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The Gemmatimonadetes are a phylum of bacteria created for the type species Gemmatimonas aurantiaca. This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.[1] Gemmatimonadetes have been found in a variety of arid soils, such as grassland, prairie, and pasture soil, as well as eutrophic lake sediments and alpine soils. This wide range of environments where Gemmatimonadetes have been found suggests an adaptation to low soil moisture.[2] A study conducted showed that the distribution of the Gemmatimonadetes in soil tends to be more dependent on the moisture availability than aggregation, reinforcing the belief that the members of this phylum prefer dryer soils.[3] The phylum Gemmatimonadetes is distinct from the phylum Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria
and may have diverged in early microbial evolution at least 3 billion years ago.[4] The first member of this phylum was discovered in 2003 in activated sludge in a sewage treatment system. The bacterium was named Gemmatimonas aurantiaca.[5] This bacterium is identified as strain T-27T, is Gram-negative, and is the only member of this phylum that has been studied in depth. The metabolic pathways and enzymes of this bacterium are unique and it is able to grow by both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.[6]

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Taxonomy[edit] The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN),[7] National Center for Biotechnology Information[8] and the All-Species Living Tree Project.[9]

Phylum
Phylum
Gemmatimonadetes Zhang et al. 2003 [Gemmatimonadaeota Oren et al. 2015]

Class Longimicrobia Pascual et al. 2016

Order Longimicrobiales Pascual et al. 2016

Family Longimicrobiaceae Pascual et al. 2016

Genus Longimicrobium Pascual et al. 2016

Species Longimicrobium terrae Pascual et al. 2016

Class Gemmatimonadetes Zhang et al. 2003

Order Gemmatimonadales Zhang et al. 2003

Family Gemmatimonadaceae Zhang et al. 2003

Genus Gemmatirosa DeBruyn et al. 2013

Species Gemmatirosa kalamazoonesis DeBruyn et al. 2013

Genus Gemmatimonas Zhang et al. 2003 emend. Zeng et al. 2015 [Gemmimonas (sic)]

Species G. phototrophica Zeng et al. 2015 Species G. aurantiaca Zhang et al. 2003 emend. Zeng et al. 2015 [Gemmimonas aurantiaca (sic)]

See also[edit] List of bacterial orders References[edit]

^ Fawaz, Mariam (2013). "Revealing the Ecological Role of Gemmatimonadetes Through Cultivation and Molecular Analysis of Agricultural Soils". Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee: vi.  ^ DeBruyn, J; Nixon, L; Fawaz, M; Johnson, M; Radosevich, M (2011). "Global Biogeography and Quantitative Season Dynamics of Gemmatimonadetes in Soil". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77 (17): 6295–300. doi:10.1128/AEM.05005-11. PMC 3165389 . PMID 21764958.  ^ Fawaz, Mariam (2013). "Revealing the Ecological Role of Gemmatimonadetes Through Cultivation and Molecular Analysis of Agricultural Soils". Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee: vi.  ^ Takaichi, S; Maoka, T; Takasaki, K; Hanada, S (2009). "Carotenoids of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca
Gemmatimonas aurantiaca
(Gemmatimonadetes): identification of a novel carotenoid, deoxyoscillol 2-rhamnoside, and proposed biosynthetic pathway of oscillol 2,2′-dirhamnoside". Microbiology. 156 (3): 757–763. doi:10.1099/mic.0.034249-0. PMID 19959572.  ^ Zhang H, Sekiguchi Y, Hanada S, Hugenholtz P, Kim H, Kamagata Y, Nakamura K (2003). " Gemmatimonas aurantiaca
Gemmatimonas aurantiaca
gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 53 (Pt 4): 1155–63. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02520-0. PMID 12892144.  ^ Takaichi, S; Maoka, T; Takasaki, K; Hanada, S (2009). "Carotenoids of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca
Gemmatimonas aurantiaca
(Gemmatimonadetes): identification of a novel carotenoid, deoxyoscillol 2-rhamnoside, and proposed biosynthetic pathway of oscillol 2,2′-dirhamnoside". Microbiology. 156 (3): 757–763. doi:10.1099/mic.0.034249-0. PMID 19959572.  ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Gemmatimonadetes". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2016-03-20.  ^ Sayers; et al. "Gemmatimonadetes". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2016-03-20.  ^ "16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 

External links[edit]

Brief taxonomy Fawaz, M. N. (2013). Revealing the Ecological Role of Gemmatimonadetes Through Cultivation and Molecular Analysis of Agricultural Soils. 44-60. Brief review of the phylum.

v t e

Prokaryotes: Bacteria
Bacteria
classification (phyla and orders)

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

G-/ OM

Terra-/ Glidobacteria (BV1)

Eobacteria

Deinococcus–Thermus

Deinococcales Thermales

Chloroflexi

Anaerolineales Caldilineales Chloroflexales Herpetosiphonales Dehalococcoidales Ktedonobacterales Thermogemmatisporales Thermomicrobiales Sphaerobacterales

other glidobacteria

Thermodesulfobacteria thermophiles

Aquificae Thermotogae

Cyanobacteria

Proteobacteria (BV2)

Alpha

Caulobacterales Kiloniellales Kordiimonadales Magnetococcales Parvularculales Rhizobiales Rhodobacterales Rhodospirillales Rickettsiales Sneathiellales Sphingomonadales

Beta

Burkholderiales Hydrogenophilales Methylophilales Neisseriales Nitrosomonadales Procabacteriales Rhodocyclales

Gamma

Acidithiobacillales Aeromonadales Alteromonadales Cardiobacteriales Chromatiales Enterobacteriales Legionellales Methylococcales Oceanospirillales Orbales Pasteurellales Pseudomonadales Salinisphaerales Thiotrichales Vibrionales Xanthomonadales

Delta

Bdellovibrionales Desulfarculales Desulfobacterales Desulfovibrionales Desulfurellales Desulfuromonadales Myxococcales Syntrophobacterales Syntrophorhabdales

Epsilon

Campylobacterales Nautiliales

Zeta

Mariprofundales

BV4

Spirochaetes

Spirochaetes

Sphingobacteria (FCB group)

Fibrobacteres Chlorobi

Chlorobiales Ignavibacteriales

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroidales Cytophagales Flavobacteriales Sphingobacteriales

Planctobacteria/ (PVC group)

Chlamydiae Lentisphaerae

Lentisphaerales Oligosphaerales Victivallales

Planctomycetes

Phycisphaerales Planctomycetales

Verrucomicrobia

Puniceicoccales Opitutales Chthoniobacterales Verrucomicrobiales

"Poribacteria"

Other GN

Acidobacteria

Acidobacteriales Acanthopleuribacterales Holophagales Solibacterales

Armatimonadetes

Armatimonadales Chthonomonadales Fimbriimonadales

Caldiserica Chrysiogenetes Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Synergistetes

G+/ no OM

Firmicutes (BV3)

Bacilli

Bacillales Lactobacillales

Clostridia

Clostridiales Halanaerobiales Thermoanaerobacteriales Natranaerobiales

Erysipelotrichia

Erysipelotrichiales

Thermolithobacteria

Thermolithobacterales

Tenericutes/ Mollicutes

Mycoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales Haloplasmatales

Negativicutes

Selenomonadales

Actinobacteria (BV5)

Actinobacteria

Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales

Acidimicrobiia

Acidimicrobiales

Coriobacteriidae

Coriobacteriales

Nitriliruptoria

Euzebyales Nitriliruptorales

Rubrobacteria

Gaiellales Rubrobacterales Thermoleophilales Solirubrobacterales

Incertae sedis

†Archaeosphaeroides †Eobacterium †Leptotrichites

Source: Bergey's Manual (2001–2012). Alternative views: Wikispecies.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1147292 EoL: 7728 iNaturalist: 151855 ITIS: 956116 NCBI: 142182

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