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Future
The FUTURE is what will happen in the time after the present . Its arrival is considered inevitable due to the existence of time and the laws of physics . Due to the apparent nature of reality and the unavoidability of the future, everything that currently exists and will exist can be categorized as either permanent, meaning that it will exist forever, or temporary, meaning that it will end. The future and the concept of eternity have been major subjects of philosophy , religion , and science , and defining them non-controversially has consistently eluded the greatest of minds. In the Occidental view, which uses a linear conception of time, the future is the portion of the projected time line that is anticipated to occur. In special relativity , the future is considered absolute future , or the future light cone . In the philosophy of time , presentism is the belief that only the present exists and the future and the past are unreal
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Ancient Near East
Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia * Akkadian Empire * Assyria * Babylonia * Neo-Assyrian Empire *
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Outline Of South Asian History
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the history of South Asia: HISTORY OF SOUTH ASIA – SOUTH ASIA includes the contemporary political entities of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and associated islands, therefore, its history includes the histories of India , Pakistan , Bangladesh , Nepal , Afghanistan , Bhutan , and the island nations of Sri Lanka and the Maldives
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Laws Of Physics
A PHYSICAL LAW or SCIENTIFIC LAW is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena , and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community . The production of a summary description of our environment in the form of such laws is a fundamental aim of science. These terms are not used the same way by all authors. The distinction between natural law in the political-legal sense and law of nature or physical law in the scientific sense is a modern one, both concepts being equally derived from physis , the Greek word (translated into Latin as natura) for nature
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Philosophy
PHILOSOPHY (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning , critical discussion , rational argument , and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real ? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will ? Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge
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Light Cone
In special and general relativity , a LIGHT CONE is the path that a flash of light, emanating from a single event (localized to a single point in space and a single moment in time) and traveling in all directions, would take through spacetime . CONTENTS * 1 Details * 2 Mathematical construction * 3 Light-cones in general relativity * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DETAILSIf one imagines the light confined to a two-dimensional plane, the light from the flash spreads out in a circle after the event E occurs, and if we graph the growing circle with the vertical axis of the graph representing time, the result is a cone , known as the future light cone. The past light cone behaves like the future light cone in reverse, a circle which contracts in radius at the speed of light until it converges to a point at the exact position and time of the event E
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Absolute Future
In mathematical physics , the CAUSAL STRUCTURE of a Lorentzian manifold describes the causal relationships between points in the manifold. CONTENTS* 1 Introduction * 1.1 Tangent vectors * 1.2 Time-orientability * 1.3 Curves * 1.4 Causal relations * 1.5 Properties * 2 Conformal geometry * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links INTRODUCTIONIn modern physics (especially general relativity ) spacetime is represented by a Lorentzian manifold . The causal relations between points in the manifold are interpreted as describing which events in spacetime can influence which other events. Minkowski spacetime
Minkowski spacetime
is a simple example of a Lorentzian manifold. The causal relationships between points in Minkowski spacetime
Minkowski spacetime
take a particularly simple form since the space is flat
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Religion
RELIGION is any cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views , texts , sanctified places , ethics , or organizations , that relate humanity to the supernatural or transcendental . Religions relate humanity to what anthropologist Clifford Geertz has referred to as a cosmic "order of existence". However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine , sacred things , faith , a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals , sermons , commemoration or veneration (of deities ), sacrifices , festivals , feasts , trances , initiations , funerary services , matrimonial services , meditation , prayer , music , art , dance , public service , or other aspects of human culture
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES (or MEDIEVAL PERIOD) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Special Relativity
In physics , SPECIAL RELATIVITY (SR, also known as the SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time . In Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
's original pedagogical treatment, it is based on two postulates : * The laws of physics are invariant (i.e. identical) in all inertial systems (non-accelerating frames of reference). * The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of the motion of the light source.It was originally proposed in 1905 by Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
in the paper "On the Electrodynamics
Electrodynamics
of Moving Bodies "
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Divination
DIVINATION (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine ) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic , standardized process or ritual. Used in various forms throughout history, diviners ascertain their interpretations of how a querent should proceed by reading signs, events, or omens , or through alleged contact with a supernatural agency. Divination
Divination
can be seen as a systematic method with which to organize what appear to be disjointed, random facets of existence such that they provide insight into a problem at hand. If a distinction is to be made between divination and fortune-telling , divination has a more formal or ritualistic element and often contains a more social character, usually in a religious context, as seen in traditional African medicine . Fortune-telling, on the other hand, is a more everyday practice for personal purposes
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Existence
Ontology
Ontology
is the philosophical study of the nature of being , EXISTENCE or reality in general, as well as of the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics , ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, (for instance: "Does the stellar structure UDFj-39546284 exist?"), and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy , and subdivided according to similarities and differences. Materialism holds that the only things that exist are matter and energy , that all things are composed of material, that all actions require energy, and that all phenomena (including consciousness ) are the result of material interactions
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Prophet
In religion , a PROPHET is an individual who has claimed to have been contacted by a divine being, specifically a god or goddess, and to speak for them, serving as an intermediary with humanity, delivering this newfound knowledge from the supernatural source to other people. The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy , which transports – at least in Judaism
Judaism
– a message beyond mere pagan soothsaying , augury , divination , or forecasting , and, most prominently in the neviim of the Tanakh
Tanakh
, often comprises issues of social justice
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Estimation
ESTIMATION (or ESTIMATING) is the process of finding an ESTIMATE, or approximation , which is a value that is usable for some purpose even if input data may be incomplete, uncertain , or unstable . The value is nonetheless usable because it is derived from the best information available. Typically, estimation involves "using the value of a statistic derived from a sample to estimate the value of a corresponding population parameter". The sample provides information that can be projected, through various formal or informal processes, to determine a range most likely to describe the missing information. An estimate that turns out to be incorrect will be an OVERESTIMATE if the estimate exceeded the actual result, and an UNDERESTIMATE if the estimate fell short of the actual result
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A Christmas Carol
A CHRISTMAS CAROL IN PROSE, BEING A GHOST-STORY OF CHRISTMAS, commonly known as A CHRISTMAS CAROL, is a novella by Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
, first published in London by Chapman by the end of 1844 thirteen editions had been released. Most critics reviewed the novella positively. The story was illicitly copied in January 1844; Dickens took action against the publishers, who went bankrupt, reducing further Dickens's small profits from the publication. He went on to write four other Christmas
Christmas
stories in subsequent years. In 1849 he began public readings of the story which proved so successful he undertook 127 further performances until 1870, the year of his death. A Christmas Carol
Christmas Carol
has never been out of print and has been translated into several languages; the story has been adapted many times for film, stage, opera and other media
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Charles Dickens
CHARLES JOHN HUFFAM DICKENS (/ˈdɪkɪnz/ ; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era
Victorian era
. His works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, and by the 20th century critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories enjoy lasting popularity. Born in Portsmouth
Portsmouth
, Dickens left school to work in a factory when his father was incarcerated in a debtors\' prison . Despite his lack of formal education, he edited a weekly journal for 20 years, wrote 15 novels, five novellas, hundreds of short stories and non-fiction articles, lectured and performed readings extensively, was an indefatigable letter writer, and campaigned vigorously for children's rights, education, and other social reforms
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