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Etrog
Etrog
Etrog
(Hebrew: אֶתְרוֹג‬, plural: etrogim) is the yellow citron or Citrus
Citrus
medica used by Jewish people during the week-long holiday of Sukkot, as one of the four species
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Transliterated
Transliteration
Transliteration
is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another[1] that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e). For instance, for the Modern Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic", the usual transliteration to Latin script
Latin script
is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia
Russia
in Cyrillic script, "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya". Transliteration
Transliteration
is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously
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Robert Willard Hodgson
Robert Willard Hodgson (1893–1966), was an American botanist, taxonomist and agricultural researcher located in the California State, an exceptional citrus and avocado expert. He was a co-author of The Citrus
Citrus
Industry book,[1] emeritus professor of University of California, and dean of the College of Agriculture.[2][3] References[edit]^ DEDICATED TO ROBERT WILLARD HODGSON by the UCR library ^ Calisphere - Robert Willard Hodgson, Agriculture: Los Angeles, Berkeley, and Systemwid ^ Robert Willard Hodgson: "In Appreciation" by the California Avocado Society 1947 Yearbook 32: 11External links[edit]Socialarchive.iath.virginia.edu: Robert Willard Hodgson (1893-1966) Robert Willard Hodgson at Find a GraveThis article about a botanist is a stub
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Jewish Ethnic Divisions
Jewish ethnic divisions
Jewish ethnic divisions
refers to a number of distinctive communities within the world's ethnically Jewish population. Although considered one single self-identifying ethnicity, there are distinctive ethnic subdivisions among Jews, most of which are primarily the result of geographic branching from an originating Israelite
Israelite
population, mixing with local populations, and subsequent independent evolutions.[1][2] As long ago as Biblical times, cultural and linguistic differences between Jewish communities, even within the area of Ancient Israel
Ancient Israel
and Judea, are observed both within the Bible
Bible
itself as well as from archeological remains
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Posek
Posek
Posek
(Hebrew: פוסק‬ [poˈsek], pl. Poskim, פוסקים‬[pronunciation?]) is the term in Jewish law for "decisor"—a legal scholar who decides the Halakha in cases of law where previous authorities are inconclusive or in those situations where no halakhic precedent exists. The decision of a posek is known as a psak din or psak halakha ("ruling of law"; pl. piskei din, piskei halakha) or simply a "psak". In Hebrew, פסק is the root implying to "stop" or "cease"—the posek brings the process of legal debate to finality
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Romanization Of Hebrew
Hebrew
Hebrew
uses the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
with optional vowel diacritics. The romanization of Hebrew
Hebrew
is the use of the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
to transliterate Hebrew
Hebrew
words. For example, the Hebrew
Hebrew
name spelled יִשְׂרָאֵל‬ ("Israel") in the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
can be romanized as Yisrael or Yiśrāʼēl in the Latin alphabet. Romanization
Romanization
includes any use of the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
to transliterate Hebrew
Hebrew
words
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Sephardic
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic
Sephardic
Jews
Jews
or Sephardim (Hebrew: סְפָרַדִּים‬, Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also יְהוּדֵי סְפָרַד‬ Y'hudey Spharad, lit. "The Jews
Jews
of Spain"), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews
Jews
coalesced during the early Middle Ages on the Iberian Peninsula
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Israel
Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35State of Israelמְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew) دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic)FlagEmblemAnthem: "Hatikvah" (Hebrew for "The Hope")(pre-) 1967 border (Green Line)Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition)[fn 1] 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217Official languagesHebrew ArabicEthnic
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Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews
Jews
or simply Ashkenazim (Hebrew: אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים‬, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation: [ˌaʃkəˈnazim], singular: [ˌaʃkəˈnazi], Modern Hebrew: [aʃkenaˈzim, aʃkenaˈzi]; also יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז‬ Y'hudey Ashkenaz),[18] are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced as a distinct community in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.[19] The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
is Yiddish
Yiddish
(a Germanic language which incorporates several dialects), with Hebrew used only as a sacred language until relatively recently
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Yiddish
Yiddish
Yiddish
(ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German)[3] is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[4] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages.[5][6] Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז‎ (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש‎ (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
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Yemenite Hebrew
Yemenite Hebrew
Yemenite Hebrew
(Hebrew: עִבְרִית תֵּימָנִית‬ Ivrit Teimanit), also referred to as Temani Hebrew, is the pronunciation system for Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews. Yemenite Jews
Yemenite Jews
brought their language to Israel through immigration. Their first organized immigration to the region began in 1882.Yemenite Jewish elders rehearsing oral lessons (1906–1918) Yemenite Hebrew
Yemenite Hebrew
has been studied by language scholars, many of whom believe it to retain older phonetic and grammatical features lost elsewhere. [1] Yemenite speakers of Hebrew have garnered considerable praise from language purists because of their use of grammatical features from classical Hebrew
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Leviticus
The Book
Book
of Leviticus (/lɪˈvɪtɪkəs/) is the third book of the Torah
Torah
and the third book of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(Old Testament). The book addresses all the people of Israel
Israel
(1:2) though some passages specifically address the priests (6:8). Most of its chapters (1–7, 11–27) consist of God's speeches to Moses
Moses
which he is commanded to repeat to the Israelites. This takes place within the story of the Israelites' Exodus after they escaped Egypt and reached Mt. Sinai (Exodus 19:1). The Book of Exodus
Book of Exodus
narrates how Moses
Moses
led the Israelites in building the Tabernacle
Tabernacle
(Exodus 35–40) based on God's instructions (Exodus 25–31)
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Menorah (Temple)
The menorah (/məˈnɔːrə/; Hebrew: מְנוֹרָה‬ [mənoːˈɾaː]) is described in the Bible
Bible
as the seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the portable sanctuary set up by Moses
Moses
in the wilderness and later in the Temple in Jerusalem. Fresh olive oil of the purest quality was burned daily to light its lamps
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Or Torah Synagogue
Coordinates: 32°55′27″N 35°04′36″E / 32.924183°N 35.076577°E / 32.924183; 35.076577EntranceOne of many mosaics insideThe Or Torah or Djerba
Djerba
Synagogue
Synagogue
is a Tunisian synagogue in Acre, Israel, built after the El Ghriba synagogue
El Ghriba synagogue
on Djerba. The building was erected in 1955. The building is covered with millions of mosaics inside which have been manufactured at Kibbutz
Kibbutz
Eilon. The building has 140 stained glass windows and a dome. See also[edit]History of the Jews in TunisiaExternal links[edit]Goisrael: The Torah Synagogue Media related to Or Torah Synagogue
Synagogue
at Wikimedia Commons Sources[edit]Go IsraelThis article about a synagogue or other Jewish place of worship in Israel is a stub
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