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Eurotiomycetes
The Eurotiomycetes
Eurotiomycetes
are a class of ascomycetes within the subphylum Pezizomycotina. Some members of the Eurotiomycetes
Eurotiomycetes
were previously grouped in the class Plectomycetes.Contents1 Nomenclature 2 Morphology 3 References 4 External linksNomenclature[edit] The scientific classification for this particular class is particularly tricky, with one particular species having both the anamorph, and teleomorph names used in reference to them.e.g. anamorph form = Penicillium; teleomorph form = Talaromyces
Talaromyces
or Eupenicillium.[1]Morphology[edit] Many members (Eurotiales, Onygenales) produce an enclosed structure cleistothecium within which they produce their spores. References[edit]^ N. Gunde-Cimerman; A. Oren; A. Plemenitaš, eds. (2006). Adaptation to Life at High Salt Concentrations in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Class (biology)
In biological classification, class (Latin: classis) is:a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks in descending order of size are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, order, family, genus, and species, with class fitting between phylum and order. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the prefix sub-: subclass (Latin: subclassis). a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is classes (Latin classes)Example: Dogs are in the class Mammalia.The composition of each class is determined by a taxonomist. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists taking different positions. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing a class, but for well-known animals there is likely to be consensus. In botany, classes are now rarely discussed
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Taphrinomycetes
Protomycetaceae TaphrinaceaeThe Taphrinomycetes
Taphrinomycetes
are a class of ascomycete fungi belonging to the subdivision Taphrinomycotina. It includes the single order Taphrinales, which includes 2 families, 8 genera and 140 species.[1] References[edit]^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi
Fungi
(10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CABI. p. 678. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8. Taxon identifiersWd: Q135200 EoL: 5991 EPPO: 1TAPNC Fungorum: 90366 GBIF: 184 iNaturalist: 152035 ITIS: 610634 MycoBank: 90366 NCBI: 147555 WoRMS: 988621This Ascomycota-related article is a stub
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Geoglossomycetes
Geoglossaceae
Geoglossaceae
is a family of fungi in the order Geoglossales, class Geoglossomycetes. These fungi are broadly known as earth tongues. The ascocarps of most species in the family Geoglossaceae
Geoglossaceae
are terrestrial and are generally small, dark in color, and club-shaped with a height of 2–8 cm. The ascospores are typically light-brown to dark-brown and are often multiseptate
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Domain (biology)
Eukaryota
Eukaryota
(represented by the Australian green tree frog, left), Bacteria
Bacteria
(represented by Staphylococcus aureus, middle) and Archaea
Archaea
(represented by Sulfolobus, right).The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks. Life
Life
is divided into domains, which are subdivided into further groups. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown.In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio[1]), also superkingdom or empire,[2] is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.[1] The first two are all prokaryotic microorganisms, or single-celled organisms whose cells have no nucleus
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Cleistothecium
An ascocarp, or ascoma (plural: ascomata), is the fruiting body (sporocarp) of an ascomycete phylum fungus. It consists of very tightly interwoven hyphae and may contain millions of asci, each of which typically contains four to eight ascospores. Ascocarps are most commonly bowl-shaped (apothecia) but may take a spherical (cleistothecia) or flask-like (perithecia) form.[1]Contents1 Classification 2 Apothecium 3 Cleistothecium 4 Gymnothecium 5 Perithecium 6 Pseudothecium 7 See also 8 ReferencesClassification[edit]Tissue arrangement. Peridium
Peridium
is indicated in pink. Note the cylindrical asci on the left types, and the globose asci on types.Relative sizes of various ascomatal types.Schematic diagrams of ascomatal types (left-right in each figure): apothecium, perithecium/ pseudothecium, cleistothecium/ gymnothecium.The ascocarp is classified according to its placement (in ways not fundamental to the basic taxonomy)
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Teleomorph
In mycology, the terms teleomorph, anamorph, and holomorph apply to portions of the life cycles of fungi in the phyla Ascomycota
Ascomycota
and Basidiomycota:Teleomorph: the sexual reproductive stage (morph), typically a fruiting body Anamorph: an asexual reproductive stage (morph), often mold-like; When a single fungus produces multiple morphologically distinct anamorphs, these are called synanamorphs. Holomorph: the whole fungus, including anamorphs and teleomorph.Contents1 Dual naming of fungi 2 From dual system to single nomenclature 3 One fungus, one name 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDual naming of fungi[edit] Fungi
Fungi
are classified primarily based on the structures associated with sexual reproduction, which tend to be conserved. However, many fungi reproduce only asexually, and cannot be easily placed in a classification based on sexual characters; some produce both asexual and sexual states
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Anamorph
In mycology, the terms teleomorph, anamorph, and holomorph apply to portions of the life cycles of fungi in the phyla Ascomycota
Ascomycota
and Basidiomycota:Teleomorph: the sexual reproductive stage (morph), typically a fruiting body Anamorph: an asexual reproductive stage (morph), often mold-like; When a single fungus produces multiple morphologically distinct anamorphs, these are called synanamorphs. Holomorph: the whole fungus, including anamorphs and teleomorph.Contents1 Dual naming of fungi 2 From dual system to single nomenclature 3 One fungus, one name 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDual naming of fungi[edit] Fungi
Fungi
are classified primarily based on the structures associated with sexual reproduction, which tend to be conserved. However, many fungi reproduce only asexually, and cannot be easily placed in a classification based on sexual characters; some produce both asexual and sexual states
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Scientific Classification
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Opisthokont
The opisthokonts (Greek: ὀπίσθιος (opísthios) = "rear, posterior" + κοντός (kontós) = "pole" i.e. "flagellum") or Choanozoa
Choanozoa
are a broad group of eukaryotes, including both the animal and fungus kingdoms,[5] together with the eukaryotic microorganisms that are sometimes grouped in the paraphyletic phylum Choanozoa (conventionally assigned to the protist "kingdom").[6] The opisthokonts, previously called the "Fungi/ Metazoa
Metazoa
group",[7] are generally recognized as a clade
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Basidia
A basidium (pl., basidia) is a microscopic sporangium (or spore-producing structure) found on the hymenophore of fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi. The presence of basidia is one of the main characteristic features of the Basidiomycota. A basidium usually bears four sexual spores called basidiospores; occasionally the number may be two or even eight. In a typical basidium, each basidiospore is borne at the tip of a narrow prong or horn called a sterigma (pl. sterigmata), and is forcibly discharged upon maturity. The word basidium literally means little pedestal, from the way in which the basidium supports the spores. However, some biologists suggest that the structure more closely resembles a club
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Saccharomycotina
SaccharomycetalesAscoideaceae Cephaloascaceae Debaryomycetaceae Dipodascaceae Endomycetaceae Lipomycetaceae Metschnikowiaceae Phaffomycetaceae Pichiaceae Saccharomycetaceae Saccharomycodaceae Saccharomycopsidaceae Trichomonascaceae Saccharomycotina
Saccharomycotina
is a subdivision (subphylum) of the division (phylum) Ascomycota
Ascomycota
in the Kingdom Fungi.[2][3] It compromises most of the ascomycete yeasts
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Sordariomyceta
Cyttariales Erysiphales Helotiales Leotiales Rhytismatales Thelebolales Families incertae sedisThelocarpaceae VezdaeaceaeGenera incertae sedisAmylocarpus Catinella Chaetomella Cyclaneusma Discohainesia Eleutheromyces Geniculospora Hainesia Hyphozyma Leohumicola Meliniomyces NaemacyclusThe Leotiomycetes are a class of ascomycete fungi. Many of them cause serious plant diseases. Systematics[edit] The class Leotiomycetes contains numerous species with an anamorph placed within the fungi imperfecti (deuteromycota), that have only recently found their place in the phylogenetic system. The older classifications placed Leotiomycetes into the Discomycetes clade (inoperculate Discomycetes). Molecular studies have recently shed some new light to the still obscure systematics. Most scholars consider Leotiomycetes a sister taxon to Sordariomycetes in the phylogenetic tree of Pezizomycotina
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