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Esperanto
ESPERANTO (/ˌɛspəˈræntoʊ/ or /-ˈrɑː-/ ; in Esperanto: _ listen (help ·info )) is a constructed international auxiliary language . It is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world. The Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist L. L. Zamenhof
L. L. Zamenhof
published the first book detailing Esperanto, Unua Libro ,_ on 26 July 1887. The name of Esperanto
Esperanto
derives from _Doktoro Esperanto_ ("Esperanto" translates as "one who hopes"), the pseudonym under which Zamenhof published _Unua Libro_
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Esperanto Flag
Since the earliest days of Esperanto
Esperanto
, the colour green has been used as a symbol of mutual recognition, and it appears prominently in all ESPERANTO SYMBOLS. The Verda Stelo (English: Green
Green
Star) was first proposed in an 1892 article in La Esperantisto for use as a symbol of mutual recognition among Esperantists . In a letter to The British Esperantist in 1911, L. L. Zamenhof , the creator of Esperanto, wrote: "It seems to me, that my attention was drawn to the color green by Mr. Richard H. Geoghegan and from that time I began to publish all of my works with green covers . . . Looking at one of my pamphlets that I had entirely by chance printed with a green cover, he pointed out that this was the color of his homeland, Ireland; at that time it came to me, that we could certainly look at that color as a symbol of HOPE. About the five-pointed star, it seems to me, that at first Mr
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L. L. Zamenhof
LUDWIK LEJZER ZAMENHOF (Polish : _Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof_, 15 December 1859–14 April 1917), usually credited as L. L. ZAMENHOF, was a Polish - Jewish
Jewish
medical doctor , inventor, and writer. He is most widely known for creating Esperanto , the most successful constructed language in the world. He grew up fascinated by the idea of a world without war and believed that this could happen with the help of a new international auxiliary language , which he first developed in 1873 while still in school
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International Auxiliary Language
An INTERNATIONAL AUXILIARY LANGUAGE (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or AUXLANG) or INTERLANGUAGE is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language . An auxiliary language is primarily a second language . Languages of dominant societies over the centuries have served as auxiliary languages, sometimes approaching the international level. Latin , Greek and the Mediterranean Lingua Franca were used in the past, and Arabic , English , French , Russian , Spanish , and Standard Chinese have been used as such in recent times in many parts of the world. However, as these languages are associated with the very dominance—cultural, political, and economic—that made them popular, they are often also met with resistance. For this reason, some have turned to the idea of promoting an artificial or constructed language as a possible solution
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Native Esperanto Speakers
NATIVE ESPERANTO SPEAKERS ( Esperanto
Esperanto
: denaskuloj or denaskaj esperantistoj) are people who have acquired Esperanto
Esperanto
as one of their native languages . As of 1996, there were 350 or so attested cases of families with native Esperanto
Esperanto
speakers. Estimates from associations indicate that there are currently around 1,000 Esperanto-speaking families, involving perhaps 2,000 children. In all known cases, speakers are natively bilingual, or multilingual, raised in both Esperanto
Esperanto
and either the local national language or the native language of their parents. In all but a handful of cases, it was the father who used Esperanto
Esperanto
with the child. In the majority of such families, the parents had the same native language, though in many the parents had different native languages, and only Esperanto
Esperanto
in common
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Second Language
A person's SECOND LANGUAGE or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages , are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas . More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second language acquisition , (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines _first language_ for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition
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Constructed Language
A PLANNED or CONSTRUCTED LANGUAGE (sometimes called a CONLANG) is a language whose phonology , grammar , and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally . It is also referred to as an ARTIFICIAL or INVENTED LANGUAGE and in some cases a fictional language . There are many possible reasons to create a constructed language, such as: to ease human communication (see international auxiliary language and code ), to give fiction or an associated constructed setting an added layer of realism, for experimentation in the fields of linguistics , cognitive science , and machine learning , for artistic creation , and for language games . The expression _planned language_ is sometimes used to indicate international auxiliary languages and other languages designed for actual use in human communication. Some prefer it to the adjective _artificial_, as this term may be perceived as pejorative
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Proto-Esperanto
PROTO-ESPERANTO ( Esperanto
Esperanto
: Pra-Esperanto) is the modern term for any of the stages in the evolution of L. L. Zamenhof 's language project , prior to the publication of his Unua Libro in 1887. CONTENTS * 1 The Lingwe uniwersala of 1878 * 2 The Lingvo universala of 1881 * 3 Transition to the modern Esperanto
Esperanto
of 1887 * 4 Additional reading * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links THE LINGWE UNIWERSALA OF 1878As a child, Zamenhof had the idea to introduce an international auxiliary language for communication between different nationalities. He originally wanted to revive some form of simplified Latin
Latin
or Greek , but as he grew older he came to believe that it would be better to create a new language for his purpose. During his teenage years he worked on a language project until he thought it was ready for public demonstration
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Ido (language)
IDO /ˈiːdoʊ/ is a constructed language , derived from Reformed Esperanto
Esperanto
, created to be a universal second language for speakers of diverse backgrounds. Ido was specifically designed to be grammatically , orthographically , and lexicographically regular, and above all easy to learn and use. In this sense, Ido is classified as a constructed international auxiliary language . It is the most successful of many Esperanto
Esperanto
derivatives, called Esperantidos . Ido was created in 1907 out of a desire to reform perceived flaws in Esperanto
Esperanto
, a language that had been created 20 years earlier to facilitate international communication. The name of the language traces its origin to the Esperanto
Esperanto
word ido, meaning "offspring", since the language is a "descendant" of Esperanto
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Esperantido
An ESPERANTIDO is a constructed language derived from Esperanto
Esperanto
. Esperantido originally referred to the language of that is now known as Ido . The word Esperantido is derived from Esperanto
Esperanto
plus the affix -id-, which means "a descendant". Hence, Esperantido literally means "an offspring of Esperanto". A number of Esperantidos have been created to address a number of perceived flaws or weaknesses in Esperanto, or in other Esperantidos, attempting to improve their lexicon , grammar , pronunciation , and orthography . Others were created as language games or to add variety to Esperanto
Esperanto
literature
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Latin Script
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Esperanto Alphabet
ESPERANTO is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case. This is supplemented by punctuation marks and by various logograms , such as the numerals 0–9, currency signs such as $, and mathematical symbols . Twenty-two of the letters are identical in form to letters of the English alphabet (q, w, x, and y being omitted). The remaining six have diacritic marks, ĉ , ĝ , ĥ , ĵ , ŝ , and ŭ (that is, c, g, h, j, and s circumflex , and u breve )
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Esperanto Braille
ESPERANTO BRAILLE is the braille alphabet of the Esperanto
Esperanto
language . One Esperanto
Esperanto
Braille
Braille
magazine, Aŭroro, has been published since 1920, and another, Esperanta Ligilo, since 1904. CONTENTS* 1 Alphabet * 1.1 Transcribing foreign letters * 2 Punctuation * 3 Numbers * 4 Formatting * 5 References * 6 External links ALPHABETThe basic braille alphabet is extended for the print letters with diacritics. The circumflex is marked by adding dot 6 (lower right) to the base letter: ⠩ ĉ, ⠻ ĝ, ⠳ ĥ, ⠺ ĵ, ⠮ ŝ. Therefore, the letter ĵ has the same form as the unused French/English Braille letter ⠺ w; to write a w in a foreign name, dot 3 is added: ⠾ w (see next section). Esperanto
Esperanto
ŭ is made by reflecting u, so that dot 1 becomes dot 4: ⠬ ŭ. The alphabet is thus as follows
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Manually Coded Language
MANUALLY CODED LANGUAGES are not themselves languages but are representations of oral languages in a gestural-visual form; that is, signed versions of oral languages (signed languages). Unlike the sign languages that have evolved naturally in Deaf communities , which have distinct spatial structures, these manual codes (MCL) are the conscious invention of deaf and hearing educators , and mostly follow the grammar of the oral language—or, more precisely, of the written form of the oral language. They have been mainly used in deaf education in an effort to "represent English on the hands" and by sign language interpreters in K-12 schools, although they have had some influence on Deaf sign languages where their implementation was widespread
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