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Esperanto
ESPERANTO (/ˌɛspəˈræntoʊ/ or /-ˈrɑː-/ ; in Esperanto: listen (help ·info )) is a constructed international auxiliary language . It is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world. The Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist L. L. Zamenhof published the first book detailing Esperanto, Unua Libro
Unua Libro
, on 26 July 1887. The name of Esperanto
Esperanto
derives from Doktoro Esperanto
Esperanto
("Esperanto" translates as "one who hopes"), the pseudonym under which Zamenhof published Unua Libro
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Linguist List
The LINGUIST LIST is a major online resource for the academic field of linguistics . It was founded by Anthony Aristar in early 1990 at the University of Western Australia
University of Western Australia
, and is used as a reference by the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
in the United States. Its main and oldest feature is the premoderated electronic mailing list , now with thousands of subscribers all over the world, where queries and their summarized results, discussions, journal table of contents, dissertation abstracts, calls for papers, book and conference announcements, software notices and other useful pieces of linguistic information are posted. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Services * 3 Projects * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYBetween 1991 and 2013 the resource has been run by Anthony Aristar and Helen Aristar-Dry
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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Linguasphere Observatory
The LINGUASPHERE OBSERVATORY (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network. It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor , a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
Senegal
. Its founding director is David Dalby, former director of the International African Institute and emeritus reader in the University of London, and its first research secretary was Philippe Blanchet, a Provençal-language poet currently serving as Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Rennes
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Germanic Languages
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Latin Script
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet , which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet . The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet . Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Slavic Languages
The SLAVIC LANGUAGES (also called SLAVONIC LANGUAGES) are the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
native to the Slavic peoples , originally from Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
, which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language , linking the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
to the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are divided intro three subgroups: East , West , and South , which together constitute more than twenty languages
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Second Language
A person's SECOND LANGUAGE or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages , are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas . More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second language acquisition , (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines first language for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition
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Manually Coded Language
MANUALLY CODED LANGUAGES are not themselves languages but are representations of oral languages in a gestural-visual form; that is, signed versions of oral languages (signed languages). Unlike the sign languages that have evolved naturally in Deaf communities , which have distinct spatial structures, these manual codes (MCL) are the conscious invention of deaf and hearing educators , and mostly follow the grammar of the oral language—or, more precisely, of the written form of the oral language. They have been mainly used in deaf education in an effort to "represent English on the hands" and by sign language interpreters in K-12 schools, although they have had some influence on Deaf sign languages where their implementation was widespread
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Romance Languages
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts)
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ISO 639-1
ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes . Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international and formal shorthand for indicating languages
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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