations. Oil accounts for a large percentage of the world’s energy consumption , ranging from a low of 32% for Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
, to a high of 53% for the Middle East . Other geographic regions' consumption patterns are as follows: South and Central America
Central America
(44%), Africa
Africa
(41%), and North America
North America
(40%). The world consumes 30 billion barrels (4.8 km³) of oil per year, with developed nations being the largest consumers
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Engineering
ENGINEERING is the application of mathematics , as well as scientific , economic , social, and practical knowledge to invent , innovate , design , build, maintain , research , and improve structures , machines , tools , systems , components , materials , processes , solutions, and organizations . The discipline of engineering is extremely broad and encompasses a range of more specialized fields of engineering , each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied science, technology and types of application. The term _Engineering_ is derived from the Latin _ingenium_, meaning "cleverness" and _ingeniare_, meaning "to contrive, devise"
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Seismologist
SEISMOLOGY ( /saɪzˈmɒlədʒi/ ; from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth
Earth
or through other planet-like bodies. The field also includes studies of earthquake environmental effects such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes such as explosions. A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology . A recording of earth motion as a function of time is called a seismogram . A seismologist is a scientist who does research in seismology. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Types of seismic wave * 2.1 Body waves * 2.2 Surface waves * 2.3 Normal modes * 3 Earthquakes * 4 Controlled seismic sources * 5 Detection of seismic waves * 6 Mapping the earth\'s interior * 7 Seismology and society * 7.1 Earthquake
Earthquake
prediction * 7.2 Engineering seismology * 8 Tools * 9 Notable seismologists * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links HISTORY This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Volcanologist
A VOLCANOLOGIST or VULCANOLOGIST is a geologist who studies the processes involved in the formation and eruptive activity of volcanoes and their current and historic eruptions. Volcanologists frequently visit volcanoes, especially active ones, to observe volcanic eruptions , collect eruptive products including tephra (such as ash or pumice ), rock and lava samples. One major focus of enquiry is the prediction of eruptions; there is currently no accurate way to do this, but predicting eruptions could alleviate the impact on surrounding populations. NOTABLE VOLCANOLOGISTS * David A. Johnston , killed during the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (1949–1980) * Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) * Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707–1788) * George P. L. Walker (1926–2005) * Katia and Maurice Krafft (1942–1991 and 1946–1991, respectively) * Keith Rowley (Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago)SEE ALSO * Volcanoes of the World Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Volcanologist
Volcanologist
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Scientist
A SCIENTIST is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world. In a more restricted sense, a scientist may refer to an individual who uses the scientific method . The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science . The term scientist was coined by the theologian, philosopher and historian of science William Whewell . This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature , including physical, mathematical and social realms. Philosophy is today typically regarded as a distinct activity from science, though the activities were not always distinguished in this fashion, with science considered a "branch" of philosophy rather than opposed to it, prior to modernity. Philosophers aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of fundamental aspects of reality and experience, often pursuing inquiries with conceptual, rather than empirical, methods. Natural scientific research is usually also distinguished from inquiry in the humanities more generally, and often with inquiry in the social sciences and mathematics on various grounds, although these distinctions may be controversial
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Earth
EARTH is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life . According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4 billion years ago . Earth\'s gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon , Earth's only natural satellite . During one orbit around the Sun , Earth rotates about its axis about 365.26 times; thus, an Earth year is about 365.26 days long. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface. The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides , stabilizes the Earth's orientation on its axis, and gradually slows its rotation. Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets . Earth\'s lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water , mostly by its oceans . The remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes, rivers and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere . The majority of Earth's polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack
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Geology
GEOLOGY (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, _gē_, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, _-logia_, i.e. "study of, discourse" ) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth , the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer generally to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet (such as the geology of the Moon or Mars ). Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth by providing the primary evidence for plate tectonics , the evolutionary history of life , and past climates . Geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources , understanding of natural hazards , the remediation of environmental problems, and for providing insights into past climate change . Geology also plays a role in geotechnical engineering and is a major academic discipline
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Physics
PHYSICS (from Ancient Greek : φυσική (ἐπιστήμη) _phusikḗ (epistḗmē)_ "knowledge of nature", from φύσις _phúsis_ "nature" ) is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time , along with related concepts such as energy and force . One of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines , perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy . Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry , biology , and certain branches of mathematics , but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry , and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined . New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy . Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs
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Chemistry
CHEMISTRY is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter . Chemistry includes topics such as the properties of individual atoms , how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds , the interactions of substances through intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances. Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it bridges other natural sciences , including physics , geology and biology . For the differences between chemistry and physics see comparison of chemistry and physics . The history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy , which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world
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Biology
BIOLOGY is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms , including their physical and chemical structure , function , development and evolution . Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches . Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity , and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species . It is also understood that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment. Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the scale at which life is studied, the kinds of organisms studied, and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life; molecular biology studies the complex interactions among biological molecules ; cellular biology examines the basic building-block of all life, the cell ; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of tissues , organs , and organ systems ; ecology examines how organisms interact in their environment ; and evolutionary biology examines the processes that produced the diversity of life
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