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Esperanto
Esperanto
Esperanto
(/ˌɛspəˈræntoʊ/ or /-ˈrɑː-/;[4][5] Esperanto: Esperanto
Esperanto
[espeˈranto]  listen (help·info)) is a constructed international auxiliary language. With an estimated two million speakers worldwide,[1] it is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world.[6] The Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist L. L. Zamenhof
L. L. Zamenhof
published the first book detailing Esperanto, Unua Libro, in Warsaw
Warsaw
on July 26 [O.S. July 14] 1887
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Linguasphere Observatory
The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.Contents1 History 2 The Lingua sphere Register and Linguascale referential framework2.1 Examples 2.2 Languages of London 2.3 See also3 "Langues de la Liberté/Languages of Liberty" 4 "In the galaxy of languages, each person's voice is a star" 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor, a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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ISO 639-2
 ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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Linguist List
The LINGUIST List is a major online resource for the academic field of linguistics. It was founded by Anthony Aristar in early 1990 at the University of Western Australia,[1] and is used as a reference by the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
in the United States.[2] Its main and oldest feature is the premoderated electronic mailing list, now with thousands of subscribers all over the world, where queries and their summarized results, discussions, journal table of contents, dissertation abstracts, calls for papers, book and conference announcements, software notices and other useful pieces of linguistic information are posted.Contents1 History 2 Services 3 Projects 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Between 1991 and 2013 the resource has been run by Anthony Aristar and Helen Aristar-Dry
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Germanic Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Latin Script
Latin
Latin
or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system[1] and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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Second Language
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken by the community as a whole. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages, one of them being English, are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas. More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second-language acquisition (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines first language for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition
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Slavic Languages
The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
spoken by the Slavic peoples. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages, which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language, linking the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
to the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are divided intro three subgroups: East, West, and South, which together constitute more than twenty languages
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Manually Coded Language
Manually coded languages are not themselves languages but are representations of oral languages in a gestural-visual form; that is, signed versions of oral languages (signed languages). Unlike the sign languages that have evolved naturally in Deaf communities, which have distinct spatial structures, these manual codes (MCL) are the conscious invention of deaf and hearing educators, and mostly follow the grammar of the oral language—or, more precisely, of the written form of the oral language
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Writing System
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer.[1] The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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ISO 639-1
 ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes. Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international and formal shorthand for indicating languages
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Romance Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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