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Emperor
An EMPEROR (through Old French
Old French
empereor from Latin IMPERATOR ) is a monarch , usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. EMPRESS, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort ), mother (empress dowager ), or a woman who rules in her own right (empress regnant ). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings . In Europe
Europe
the title of Emperor
Emperor
has been used since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope
Pope
, due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe
Europe
. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as "Emperor"
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Honour
HONOUR ( British English
British English
) or HONOR ( American English
American English
; see spelling differences ) is an abstract concept entailing a perceived quality of worthiness and respectability that affects both the social standing and the self-evaluation of an individual or institution such as a family , school , regiment or nation . Accordingly, individuals (or institutions) are assigned worth and stature based on the harmony of their actions with a specific code of honour , and the moral code of the society at large. Dr. Samuel Johnson , in his A Dictionary of the English Language (1755), defined honour as having several senses, the first of which was "nobility of soul, magnanimity , and a scorn of meanness ." This sort of honour derives from the perceived virtuous conduct and personal integrity of the person endowed with it
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Old French
OLD FRENCH (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d\'oïl , contrasting with the langue d\'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French , the language of the French Renaissance
French Renaissance
, specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France
Île-de-France
region
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Vidame
VIDAME (French: ) was a feudal title in France
France
, a term descended from mediaeval Latin vicedominus. Like the avoué or advocatus , the vidame was originally a secular official chosen by the bishop of the diocese —with the consent of the count —to perform functions on behalf of the church's earthly interest that were religiously inappropriate; this especially included violence, even in the service of justice, and to act as protector. Unlike the advocatus, however, the vice-dominus was at the outset an ecclesiastical official, who acted as the bishop's lieutenant (locum tenens ) or vicar . But the causes that changed the character of the advocatus operated also in the case of the vidame
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Viscount
A VISCOUNT (/ˈvaɪkaʊnt/ ( listen ) VY-kownt , for male ) or VISCOUNTESS (/ˈvaɪkaʊntɪs/ , for female ) is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey a lower-middling rank
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Baronet
A BARONET (/ˈbærənɪt/ or /ˈbærəˌnɛt/ ; abbreviated BART or BT ) or the rare female equivalent, a BARONETESS (/ˈbærənɪtɪs/ , /ˈbærənɪtɛs/ , or /ˌbærəˈnɛtɛs/ ; abbreviation "Btss"), is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was originally introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour that is not a peerage , with the exception of the Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
Black Knight
Knight
, White Knight
Knight
and Green Knight
Knight
(of which only the Green Knight
Knight
is extant)
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Esquire
ESQUIRE (British English: /ɪˈskwaɪə/ ; American English: /ˈɛsˌkwaɪr/ or /ᵻˈskwaɪr/ ; abbreviated ESQ.) is usually a courtesy title . In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Esquire
Esquire
historically was a title of respect accorded to men of higher social rank, particularly members of the landed gentry above the rank of gentleman and below the rank of knight . It later came to be used as a general courtesy title for any man in a formal setting, usually as a suffix to his name, as in "Todd Smith, Esq.", with no precise significance. In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
today, it is still commonly used as a written style of address in formal or professional correspondence. In certain formal contexts, it remains an indication of a social status that is recognised in the formal Order of Precedence
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Empress Regnant
A QUEEN REGNANT (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch , equivalent in rank to a king , who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort , who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent , who is the guardian of a child monarch reigning temporarily in their stead. An EMPRESS REGNANT is a female monarch who reigns in her own right over an empire . A queen regnant possesses and exercises sovereign powers. A queen consort shares her husband's rank and titles, but does not share the sovereignty of her husband. The husband of a queen regnant traditionally does not share his wife's rank, title or sovereignty. However, the concept of a king consort is not unheard of in contemporary or classical periods. A queen dowager is the widow of a king. A queen mother is a queen dowager who is also the mother of a reigning sovereign
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Gentleman
In modern parlance, the term GENTLEMAN (from gentle + man, translating the Old French
Old French
gentilz hom ) refers to any man of good, courteous conduct. It may also refer to all men collectively, as in indications of gender-separated facilities, or as a sign of the speaker's own courtesy when addressing others. The modern female equivalent is lady . In its original meaning, the term denoted a man of the lowest rank of the English gentry , standing below an esquire and above a yeoman . By definition, this category included the younger sons of the younger sons of peers and the younger sons of baronets , knights , and esquires in perpetual succession, and thus the term captures the common denominator of gentility (and often armigerousness ) shared by both constituents of the English aristocracy : the peerage and the gentry
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Western Europe
WESTERN EUROPE is the region comprising the western part of Europe
Europe
. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined
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Earl
An EARL /ɜːrl/ is a member of the nobility . The title is Anglo-Saxon in origin, akin to the Scandinavian form JARL, and meant "chieftain ", particularly a chieftain set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it became obsolete in the Middle Ages and was replaced by duke (hertig/hertug/hertog). In later medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count (in England in the earlier period, it was more akin to a duke ; in Scotland
Scotland
it assimilated the concept of mormaer ). However, earlier in Scandinavia, jarl could also mean a sovereign prince . For example, the rulers of several of the petty kingdoms of Norway had the title of jarl and in many cases they had no less power than their neighbours who had the title of king
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Landgrave
LANDGRAVE (Dutch : landgraaf, German : Landgraf; Swedish : lantgreve, French : landgrave; Latin : comes magnus, comes patriae, comes provinciae, comes terrae, comes principalis, lantgravius) was a noble title used in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, and later on in its former territories. The German titles of Landgraf, Markgraf ("margrave "), and Pfalzgraf ("count palatine ") are in the same class of ranks as Herzog ("duke") and above the rank of a Graf
Graf
("count"). CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 Examples * 4 Related terms * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe English word LANDGRAVE is the equivalent of the German LANDGRAF, a compound of the words Land and Graf
Graf
(German: count). DESCRIPTIONThe title referred originally to a count who had imperial immediacy , or feudal duty owed directly to the Holy Roman Emperor
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Empress (other)
An EMPRESS is a female imperial monarch , or the wife of an imperial monarch; written with a capital, EMPRESS is used as the title of an empress, placed before her name – often just the given name. EMPRESS or THE EMPRESS can further refer to: Political * Empress of Japan , empress consort to the current reigning emperor . Biology * A number of brush-footed butterflies in the subfamily Apaturinae : * Empress, Sasakia funebris * Empress Antonia, Asterocampa celtis antonia, a subspecies of Asterocampa celtis * Empress Leilia, Asterocampa leilia , a species in the genus Asterocampa * Empress Flora, Asterocampa clyton flora, a subspecies of Asterocampa clyton * Empress Louisa, A. c
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Marquess
A MARQUESS (UK : /ˈmɑːrkwɪs/ ; French : MARQUIS, ; Italian : marchese, Spanish : marqués, Portuguese : marquês) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in imperial China and Japan
Japan
. In the German lands, a Margrave
Margrave
was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory (examples include the Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg , the Margrave of Baden and the Margrave
Margrave
of Bayreuth ), not simply a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe. German rulers did not confer the title of marquis; holders of marquisates in Central Europe were largely associated with the Italian and Spanish crowns
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Knight
A KNIGHT is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors . During the High Middle Ages , knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility . By the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry , a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback . Knighthood in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust ) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century
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