A tsunami (from Japanese: 津波, "harbour wave"; English
pronunciation: /tsuːˈnɑːmi/ tsoo-NAH-mee) or tidal wave, also
known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body
caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an
ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other
underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear
devices), landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other
disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a
tsunami. Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or
tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and
the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water.
Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves
because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a
breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly
rising tide. For this reason, it is often referred to as a "tidal
wave", although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community
as tsunamis are not tidal. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of
waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a
so-called "internal wave train".
Wave heights of tens of metres can
be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is
limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous, and
they can affect entire ocean basins. The 2004
Indian Ocean tsunami was
among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least
230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian
Ancient Greek historian
Thucydides suggested in his 5th century BC
History of the Peloponnesian War
History of the Peloponnesian War that tsunamis were related to
submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of tsunamis
remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major
areas of current research include determining why some large
earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do;
accurately forecasting the passage of tsunamis across the oceans; and
forecasting how tsunami waves interact with shorelines.
1.2 Tidal wave
Seismic sea wave
3.4 Man-made or triggered tsunamis
6 Scales of intensity and magnitude
6.1 Intensity scales
6.2 Magnitude scales
8 Warnings and predictions
8.1 Forecast of tsunami attack probability
10 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
"Tsunami" in kanji
The term "tsunami" is a borrowing from the Japanese tsunami 津波,
meaning "harbour wave". For the plural, one can either follow ordinary
English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the
Japanese. Some English speakers alter the word's initial /ts/ to an
/s/ by dropping the "t", since English does not natively permit /ts/
at the beginning of words, though the original Japanese pronunciation
Tsunami aftermath in Aceh, Indonesia, December 2004.
Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. This
once-popular term derives from the most common appearance of a
tsunami, which is that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunamis
and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the
case of a tsunami, the inland movement of water may be much greater,
giving the impression of an incredibly high and forceful tide. In
recent years, the term "tidal wave" has fallen out of favour,
especially in the scientific community, because tsunamis have nothing
to do with tides, which are produced by the gravitational pull of the
moon and sun rather than the displacement of water. Although the
meanings of "tidal" include "resembling" or "having the form or
character of" the tides, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged
by geologists and oceanographers.
Seismic sea wave
The term seismic sea wave also is used to refer to the phenomenon,
because the waves most often are generated by seismic activity such as
earthquakes. Prior to the rise of the use of the term tsunami in
English, scientists generally encouraged the use of the term seismic
sea wave rather than tidal wave. However, like tsunami, seismic sea
wave is not a completely accurate term, as forces other than
earthquakes – including underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions,
underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite
impacts, and the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes very
rapidly – can generate such waves by displacing water.
See also: List of historic tsunamis
Lisbon earthquake and tsunami in November 1755.
Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the
sheer destruction caused by the 2004
Indian Ocean earthquake and
tsunami event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern
times, killing around 230,000 people. The Sumatran region is not
unused to tsunamis either, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes
regularly occurring off the coast of the island.
Tsunamis are an often underestimated hazard in the Mediterranean Sea
and parts of Europe. Of historical and current (with regard to risk
assumptions) importance are the
1755 Lisbon earthquake
1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami
(which was caused by the Azores–Gibraltar Transform Fault), the 1783
Calabrian earthquakes, each causing several tens of thousands of
deaths and the
1908 Messina earthquake
1908 Messina earthquake and tsunami. The tsunami
claimed more than 123,000 lives in Sicily and Calabria and is among
the most deadly natural disasters in modern Europe. The
in the Norwegian Sea and some examples of tsunamis affecting the
British Isles refer to landslide and meteotsunamis predominantly and
less to earthquake-induced waves.
As early as 426 BC the Greek historian
Thucydides inquired in his book
History of the Peloponnesian War
History of the Peloponnesian War about the causes of tsunami, and was
the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause.
The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the
earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the
sea is driven back, and suddenly recoiling with redoubled force,
causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see how such an
accident could happen.
The Roman historian
Ammianus Marcellinus (Res Gestae 26.10.15–19)
described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient
earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a following gigantic
wave, after the 365 AD tsunami devastated Alexandria.
The principal generation mechanism (or cause) of a tsunami is the
displacement of a substantial volume of water or perturbation of the
sea. This displacement of water is usually attributed to either
earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, glacier calvings or more
rarely by meteorites and nuclear tests. The waves formed in
this way are then sustained by gravity.[how?]
Tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and
vertically displaces the overlying water. Tectonic earthquakes are a
particular kind of earthquake that are associated with the Earth's
crustal deformation; when these earthquakes occur beneath the sea, the
water above the deformed area is displaced from its equilibrium
position. More specifically, a tsunami can be generated when
thrust faults associated with convergent or destructive plate
boundaries move abruptly, resulting in water displacement, owing to
the vertical component of movement involved. Movement on normal
(extensional) faults can also cause displacement of the seabed, but
only the largest of such events (typically related to flexure in the
outer trench swell) cause enough displacement to give rise to a
significant tsunami, such as the 1977 Sumba and 1933 Sanriku
Drawing of tectonic plate boundary before earthquake
Overriding plate bulges under strain, causing tectonic uplift.
Plate slips, causing subsidence and releasing energy into water.
The energy released produces tsunami waves.
Tsunamis have a small amplitude (wave height) offshore, and a very
long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometres long, whereas normal
ocean waves have a wavelength of only 30 or 40 metres), which is
why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a slight swell
usually about 300 millimetres (12 in) above the normal sea
surface. They grow in height when they reach shallower water, in a
wave shoaling process described below. A tsunami can occur in any
tidal state and even at low tide can still inundate coastal areas.
On April 1, 1946, the 8.6 Mw Aleutian Islands earthquake occurred with
a maximum Mercalli intensity of VI (Strong). It generated a tsunami
which inundated Hilo on the island of
Hawaii with a 14-metre high
(46 ft) surge. Between 165 and 173 were killed. The area where
the earthquake occurred is where the
Pacific Ocean floor is subducting
(or being pushed downwards) under Alaska.
Examples of tsunami originating at locations away from convergent
Storegga about 8,000 years ago,
Grand Banks 1929,
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea 1998 (Tappin, 2001). The
Grand Banks and Papua New
Guinea tsunamis came from earthquakes which destabilised sediments,
causing them to flow into the ocean and generate a tsunami. They
dissipated before travelling transoceanic distances.
The cause of the
Storegga sediment failure is unknown. Possibilities
include an overloading of the sediments, an earthquake or a release of
gas hydrates (methane etc.).
1960 Valdivia earthquake
1960 Valdivia earthquake (Mw 9.5),
1964 Alaska earthquake
1964 Alaska earthquake (Mw
Indian Ocean earthquake (Mw 9.2), and 2011 Tōhoku
earthquake (Mw9.0) are recent examples of powerful megathrust
earthquakes that generated tsunamis (known as teletsunamis) that can
cross entire oceans. Smaller (Mw 4.2) earthquakes in
Japan can trigger
tsunamis (called local and regional tsunamis) that can only devastate
nearby coasts, but can do so in only a few minutes.
In the 1950s, it was discovered that larger tsunamis than had
previously been believed possible could be caused by giant submarine
landslides. These rapidly displace large water volumes, as energy
transfers to the water at a rate faster than the water can absorb.
Their existence was confirmed in 1958, when a giant landslide in
Lituya Bay, Alaska, caused the highest wave ever recorded, which had a
height of 524 metres (over 1700 feet). The wave did not travel
far, as it struck land almost immediately. Two people fishing in the
bay were killed, but another boat managed to ride the wave.
Another landslide-tsunami event occurred in 1963 when a massive
Monte Toc entered the
Vajont Dam in Italy. The
resulting wave surged over the 262 m (860 ft) high dam by
250 metres (820 ft) and destroyed several towns. Around 2,000
people died. Scientists named these waves megatsunamis.
Some geologists claim that large landslides from volcanic islands,
Cumbre Vieja on
La Palma in the Canary Islands, may be able to
generate megatsunamis that can cross oceans, but this is disputed by
In general, landslides generate displacements mainly in the shallower
parts of the coastline, and there is conjecture about the nature of
large landslides that enter the water. This has been shown to
subsequently affect water in enclosed bays and lakes, but a landslide
large enough to cause a transoceanic tsunami has not occurred within
recorded history. Susceptible locations are believed to be the Big
Island of Hawaii, Fogo in the Cape Verde Islands, La Reunion in the
Indian Ocean, and
Cumbre Vieja on the island of
La Palma in the Canary
Islands; along with other volcanic ocean islands. This is because
large masses of relatively unconsolidated volcanic material occurs on
the flanks and in some cases detachment planes are believed to be
developing. However, there is growing controversy about how dangerous
these slopes actually are.
Some meteorological conditions, especially rapid changes in barometric
pressure, as seen with the passing of a front, can displace bodies of
water enough to cause trains of waves with wavelengths comparable to
seismic tsunamis, but usually with lower energies. These are
essentially dynamically equivalent to seismic tsunamis, the only
differences being that meteotsunamis lack the transoceanic reach of
significant seismic tsunamis and that the force that displaces the
water is sustained over some length of time such that meteotsunamis
can't be modelled as having been caused instantaneously. In spite of
their lower energies, on shorelines where they can be amplified by
resonance, they are sometimes powerful enough to cause localised
damage and potential for loss of life. They have been documented in
many places, including the Great Lakes, the Aegean Sea, the English
Channel, and the Balearic Islands, where they are common enough to
have a local name, rissaga. In Sicily they are called marubbio and in
Nagasaki Bay, they are called abiki. Some examples of destructive
meteotsunamis include 31 March 1979 at Nagasaki and 15 June 2006 at
Menorca, the latter causing damage in the tens of millions of
Meteotsunamis should not be confused with storm surges, which are
local increases in sea level associated with the low barometric
pressure of passing tropical cyclones, nor should they be confused
with setup, the temporary local raising of sea level caused by strong
Storm surges and setup are also dangerous causes of
coastal flooding in severe weather but their dynamics are completely
unrelated to tsunami waves. They are unable to propagate beyond
their sources, as waves do.
Man-made or triggered tsunamis
There have been studies of the potential of the induction of and at
least one actual attempt to create tsunami waves as a tectonic weapon.
In World War II, the New Zealand Military Forces initiated Project
Seal, which attempted to create small tsunamis with explosives in the
area of today's Shakespear Regional Park; the attempt failed.
There has been considerable speculation on the possibility of using
nuclear weapons to cause tsunamis near an enemy coastline. Even during
World War II
World War II consideration of the idea using conventional explosives
was explored. Nuclear testing in the
Pacific Proving Ground
Pacific Proving Ground by the
United States seemed to generate poor results. Operation Crossroads
fired two 20 kilotonnes of TNT (84 TJ) bombs, one in the air and
one underwater, above and below the shallow (50 m (160 ft))
waters of the
Bikini Atoll lagoon. Fired about 6 km (3.7 mi)
from the nearest island, the waves there were no higher than
3–4 m (9.8–13.1 ft) upon reaching the shoreline. Other
underwater tests, mainly Hardtack I/Wahoo (deep water) and Hardtack
I/Umbrella (shallow water) confirmed the results. Analysis of the
effects of shallow and deep underwater explosions indicate that the
energy of the explosions doesn't easily generate the kind of deep,
all-ocean waveforms which are tsunamis; most of the energy creates
steam, causes vertical fountains above the water, and creates
compressional waveforms. Tsunamis are hallmarked by permanent
large vertical displacements of very large volumes of water which do
not occur in explosions.
When the wave enters shallow water, it slows down and its amplitude
The wave further slows and amplifies as it hits land. Only the largest
Tsunamis cause damage by two mechanisms: the smashing force of a wall
of water travelling at high speed, and the destructive power of a
large volume of water draining off the land and carrying a large
amount of debris with it, even with waves that do not appear to be
While everyday wind waves have a wavelength (from crest to crest) of
about 100 metres (330 ft) and a height of roughly 2 metres
(6.6 ft), a tsunami in the deep ocean has a much larger
wavelength of up to 200 kilometres (120 mi). Such a wave travels
at well over 800 kilometres per hour (500 mph), but owing to the
enormous wavelength the wave oscillation at any given point takes 20
or 30 minutes to complete a cycle and has an amplitude of only about 1
metre (3.3 ft). This makes tsunamis difficult to detect over
deep water, where ships are unable to feel their passage.
The velocity of a tsunami can be calculated by obtaining the square
root of the depth of the water in metres multiplied by the
acceleration due to gravity (approximated to 10 m/s2). For
example, if the
Pacific Ocean is considered to have a depth of 5000
metres, the velocity of a tsunami would be the square root of √(5000
× 10) = √50000 = ~224 metres per second (735 feet per second),
which equates to a speed of ~806 kilometres per hour or about 500
miles per hour. This is the formula used for calculating the velocity
of shallow-water waves. Even the deep ocean is shallow in this sense
because a tsunami wave is so long (horizontally from crest to crest)
The reason for the Japanese name "harbour wave" is that sometimes a
village's fishermen would sail out, and encounter no unusual waves
while out at sea fishing, and come back to land to find their village
devastated by a huge wave.
As the tsunami approaches the coast and the waters become shallow,
wave shoaling compresses the wave and its speed decreases below 80
kilometres per hour (50 mph). Its wavelength diminishes to less
than 20 kilometres (12 mi) and its amplitude grows enormously –
in accord with Green's law. Since the wave still has the same very
long period, the tsunami may take minutes to reach full height. Except
for the very largest tsunamis, the approaching wave does not break,
but rather appears like a fast-moving tidal bore. Open bays and
coastlines adjacent to very deep water may shape the tsunami further
into a step-like wave with a steep-breaking front.
When the tsunami's wave peak reaches the shore, the resulting
temporary rise in sea level is termed run up. Run up is measured in
metres above a reference sea level. A large tsunami may feature
multiple waves arriving over a period of hours, with significant time
between the wave crests. The first wave to reach the shore may not
have the highest run-up.
About 80% of tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean, but they are
possible wherever there are large bodies of water, including lakes.
They are caused by earthquakes, landslides, volcanic explosions,
glacier calvings, and bolides.
An illustration of the rhythmic "drawback" of surface water associated
with a wave. It follows that a very large drawback may herald the
arrival of a very large wave.
All waves have a positive and negative peak; that is, a ridge and a
trough. In the case of a propagating wave like a tsunami, either may
be the first to arrive. If the first part to arrive at the shore is
the ridge, a massive breaking wave or sudden flooding will be the
first effect noticed on land. However, if the first part to arrive is
a trough, a drawback will occur as the shoreline recedes dramatically,
exposing normally submerged areas. The drawback can exceed hundreds of
metres, and people unaware of the danger sometimes remain near the
shore to satisfy their curiosity or to collect fish from the exposed
A typical wave period for a damaging tsunami is about twelve minutes.
Thus, the sea recedes in the drawback phase, with areas well below sea
level exposed after three minutes. For the next six minutes, the wave
trough builds into a ridge which may flood the coast, and destruction
ensues. During the next six minutes, the wave changes from a ridge to
a trough, and the flood waters recede in a second drawback. Victims
and debris may be swept into the ocean. The process repeats with
Scales of intensity and magnitude
As with earthquakes, several attempts have been made to set up scales
of tsunami intensity or magnitude to allow comparison between
The first scales used routinely to measure the intensity of tsunami
were the Sieberg-Ambraseys scale, used in the
Mediterranean Sea and
the Imamura-Iida intensity scale, used in the Pacific Ocean. The
latter scale was modified by Soloviev, who calculated the Tsunami
intensity I according to the formula
displaystyle , mathit I = frac 1 2 +log _ 2 mathit H _ av
displaystyle mathit H _ av
is the average wave height along the nearest coast. This scale, known
as the Soloviev-Imamura tsunami intensity scale, is used in the global
tsunami catalogues compiled by the NGDC/NOAA and the Novosibirsk
Tsunami Laboratory as the main parameter for the size of the tsunami.
In 2013, following the intensively studied tsunamis in 2004 and 2011,
a new 12 point scale was proposed, the Integrated
Scale (ITIS-2012), intended to match as closely as possible to the
modified ESI2007 and EMS earthquake intensity scales.
The first scale that genuinely calculated a magnitude for a tsunami,
rather than an intensity at a particular location was the ML scale
proposed by Murty & Loomis based on the potential energy.
Difficulties in calculating the potential energy of the tsunami mean
that this scale is rarely used. Abe introduced the tsunami magnitude
displaystyle mathit M _ t
, calculated from,
displaystyle , mathit M _ t = a log h+ b log R= mathit D
where h is the maximum tsunami-wave amplitude (in m) measured by a
tide gauge at a distance R from the epicentre, a, b and D are
constants used to make the Mt scale match as closely as possible with
the moment magnitude scale.
There are different term being used to describe different
characteristic of tsunami in term of their height, and each of them
are used to refer to different characteristic of a
Wave Height, or
to its height relative to the normal sea level. It is usually measured
at sea level, and it is different from the crest-to-trough height
which is commonly used to measure other type of wave height.
Run-up Height, or Inundation Height: The height reached by a tsunami
on the ground above sea level, Maximum run-up height refers to the
maximum height reached by water above sea level, which is sometime
reported as the maximum height reached by a tsunami.
Flow Depth: Refer to the height of tsunami above ground, regardless of
the height of the location or sea level.
(Maximum) Water Level: Maximum height above sea level as seen from
trace or water mark. Different from maximum run-up height in the sense
that they are not necessarily water marks at inundation line/limit.
Warnings and predictions
Tsunami warning system
Tsunami warning sign
Drawbacks can serve as a brief warning. People who observe drawback
(many survivors report an accompanying sucking sound), can survive
only if they immediately run for high ground or seek the upper floors
of nearby buildings. In 2004, ten-year-old
Tilly Smith of Surrey,
England, was on Maikhao beach in Phuket,
Thailand with her parents and
sister, and having learned about tsunamis recently in school, told her
family that a tsunami might be imminent. Her parents warned others
minutes before the wave arrived, saving dozens of lives. She credited
her geography teacher, Andrew Kearney.
In the 2004
Indian Ocean tsunami drawback was not reported on the
African coast or any other east-facing coasts that it reached. This
was because the wave moved downwards on the eastern side of the fault
line and upwards on the western side. The western pulse hit coastal
Africa and other western areas.
A tsunami cannot be precisely predicted, even if the magnitude and
location of an earthquake is known. Geologists, oceanographers, and
seismologists analyse each earthquake and based on many factors may or
may not issue a tsunami warning. However, there are some warning signs
of an impending tsunami, and automated systems can provide warnings
immediately after an earthquake in time to save lives. One of the most
successful systems uses bottom pressure sensors, attached to buoys,
which constantly monitor the pressure of the overlying water column.
Regions with a high tsunami risk typically use tsunami warning systems
to warn the population before the wave reaches land. On the west coast
of the United States, which is prone to
Pacific Ocean tsunami, warning
signs indicate evacuation routes. In Japan, the community is
well-educated about earthquakes and tsunamis, and along the Japanese
shorelines the tsunami warning signs are reminders of the natural
hazards together with a network of warning sirens, typically at the
top of the cliff of surroundings hills.
Tsunami Warning System is based in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi. It
Pacific Ocean seismic activity. A sufficiently large
earthquake magnitude and other information triggers a tsunami warning.
While the subduction zones around the Pacific are seismically active,
not all earthquakes generate a tsunami. Computers assist in analysing
the tsunami risk of every earthquake that occurs in the Pacific Ocean
and the adjoining land masses.
Tsunami hazard sign at Bamfield, British Columbia
A tsunami warning sign in Kamakura, Japan
The monument to the victims of the 1946 tsunami at Laupahoehoe, Hawaii
Tsunami memorial in
Tsunami hazard sign (Spanish - English) in Iquique, Chile.
Tsunami Evacuation Route signage along U.S. Route 101, in Washington
As a direct result of the
Indian Ocean tsunami, a re-appraisal of the
tsunami threat for all coastal areas is being undertaken by national
governments and the United Nations
Disaster Mitigation Committee. A
tsunami warning system is being installed in the Indian Ocean.
One of the deep water buoys used in the DART tsunami warning system
Computer models can predict tsunami arrival, usually within minutes of
the arrival time. Bottom pressure sensors can relay information in
real time. Based on these pressure readings and other seismic
information and the seafloor's shape (bathymetry) and coastal
topography, the models estimate the amplitude and surge height of the
approaching tsunami. All
Pacific Rim countries collaborate in the
Tsunami Warning System and most regularly practise evacuation and
other procedures. In Japan, such preparation is mandatory for
government, local authorities, emergency services and the population.
Some zoologists hypothesise that some animal species have an ability
to sense subsonic
Rayleigh waves from an earthquake or a tsunami. If
correct, monitoring their behaviour could provide advance warning of
earthquakes, tsunami etc. However, the evidence is controversial and
is not widely accepted. There are unsubstantiated claims about the
Lisbon quake that some animals escaped to higher ground, while many
other animals in the same areas drowned. The phenomenon was also noted
by media sources in
Sri Lanka in the 2004 Indian Ocean
earthquake. It is possible that certain animals (e.g.,
elephants) may have heard the sounds of the tsunami as it approached
the coast. The elephants' reaction was to move away from the
approaching noise. By contrast, some humans went to the shore to
investigate and many drowned as a result.
Along the United States west coast, in addition to sirens, warnings
are sent on television and radio via the National Weather Service,
using the Emergency Alert System.
Forecast of tsunami attack probability
Kunihiko Shimazaki (University of Tokyo), a member of Earthquake
Research committee of The Headquarters for
Promotion of the Japanese government, mentioned the plan for a public
announcement of tsunami attack probability forecast at
Press Club on 12 May 2011. The forecast includes tsunami height,
attack area and occurrence probability within 100 years ahead. The
forecast would integrate the scientific knowledge of recent
interdisciplinarity and aftermath of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and
tsunami. As the plan, an announcement will be available from
See also: Seawall
A seawall at Tsu, Japan
In some tsunami-prone countries, earthquake engineering measures have
been taken to reduce the damage caused onshore.
Japan, where tsunami science and response measures first began
following a disaster in 1896, has produced ever-more elaborate
countermeasures and response plans. The country has built many
tsunami walls of up to 12 metres (39 ft) high to protect
populated coastal areas. Other localities have built floodgates of up
to 15.5 metres (51 ft) high and channels to redirect the water
from an incoming tsunami. However, their effectiveness has been
questioned, as tsunami often overtop the barriers.
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster was directly triggered by the
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, when waves exceeded the height of
the plant's sea wall. Iwate Prefecture, which is an area at high
risk from tsunami, had tsunami barriers walls (Taro sea wall)
totalling 25 kilometres (16 mi) long at coastal towns. The 2011
tsunami toppled more than 50% of the walls and caused catastrophic
Okushiri, Hokkaidō tsunami which struck Okushiri Island of
Hokkaidō within two to five minutes of the earthquake on July 12,
1993, created waves as much as 30 metres (100 ft) tall—as high
as a 10-storey building. The port town of Aonae was completely
surrounded by a tsunami wall, but the waves washed right over the wall
and destroyed all the wood-framed structures in the area. The wall may
have succeeded in slowing down and moderating the height of the
tsunami, but it did not prevent major destruction and loss of
Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis
Earthquake Early Warning (Japan)
Higher Ground Project
Index of wave articles
Kaikoura Canyon landslide tsunami hazard
List of natural disasters by death toll
Lists of earthquakes
Tsunamis affecting New Zealand
Tsunamis affecting the British Isles
Tsunamis in lakes
Tsunami Terminology". NOAA. Archived from the original on
2011-02-25. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
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Tsunami Terminology at NOAA
In June 2011, the VOA
Special English service of the Voice of America
broadcast a 15-minute program on tsunamis as part of its weekly
Science in the News series. The program included an interview with an
NOAA official who oversees the agency's tsunami warning system. A
transcript and MP3 of the program, intended for English learners, can
be found at The Ever-
Present Threat of Tsunamis.
abelard.org. tsunamis: tsunamis travel fast but not at infinite speed.
retrieved March 29, 2005.
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Indian Ocean tsunamis of December 26, 2004 and March
Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, EERI Publication
#2006-06, 11 chapters, 100 page summary, plus CD-ROM with complete
text and supplementary photographs, EERI Report 2006-06.
ISBN 1-932884-19-X website
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Girl, 10, used geography lesson to save lives, Telegraph.co.uk
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2009, ISBN 978-1-4020-8855-1.
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Tsunami Events and Lessons Learned:
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(C.H. Beck Reihe Wissen 2770), ISBN 978-3-406-64656-0 (in
Walter C. Dudley, Min Lee: Tsunami! University of
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Charles L. Mader: Numerical Modeling of Water Waves CRC Press, 2004,
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tsunami.
Tsunami – geology.com
Tsunami Data and Information – National Geophysical Data Center
Tsunami Glossary – International
Tsunami Information Center
Earthquake Research at the USGS – United States
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission – Intergovernmental
Tsunami – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Wave That Shook The World – Nova
Recent and Historical
Tsunami Events and Relevant Data – Pacific
Marine Environmental Laboratory
Tsunami Slams Northeast
Japan – Associated Press
Tsunami alert page (in English) from
Tsunami status page from USGS-run Pacific
Tsunami Warning Center
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