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Gemmatimonadetes
The GEMMATIMONADETES are a phylum of bacteria created for the type species Gemmatimonas aurantiaca
Gemmatimonas aurantiaca
. This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates. Gemmatimonadetes have been found in a variety of arid soils, such as grassland, prairie, and pasture soil, as well as eutrophic lake sediments and alpine soils. This wide range of environments where Gemmatimonadetes have been found suggests an adaptation to low soil moisture. A study conducted showed that the distribution of the Gemmatimonadetes in soil tends to be more dependent on the moisture availability than aggregation, reinforcing the belief that the members of this phylum prefer dryer soils
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Rhizobiales
Hyphomicrobiales The RHIZOBIALES are an order of Gram-negative
Gram-negative
Alphaproteobacteria
Alphaproteobacteria
. The rhizobia , which fix nitrogen and are symbiotic with plant roots, appear in several different families. The four families Bradyrhizobiaceae , Hyphomicrobiaceae , Phyllobacteriaceae , and Rhizobiaceae contain at least six genera of nitrogen-fixing, legume-nodulating, microsymbiotic bacteria. Examples are the genera Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium
Rhizobium
. Species of the Methylocystaceae are methanotrophs ; they use methanol (CH3OH) or methane (CH4) as their sole energy and carbon sources. Other important genera are Bartonella (pathogen) and Agrobacterium
Agrobacterium
(genetic engineering )
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Parvularculales
PARVULARCULA BERMUDENSIS is a marine bacterium which was identified in 2003 in the western Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. It forms a deep branch in the Alpha Proteobacteria, distinct from the other orders. Parvularcula isolates are Gram-negative
Gram-negative
, strictly aerobic , chemoheterotrophic , slightly motile short rods with a single flagellum . Colonies on marine agar are very small (0·3–0·8 mm in diameter), yellowish-brown and very hard. They are oxidase positive and catalase negative. REFERENCES * ^ ."Parvularcula". LPSN. Retrieved 26 January 2018. * ^ Cho, J.-C (2003). " Parvularcula bermudensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium that forms a deep branch in the -Proteobacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53 (4): 1031. doi :10.1099/ijs.0.02566-0
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Rhodobacterales
In taxonomy , the RHODOBACTERALES are an order of the Alphaproteobacteria
Alphaproteobacteria
. Gene transfer agents are viruslike elements produced by Rhodobacterales which transfer DNA and may be an important factor in their evolution. CONTENTS * 1 References * 2 Further reading * 2.1 Scientific journals * 2.2 Scientific books * 2.3 Scientific databases * 3 External links REFERENCES * ^ See the NCBI webpage on Rhodobacterales. Data extracted from the "NCBI taxonomy resources" . National Center for Biotechnology Information . Retrieved 2007-03-19. * ^ Maxmen, A. (2010). "Virus-like particles speed bacterial evolution". Nature. doi :10.1038/news.2010.507 . FURTHER READINGSCIENTIFIC JOURNALS * Lee KB, Liu CT, Anzai Y, Kim H, Aono T, Oyaizu H (2005). "The hierarchical system of the 'Alphaproteobacteria': description of Hyphomonadaceae fam. nov., Xanthobacteraceae fam. nov. and Erythrobacteraceae fam
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Rhodospirillales
Rhodospirillaceae Acetobacteraceae The RHODOSPIRILLALES are an order of Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
, with two families: the Acetobacteraceae and the Rhodospirillaceae . The Acetobacteraceae comprise the acetic acid bacteria , which are heterotrophic and produce acetic acid during their respiration. The Rhodospirillaceae include mainly purple nonsulfur bacteria , which produce energy through photosynthesis . REFERENCES * ^ LPSN * ^ A B Garrity, George M.; Brenner, Don J.; Krieg, Noel R.; Staley, James T. (eds.) (2005). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume Two: The Proteobacteria, Part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria. New York, New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-24145-6 . This Alphaproteobacteria
Alphaproteobacteria
-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Rickettsiales
Rickettsiaceae Midichloriaceae Anaplasmataceae The RICKETTSIALES, also called RICKETTSIAS, are an order of small proteobacteria . Most of those described survive only as endosymbionts of other cells. Some are notable pathogens, including Rickettsia , which causes a variety of diseases in humans. On the other end of the scale, genetic studies support the endosymbiotic theory according to which mitochondria and related organelles developed from members of this group. Some have also speculated that viruses might have developed from them, or from organisms like them. The Rickettsiales
Rickettsiales
are among the most mysterious groups of Proteobacteria, owing largely to difficulties in cultivating them. The group includes all obligate endosymbiont bacteria. However, a number of species have been removed, such as Coxiella burnetii , the cause of Q fever
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Bacterial Outer Membrane
The BACTERIAL OUTER MEMBRANE is found in gram-negative bacteria . Its composition is distinct from that of the inner cytoplasmic cell membrane - among other things, the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of many gram-negative bacteria includes a complex lipopolysaccharide whose lipid portion acts as an endotoxin - and in some bacteria such as E. coli it is linked to the cell's peptidoglycan by Braun\'s lipoprotein . Porins can be found in this layer. CONTENTS * 1 Clinical significance * 2 Biogenesis * 3 See also * 4 References CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCEIf lipid A , part of the LPS, enters the circulatory system it causes a toxic reaction by activating TLR 4 . Lipid A is very pathogenic and not immunogenic. However, the polysaccharide component is very immunogenic, but not pathogenic, causing an aggressive response by the immune system. The sufferer will have a high temperature and respiration rate and a low blood pressure
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Magnetococcales
MAGNETOCOCCUS MARINUS is a species of Alphaproteobacteria
Alphaproteobacteria
that has the peculiar ability to form a structure called a magnetosome , a membrane encased single-magnetic-domain mineral crystals formed by biomineralisation, which allows the cells to orientate along the Earth’s geomagnetic field. It is a basal group in the Alphaproteobacteria. Phylogeny of Rickettsiales
Rickettsiales
Magnetococcidae Magnetococcales Magnetococcaceae Magnetococcus marinus Caulobacteridae Rhodospirillales , Sphingomonadales , Rhodobacteraceae , Rhizobiales , etc
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Thermales
THERMALES is an order of bacteria belonging to the Deinococcus–Thermus phylum . They are particularly resistant to heat, and live in the benthic zone of the Gulf of Mexico. REFERENCES * ^ Fred A. Rainey; Milton S. da Costa (14 September 2015). " Thermales ord. nov.". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. doi :10.1002/9781118960608.obm00045 . Archived from the original on 18 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016. * ^ John W. Tunnell, Jr.; Darryl L. Felder; Sylvia A. Earle; David K. Camp, eds. (2009). "Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters, and Biota: Biodiversity". Texas A&M University Press: 38. ISBN 9781603442695 . Retrieved 18 December 2016. This bacteria -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Caulobacterales
Asticcacaulis Brevundimonas Caulobacter Phenylobacterium CAULOBACTERACEAE is a family of proteobacteria , given its own order (Caulobacterales) within the alpha subgroup. Like all Proteobacteria , the Caulobacteraceae are gram-negative . Caulobacteraceae includes the genera Asticcacaulis , Brevundimonas , Phenylobacterium and Caulobacter . The typespecies Caulobacter gives its name also to the recently proposed subclass, the Caulobacteridae, which includes the orders Caulobacterales, Parvularculales, Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales, Rhodospirillales, Sneathiellales, Sphingomonadales, Kiloniellales, Kordiimonadales and controversially the Holosporales. REFERENCES * ^ A B Garrity, George M.; Brenner, Don J.; Krieg, Noel R.; Staley, James T. (eds.) (2005)
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Thermophile
A THERMOPHILE is an organism—a type of extremophile —that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between 41 and 122 °C (106 and 252 °F). Many thermophiles are archaea . Thermophilic eubacteria are suggested to have been among the earliest bacteria. Thermophiles are found in various geothermally heated regions of the Earth
Earth
, such as hot springs like those in Yellowstone National Park (see image) and deep sea hydrothermal vents , as well as decaying plant matter, such as peat bogs and compost. Thermophiles can survive at high temperatures, whereas other bacteria would be damaged and sometimes killed if exposed to the same temperatures. The enzymes in thermophiles necessarily function at high temperatures. Some of these enzymes are used in molecular biology , for example, heat-stable DNA polymerases for PCR ), and in washing agents
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Herpetosiphonales
Herpetosiphonaceae HERPETOSIPHONALES is one of two orders of bacteria in the class Chloroflexi . SEE ALSO * List of bacterial orders REFERENCES * ^ Garrity, George M. (2001). Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 427–446
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Chloroflexales
Chloroflexaceae CHLOROFLEXALES is one of two orders of bacteria in the class Chloroflexi . SEE ALSO * List of bacterial orders REFERENCES * ^ Garrity, George M. (2001). Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 427–446
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Domain (biology)
Eukaryota (represented by the Australian green tree frog , left), Bacteria
Bacteria
(represented by Staphylococcus aureus , middle) and Archaea (represented by Sulfolobus , right). The hierarchy of biological classification 's eight major taxonomic ranks . Life
Life
is divided into domains, which are subdivided into further groups. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown. In biological taxonomy , a DOMAIN ( Latin : REGIO ) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese , an American microbiologist and biophysicist . According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life (biology) consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria
Bacteria
, and Eukarya
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Sphingomonadales
Blastomonas Citromicrobium Erythrobacter Erythromicrobium Kaistobacter Lutibacterium Novosphingobium Porphyrobacter Sandaracinobacter Sphingobium Sphingomonas Sphingopyxis Zymomonas SPHINGOMONADACEAE are a family of the Alphaproteobacteria . An important feature is the presence of sphingolipids in the outer membrane of the cell wall. The cells are ovoid or rod-shaped. Others are also pleomorphic , i.e. the cells change the shape over time. Some species are phototrophic . Sphingomonadaceae are also known by the ability of some species to degrade some aromatic compounds . This makes the bacteria of interest to environmental remediation . REFERENCES * ^ Garrity, George M.; Brenner, Don J.; Krieg, Noel R.; Staley, James T. (eds.) (2005)
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