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Spanish , German

CADET BRANCHES

* Habsburg-Laufenburg * House of Kyburg
House of Kyburg
* Albertine line * Leopoldian line

* ^ A B titular claim rather than de facto * ^ A B jure uxoris

The HOUSE OF HABSBURG (/ˈhæpsbɜːrɡ/ ; German pronunciation: ), also called HOUSE OF HAPSBURG, or HOUSE OF AUSTRIA, was one of the most influential and outstanding royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
, Kingdom of England ( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Germany
Kingdom of Germany
, Kingdom of Hungary , Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
, Second Mexican Empire , Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Portugal , and Spain , as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V , the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried.

The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle , a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland
Switzerland
, in the canton of Aargau , by Count
Count
Radbot of Klettgau
Klettgau
, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding " Count
Count
of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.

By 1276, Count
Count
Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg
Habsburg
had moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria
Duchy of Austria
. Rudolph had become King of Germany in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg
Habsburg
was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918.

A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy , Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain
Habsburg Spain
and the junior Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty .

The House of Habsburg
Habsburg
became extinct in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon . The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
Charles VI , and completely in 1780 with the death of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria
. It was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine . The new successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German : Habsburg-Lothringen), and because it was often confusingly still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the unofficial appellation of the HABSBURG MONARCHY for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.

CONTENTS

* 1 Principal roles

* 2 History

* 2.1 Counts of Habsburg
Habsburg
* 2.2 Kings of the Romans * 2.3 Holy Roman Emperors * 2.4 Division of the house: Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs * 2.5 Extinction of the Spanish Habsburgs * 2.6 Extinction of the Austrian Habsburgs * 2.7 Habsburg-Lorraine

* 3 Family tree

* 4 Monarchs of the House of Habsburg
Habsburg

* 4.1 Ancestors * 4.2 Counts of Habsburg
Habsburg
* 4.3 Dukes/Archdukes of Austria
Austria
* 4.4 Albertine line: Dukes of Austria
Austria

* 4.5 Leopoldine line: Dukes of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol

* 4.5.1 Leopoldine-Inner Austrian sub-line * 4.5.2 Leopoldine-Tyrol sub-line

* 4.6 Reuniting of Habsburg
Habsburg
possessions

* 4.6.1 King of the Romans
King of the Romans
and Holy Roman Emperors prior to the reunion of the Habsburg
Habsburg
possessions * 4.6.2 Kings of Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia prior to the reunion of the Habsburg
Habsburg
possessions

* 4.7 Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria
Austria
* 4.8 Titular Dukes of Burgundy, Lords of the Netherlands * 4.9 King of England * 4.10 Spanish Habsburgs: Kings of Spain, Kings of Portugal (1581–1640) * 4.11 Austrian Habsburgs: Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia, Archdukes of Austria
Austria
* 4.12 House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia, Archdukes of Austria
Austria
* 4.13 House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Emperors of Austria
Austria
* 4.14 House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Grand dukes of Tuscany * 4.15 House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Tuscany line, post monarchy * 4.16 House of Habsburg-Lorraine (Austria-Este): Dukes of Modena
Modena
* 4.17 House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Modena
Modena
line, post monarchy * 4.18 House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Archduchess of Austria, Empress consort of Brazil and Queen consort
Queen consort
of Portugal * 4.19 House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Empress consort of France * 4.20 House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Duchess of Parma * 4.21 House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Emperor of Mexico

* 5 House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Heads of the House of Habsburg
Habsburg
(post-monarchy) * 6 Burials

* 7 Kings of Hungary
Hungary

* 7.1 Albertine line: Kings of Hungary
Hungary
* 7.2 Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Hungary
Hungary
* 7.3 House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Hungary
Hungary

* 8 Kings of Bohemia

* 8.1 Main line * 8.2 Albertine line: Kings of Bohemia * 8.3 Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Bohemia * 8.4 House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Bohemia

* 9 Family name Habsburg
Habsburg

* 10 Arms of Dominion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

* 10.1 Version of 1915 * 10.2 Gallery

* 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

PRINCIPAL ROLES

Their principal roles (including the roles of their cadet branches ) were as:

* Holy Roman Emperors (intermittently from 1273 until 1806), Kings of Germany , and Kings of the Romans ) * Rulers of Austria (as Dukes from 1278 until 1453; as Archdukes from 1453 until 1806/1918; as Emperors from 1804 until 1918) * Kings of Bohemia (1306–1307, 1437–1439, 1453–1457, 1526–1918) * Kings of Hungary
Hungary
and Croatia
Croatia
(1526–1918) * Kings of Spain (1516–1700) * Kings of Portugal (1581–1640) * Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria (1772–1918) * Grand Princes of Transylvania (1690–1867)

Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above.

HISTORY

COUNTS OF HABSBURG

The Habsburg
Habsburg
dominions around 1200 in the area of modern-day Switzerland
Switzerland
are shown as Habsburg, among the houses of Savoy
Savoy
, Zähringer and Kyburg

The progenitor of the House of Habsburg
Habsburg
may have been Guntram the Rich , a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century, and forewith farther back as the early medieval Adalrich, Duke
Duke
of Alsace
Alsace
, father of the Etichonids from which Habsburg
Habsburg
derives. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle , after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau , are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg (Hawk Castle), or from the Middle High German
High German
word "hab/hap" meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108. The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.

The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, especially countship rights in Zürichgau , Aargau and Thurgau . In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia . They were also able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg
House of Kyburg
.

KINGS OF THE ROMANS

By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV (1218–1291) had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake Constance
Lake Constance
. Due to these impressive preconditions, on 1 October 1273 Rudolph was chosen as the King of the Romans
King of the Romans
and received the name Rudolph I of Germany .

In 1282, the Habsburgs gained the rulership of the Duchy of Austria
Duchy of Austria
, which they then held for over 600 years, until 1918. Through the forged Privilegium Maius document (1358/59), a special bond was created between the House and Austria. The document, forged at the behest of Rudolf IV, Duke
Duke
of Austria
Austria
(1339–1365), also attempted to introduce rules to preserve the unity of the family's Austrian lands. In the long term, this indeed succeeded, but Rudolph's descendants ignored the rule, leading to the separation of the Albertian and Leopoldian family lines in 1379.

By marrying Elisabeth of Luxembourg , the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
Sigismund in 1437, Duke
Duke
Albert V (1397–1439) became the ruler of Bohemia and Hungary
Hungary
, expanding the family's political horizons. The next year, Albert V was crowned as the King of the Romans as Albert II . After his early death in war with the Turks in 1439, and after the death of his son Ladislaus Postumus in 1457, the Habsburgs lost Bohemia and Hungary
Hungary
again. National kingdoms were established in these areas, and the Habsburgs were not able to restore their influence there for decades.

HOLY ROMAN EMPERORS

Growth of the Habsburg
Habsburg
Empire in Central Europe.

In 1440, Frederick III was chosen by the Electoral College to succeed Albert II as the king. Several Habsburg
Habsburg
kings had attempted to gain the imperial throne over the years, but success finally arrived on 19 March 1452 when Pope Nicholas V
Pope Nicholas V
crowned Frederick III as the Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
in a grand ceremony held in Rome
Rome
. In Frederick III, the Pope found an important political ally with whose help he was able to counter the conciliar movement .

While in Rome, Frederick III married Eleanor of Portugal , enabling him to build a network of connections with dynasties in the west and southeast of Europe. Frederick was rather distant to his family; Eleanor, by contrast, had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick's children, and therefore played an important role in the family's rise to prominence. After Frederick III's coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously for centuries, until 1806.

As Emperor, Frederick III took a leading role inside the family and positioned himself as the judge over the family's internal conflicts, often making use of the privilegium maius . He was able to restore the unity of the house's Austrian lands, as the Albertinian line was now extinct. Territorial integrity was also strengthened by the extinction of the Tyrolean branch of the Leopoldian line in 1490/1496. Frederick's aim was to make Austria
Austria
a united country, stretching from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Mur and Leitha .

On the external front, one of Frederick's main achievements was the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), in which he forced Charles the Bold
Charles the Bold
of Burgundy to give his daughter Mary of Burgundy as wife to Frederick's son Maximilian . The wedding took place on the evening of 16 August 1477 and ultimately resulted in the Habsburgs acquiring control of the Low Countries . After Mary's early death in 1482, Maximilian attempted to secure the Burgundian heritance to one of his and Mary's children Philip the Handsome
Philip the Handsome
. Charles VIII of France
Charles VIII of France
contested this, using both military and dynastic means, but the Burgundian succession was finally ruled in favour of Philip in the Treaty of Senlis
Treaty of Senlis
in 1493.

After the death of his father in 1493, Maximilian was proclaimed the new King of the Romans
King of the Romans
, receiving the name Maximilian I . Maximilian was initially unable to travel to Rome
Rome
to receive the Imperial title from the Pope, due to opposition from Venice and from the French who were occupying Milan, as well a refusal from the Pope due to enemy forces being present on his territory. In 1508, Maximilian proclaimed himself as the "chosen Emperor," and this was also recognized by the Pope due to changes in political alliances. This had a historical consequence in that, in the future, the Roman King would also automatically become Emperor, without needing the Pope's consent. In 1530, Emperor
Emperor
Charles V became the last person to be crowned as the Emperor
Emperor
by the Pope. A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg
Habsburg
lands are shaded green, but do not include the lands of the Holy Roman Empire over which they presided, nor the vast Castilian holdings outside of Europe, particularly in the New World
New World
.

Maximilian's rule (1493–1519) was a time of great expansion for the Habsburgs. In 1497, Maximilian's son Philip the Handsome
Philip the Handsome
(also known as Phillip the Fair) married Joanna of Castile
Joanna of Castile
, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of Castile , Aragon
Aragon
, and most of Spain. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became Charles V and inherited the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon
Aragon
(including their colonies in the New World
New World
), Southern Italy, Austria
Austria
, and the Low Countries .

The foundations for the later empire of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
were laid in 1515 by the means of a double wedding between Louis, only son of Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
and Hungary
Hungary
, and Maximilian's granddaughter Mary; and between her brother Archduke Ferdinand and Vladislaus' daughter Anna. The wedding was celebrated in grand style on 22 July 1515, and has been described by some historians as the First Congress of Vienna due to its significant implications for Europe's political landscape. All the children were still minors, so the wedding was formally completed in 1521. Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but his designs were ultimately successful: on Louis's death in 1526, Maximilian's grandson Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor , became the King of Bohemia.

The Habsburg
Habsburg
dynasty achieved the position of a true world power by the time of Charles V , for the first and only time in their history—the "World Emperor" ruling an "empire on which the sun never sets" .

The Habsburgs' policies against Protestantism
Protestantism
led to an eradication of the former in throughout vast areas under their control.

DIVISION OF THE HOUSE: SPANISH AND AUSTRIAN HABSBURGS

The Spanish and Austrian Habsburg
Habsburg
Dominions in 1700, not showing their overseas empire, but showing the division between the Spanish and Austrian branch with their losses and gains.

After the assignment, on 21 April 1521, of the Austrian lands to Ferdinand I by his brother Emperor
Emperor
Charles V (also King Charles I of Spain) (1516–1556), the dynasty split into the junior branch of the Austrian Habsburgs and the senior branch of the Spanish Habsburgs . The Austrian Habsburgs held the title of Holy Roman Emperor after Charles' death in 1558, as well as the Habsburg
Habsburg
Hereditary Lands and the Kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary.

The senior Spanish branch ruled over Spain, its Italian possessions and its colonial empire, the Netherlands, and, for a time (1580–1640), Portugal. Hungary
Hungary
was partly under Habsburg
Habsburg
rule from 1526. For 150 years most of the country was occupied by the Ottoman Turks but these territories were re-conquered in 1683–1699.

In the secret Oñate treaty , the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs settled their mutual claims. The Spanish Habsburgs died out in 1700 (prompting the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
), as did the last male of the Austrian Habsburg
Habsburg
line in 1740 (prompting the War of the Austrian Succession ), and finally the last female of the Habsburg male line in 1780.

EXTINCTION OF THE SPANISH HABSBURGS

The Habsburgs sought to consolidate their power by the frequent use of consanguineous marriages . This resulted in a cumulatively deleterious effect on their gene pool . Marriages between first cousins , or between uncle and niece, were commonplace in the family. A study of 3,000 family members over 16 generations by the University of Santiago de Compostela suggests that inbreeding directly led to their extinction. The gene pool eventually became so small that the last of the Spanish line Charles II , who was severely disabled from birth, perhaps by genetic disorders , possessed a genome comparable to that of a child born to a brother and sister, as did his father, probably because of "remote inbreeding ".

* v * t * e

Ancestors of Charles II of Spain

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PHILIP I of Castile 1478–1506 JOANNA of Castile 1479–1555

ISABELLA of Portugal 1503–39 CHARLES V HRE 1500–58

FERDINAND I HRE 1503–64 ANNA of Bohemia and Hungary 1503–47

ISABELLA of Austria 1501–26 CHRISTIAN II of Denmark 1481–1559

PHILIP II of Spain 1527–98

MARIA of Spain 1528–1603 MAXIMILIAN II HRE 1527–76 CHARLES II Archduke of Austria 1540–90

ANNA of Austria 1528–90 ALBERT V Duke
Duke
of Bavaria 1528–1579 CHRISTINA of Denmark 1522–90 FRANCIS I Duke
Duke
of Lorraine 1517–45

ANNA of Austria 1549–80

MARIA ANNA of Bavaria 1551–1608 WILLIAM V Duke
Duke
of Bavaria 1548–1626 RENATA of Lorraine 1544–1602

PHILIP III of Spain 1578–1621 MARGARET of Austria 1584–1611 FERDINAND II HRE 1578–1637 MARIA ANNA of Bavaria 1574–1616

PHILIP IV of Spain 1605–65

MARIA ANNA of Spain 1606–46

FERDINAND III HRE 1608–57

MARIANA of Austria 1634–96

CHARLES II of Spain 1661–1700

NOTES:

EXTINCTION OF THE AUSTRIAN HABSBURGS

The Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Charles VI and in the female line in 1780 with the death of his daughter Maria Theresa ; it was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II . The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German : Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. The heiress of the last Austrian Habsburgs Maria Theresa had married Francis Stephan , Duke
Duke
of Lorraine (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg
Habsburg
Emperor
Emperor
Ferdinand III , but from different empresses). Their descendants carried on the Habsburg
Habsburg
tradition from Vienna
Vienna
under the dynastic name Habsburg-Lorraine, although technically a new ruling house came into existence in the Austrian territories, the House of Lorraine (see Dukes of Lorraine family tree ). It is thought that extensive intra-family marriages within both lines contributed to their extinctions.

HABSBURG-LORRAINE

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY IN 1915

Kingdoms and countries of Austria-Hungary: CISLEITHANIA (EMPIRE OF AUSTRIA ): 1. Bohemia , 2. Bukovina , 3. Carinthia , 4. Carniola
Carniola
, 5. Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, 6. Galicia , 7. Küstenland , 8. Lower Austria
Austria
, 9. Moravia
Moravia
, 10. Salzburg
Salzburg
, 11. Silesia
Silesia
, 12. Styria , 13. Tirol , 14. Upper Austria
Austria
, 15. Vorarlberg ; TRANSLEITHANIA (KINGDOM OF HUNGARY ): 16. Hungary
Hungary
proper 17. Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
; 18. Bosnia and Herzegovina (Austro-Hungarian condominium)

On 6 August 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved under the French Emperor
Emperor
Napoleon I 's reorganization of Germany. However, in anticipation of the loss of his title of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II declared himself hereditary Emperor
Emperor
of Austria
Austria
(as Francis I) on 11 August 1804, three months after Napoleon had declared himself Emperor of the French on 18 May 1804.

Emperor
Emperor
Francis I of Austria
Austria
used the official full list of titles: "We , Francis the First, by the grace of God Emperor
Emperor
of Austria; King of Jerusalem , Hungary
Hungary
, Bohemia , Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, Croatia
Croatia
, Slavonia
Slavonia
, Galicia and Lodomeria ; Archduke of Austria
Archduke of Austria
; Duke
Duke
of Lorraine , Salzburg
Salzburg
, Würzburg
Würzburg
, Franconia
Franconia
, Styria , Carinthia , and Carniola
Carniola
; Grand Duke
Duke
of Cracow ; Grand Prince of Transylvania ; Margrave of Moravia
Moravia
; Duke
Duke
of Sandomir , Masovia
Masovia
, Lublin
Lublin
, Upper and Lower Silesia
Silesia
, Auschwitz and Zator , Teschen , and Friule ; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim ; Princely Count
Count
of Habsburg, Gorizia , and Gradisca and of the Tyrol ; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and Istria ".

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
created a real union , whereby the Kingdom of Hungary was granted co-equality with the Empire of Austria
Austria
, that henceforth didn't include the Kingdom of Hungary as a crownland anymore. The Austrian and the Hungarian lands became independent entities enjoying equal status Under this arrangement, the Hungarians referred to their ruler as king and never emperor (see k. u. k. ). This prevailed until the Habsburgs' deposition from both Austria
Austria
and Hungary
Hungary
in 1918 following defeat in World War I.

On 11 November 1918, with his empire collapsing around him, the last Habsburg
Habsburg
ruler, Charles I (who also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary) issued a proclamation recognizing Austria's right to determine the future of the state and renouncing any role in state affairs. Two days later, he issued a separate proclamation for Hungary. Even though he did not officially abdicate , this is considered the end of the Habsburg
Habsburg
dynasty. In 1919, the new republican Austrian government subsequently passed a law banishing the Habsburgs from Austrian territory until they renounced all intentions of regaining the throne and accepted the status of private citizens. Charles made several attempts to regain the throne of Hungary, and in 1921 the Hungarian government passed a law which revoked Charles' rights and dethroned the Habsburgs.

The Habsburgs did not formally abandon all hope of returning to power until Otto von Habsburg , the eldest son of Charles I, renounced all claims to the throne.

The dynasty's motto, "Leave the waging of wars to others! But you, happy Austria, marry; for the realms which Mars awards to others, Venus transfers to you.", indicates the knack of the Habsburgs to have members intermarry into other royal houses in order to build alliances and inherit territory. Empress Maria Theresa is recognized quite notably for it and is sometimes referred to as the "Great-Grandmother of Europe".

FAMILY TREE

MALE SCIONS OF THE DIRECT HOUSE OF HABSBURG WHO SURVIVED TO ADULTHOOD

RUDOLF I of Germany c. 1218–1291

ALBERT I of Germany 1255–1308 HARTMANN 1263–1281

RUDOLF II Duke
Duke
of Austria 1270–1290

RUDOLF I of Bohemia 1281–1307 FREDERICK the Fair c. 1289–1330 LEOPOLD I Duke
Duke
of Austria 1290–1326 ALBERT II Duke
Duke
of Austria 1298–1358 HENRY the Friendly 1299–1327 OTTO Duke
Duke
of Austria 1301–1339 JOHN Parricida c. 1290–1312/13

RUDOLF IV Duke
Duke
of Austria 1339–1365 FREDERICK III Duke
Duke
of Austria 1347–1362 ALBERT III Duke
Duke
of Austria 1349–1395

LEOPOLD III Duke
Duke
of Austria 1351–1386 FREDERICK II Duke
Duke
of Austria 1327–1344 LEOPOLD II Duke
Duke
of Austria 1328–1344

ALBERT IV Duke
Duke
of Austria 1377–1404 WILLIAM Duke
Duke
of Austria c. 1370–1406 LEOPOLD IV Duke
Duke
of Austria 1371–1411 ERNEST Duke
Duke
of Austria 1377–1424

FREDERICK IV Duke
Duke
of Austria 1382–1439

ALBERT II of Germany 1397–1439

FREDERICK III HRE 1415–1493 ALBERT VI Archduke of Austria 1418–1463 SIGISMUND Archduke of Austria 1427–1496

LADISLAUS the Posthumous 1440–1457

MAXIMILIAN I HRE 1459–1519

PHILIP I of Castile 1478–1506

CHARLES V HRE 1500–1558

FERDINAND I HRE 1503–1564

PHILIP II of Spain 1527–1598

MAXIMILIAN II HRE 1527–1576

FERDINAND II Archduke of Austria 1529–1595

CHARLES II Archduke of Austria 1540–1590

CARLOS Prince of Asturias 1545–1568 PHILIP III of Spain 1578–1621 RUDOLF II HRE 1552–1612 ERNEST of Austria 1553–1595 MATTHIAS HRE 1557–1619 MAXIMILIAN III Archduke of Austria 1558–1618 ALBERT VII Archduke of Austria 1559–1621 CHARLES Margrave of Burgau 1560–1618 FERDINAND II HRE 1578–1637 MAXIMILIAN ERNEST of Austria 1583–1616 LEOPOLD V Archduke of Austria 1586–1632 CHARLES of Austria 1590–1624

PHILIP IV of Spain 1605–1665 CHARLES of Austria 1607–1632 FERDINAND of Austria 1609/10–1641

FERDINAND III HRE 1608–1657 LEOPOLD WILHELM of Austria 1614–1662 FERDINAND CHARLES Archduke of Austria 1628–1662 SIGISMUND FRANCIS Archduke of Austria 1630–1665

BALTHASAR CHARLES Prince of Asturias 1629–1646 CHARLES II of Spain 1661–1700

FERDINAND IV King of the Romans 1633–1654 LEOPOLD I HRE 1640–1705 CHARLES JOSEPH of Austria 1649–1664

JOSEPH I HRE 1678–1711 CHARLES VI HRE 1685–1740

Similarly, this family tree only includes male scions of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine who survived to adulthood:

MONARCHS OF THE HOUSE OF HABSBURG

The Habsburg
Habsburg
Empire was never composed of a single unified and unitary state as Bourbon France, Hohenzollern Germany, or Great Britain was. It was made up of an accretion of territories that owed their historic loyalty to the head of the house of Habsburg
Habsburg
as hereditary lord. The Habsburgs had mostly married the heiresses of these territories, most famously of Spain and the Netherlands. They used their coats of arms then as a statement of their right to rule all these territories. As there were many territories, so their arms were complex and reflected the waxing and waning position of the Habsburgs within European power politics. It was not until the 19th century (see below Arms of Dominion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire ) that the arms began to take on their own life as symbols of a state which may have an existence outside of the Habsburg
Habsburg
dynasty. A complete listing of the arms can be found at the Habsburg
Habsburg
Armory.

ANCESTORS

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* Guntram the Rich (ca. 930–985 / 990) Father of: * Lanzelin of Altenburg
Altenburg
(died 991). Besides Radbot, he had sons named Rudolph I , Wernher , and Landolf.

COUNTS OF HABSBURG

Arms of the Counts of Habsburgs. The Habsburgs all but abandoned this for the arms of Austria. It only reappeared in their triarch family arms in 1805.

Before Rudolph rose to German king , the Habsburgs were Counts in what is today southwestern Germany and Switzerland
Switzerland
.

* Radbot of Klettgau
Klettgau
, built the Habsburg Castle (ca. 985–1035). Besides Werner I, he had two other sons: Otto I , who would become Count
Count
of Sundgau in the Alsace
Alsace
, and Albrecht I . * Werner I , Count
Count
of Habsburg
Habsburg
(1025 / 1030–1096). Besides Otto II, there was another son, Albert II , who was reeve of Muri from 1111–1141 after the death of Otto II. * Otto II of Habsburg; first to name himself as "of Habsburg" (died 1111) Father of: * Werner II of Habsburg
Habsburg
(around 1135; died 1167) Father of: * Albrecht III of Habsburg
Habsburg
(the Rich), died 1199. Under him, the Habsburg
Habsburg
territories expanded to cover most of what is today the German-speaking part of Switzerland
Switzerland
. Father of: * Rudolph II of Habsburg
Habsburg
(b. c. 1160, died 1232) Father of: * Albrecht IV
Albrecht IV
of Habsburg, (died 1239 / 1240); father of Rudolph IV of Habsburg, who would later become king Rudolph I of Germany . Between Albrecht IV
Albrecht IV
and his brother Rudolph III , the Habsburg properties were split, with Albrecht keeping the Aargau and the western parts, the eastern parts going to Rudolph III. Albrecht IV
Albrecht IV
was also a mutual ancestor of Sophia Chotek and of her husband Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Austria

DUKES/ARCHDUKES OF AUSTRIA

The arms of Austria, originally belonging to the Babenburg dukes. They became all but synonmous with the Habsburgs, as the Habsburgs abandoned their own arms for these.

In the late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when the Habsburgs expanded their territories in the east, they usually ruled as dukes of the Duchy of Austria
Austria
which covered only what is today Lower Austria (Niederösterreich) and the eastern part of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich). The Habsburg
Habsburg
possessions also included the rest of what was then called Inner Austria
Austria
(Innerösterreich), i.e. the Duchy of Styria , and then expanded west to include the Duchy of Carinthia and Carniola
Carniola
in 1335 and the Count
Count
of Tirol in 1363. Their original scattered possessions in the southern Alsace
Alsace
, south-western Germany and Vorarlberg were collectively known as Further Austria
Austria
.

The senior Habsburg
Habsburg
dynast generally ruled Lower Austria
Austria
from Vienna as archduke ("paramount duke") of the Duchy of Austria
Duchy of Austria
. The Styrian lands had already been ruled in personal union by the Babenberg dukes of Austria
Austria
since 1192 and were finally seized with the Austrian lands by the Habsburg
Habsburg
king Rudolph I of Germany upon his victory in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld . In 1335 Rudolph's grandson Duke
Duke
Albert II of Austria
Austria
also received the Carinthian duchy with the adjacent March of Carniola
Carniola
at the hands of Emperor
Emperor
Louis the Bavarian as Imperial fiefs.

The Habsburg
Habsburg
dukes gradually lost their homelands south of the Rhine and Lake Constance
Lake Constance
to the expanding Old Swiss Confederacy
Old Swiss Confederacy
. Unless mentioned explicitly, the dukes of Austria
Austria
also ruled over Further Austria
Austria
until 1379, after that year, Further Austria
Austria
was ruled by the Princely Count
Count
of Tyrol. Names in italics designate dukes who never actually ruled.

When Albert's son Duke
Duke
Rudolf IV of Austria
Austria
died in 1365, his younger brothers Albert III and Leopold III quarrelled about his heritage and in the Treaty of Neuberg
Treaty of Neuberg
of 1379 finally split the Habsburg territories: The Albertinian line would rule in the Archduchy of Austria
Austria
proper (then sometimes referred to as "Lower Austria" (Niederösterreich), but comprising modern Lower Austria
Austria
and most of Upper Austria
Austria
), while the Leopoldian line ruled in the Styrian, Carinthian and Carniolan territories, subsumed under the denotation of "Inner Austria". At that time their share also comprised Tyrol and the original Habsburg
Habsburg
possessions in Swabia, called Further Austria
Austria
; sometimes both were collectively referred to as "Upper Austria" (Oberösterreich) in that context, also not to be confused with the modern state of that name.

After the death of Leopold's eldest son William in 1406, the Leopoldinian line was further split among his brothers into the Inner Austrian territory under Ernest the Iron and a Tyrolean/Further Austrian line under Frederick IV . In 1457 Ernest's son Duke
Duke
Frederick V of Inner Austria
Austria
also gained the Austrian archduchy after his Albertine cousin Ladislaus the Posthumous
Ladislaus the Posthumous
had died without issue. 1490 saw the reunification of all Habsburg
Habsburg
lines, when Archduke Sigismund of Further Austria
Austria
and Tyrol resigned in favour of Frederick's son Maximilian I . In 1512, the Habsburg
Habsburg
territories were incorporated into the Imperial Austrian Circle .

Archduke of Austria, was invented in the Privilegium Maius , a 14th-century forgery initiated by Duke
Duke
Rudolf IV of Austria
Austria
. Originally, it was meant to denote the "ruler" (thus "Arch-") of the duchy of Austria
Austria
, usually from Vienna
Vienna
, in an effort to put the Habsburgs on a par with the Prince-electors , as Austria
Austria
had been passed as hereditary prince-electors of the empire when the Golden Bull of 1356 assigned that title to the highest ranking Imperial princes . The Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognise the title.

The archducal title was only officially recognized in 1453 by Emperor Frederick III . Emperor
Emperor
Frederick III himself used just " Duke
Duke
of Austria", never Archduke, until his death in 1493. The title was first granted to Frederick's younger brother, Albert VI of Austria
Austria
(died 1463), who used it at least from 1458.

In 1477, Frederick III also granted the title archduke to his first cousin, Sigismund of Austria
Austria
, ruler of Further Austria
Austria
. Frederick's son and heir, the future Emperor
Emperor
Maximilian I , started to use the title, but apparently only after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy (died 1482), as Archduke never appears in documents issued jointly by Maximilian and Mary as rulers in the Low Countries (where Maximilian is still titled " Duke
Duke
of Austria"). The title appears first in documents issued under the joint rule of Maximilian and Philip (his under-age son) in the Low Countries.

Archduke was initially borne by those dynasts who ruled a Habsburg territory , i.e., only by males and their consorts, appanages being commonly distributed to cadets . But these "junior" archdukes did not thereby become independent hereditary rulers, since all territories remained vested in the Austrian crown. Occasionally a territory might be combined with a separate gubernatorial mandate ruled by an archducal cadet.

From the 16th century onward, archduke and its female form, archduchess, came to be used by all the members of the House of Habsburg
Habsburg
(e.g., Queen Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
of France was born Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria.

* Rudolph II , son of Rudolph I , duke of Austria
Austria
and Styria together with his brother 1282–1283, was dispossessed by his brother, who eventually would be murdered by one of Rudolph's sons. * Albert I (Albrecht I), son of Rudolph I and brother of the above, duke from 1282–1308; was Holy Roman Emperor from 1298–1308. See also below . * Rudolph III , oldest son of Albert I, designated duke of Austria and Styria 1298–1307 * Frederick the Handsome (Friedrich der Schöne), brother of Rudolph III. Duke
Duke
of Austria
Austria
and Styria (with his brother Leopold I) from 1308–1330; officially co-regent of emperor Louis IV since 1325, but never ruled. * Leopold I , brother of the above, duke of Austria
Austria
and Styria from 1308–1326. * Albert II (Albrecht II), brother of the above, duke of Further Austria
Austria
from 1326–1358, duke of Austria
Austria
and Styria 1330–1358, duke of Carinthia after 1335. * Otto the Jolly (der Fröhliche), brother of the above, duke of Austria
Austria
and Styria 1330–1339 (together with his brother), duke of Carinthia after 1335. * Rudolph IV the Founder (der Stifter), oldest son of Albert II. Duke
Duke
of Austria
Austria
and Styria 1358–1365, Duke
Duke
of Tirol after 1363.

After the death of Rudolph IV, his brothers Albert III and Leopold III ruled the Habsburg
Habsburg
possessions together from 1365 until 1379, when they split the territories in the Treaty of Neuberg
Treaty of Neuberg
, Albert keeping the Duchy of Austria
Duchy of Austria
and Leopold ruling over Styria , Carinthia , Carniola
Carniola
, the Windic March , Tirol , and Further Austria
Austria
.

ALBERTINE LINE: DUKES OF AUSTRIA

* Albert III (Albrecht III), duke of Austria
Austria
until 1395, from 1386 (after the death of Leopold) until 1395 also ruled over the latter's possessions. * Albert IV (Albrecht IV), duke of Austria
Austria
1395–1404, in conflict with Leopold IV. * Albert V (Albrecht V), duke of Austria
Austria
1404–1439, Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
from 1438–1439 as Albert II . See also below . * Ladislaus Posthumus , son of the above, duke of Austria 1440–1457.

LEOPOLDINE LINE: DUKES OF STYRIA, CARINTHIA, TYROL

* Leopold III , duke of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol, and Further Austria
Austria
until 1386, when he was killed in the Battle of Sempach . * William (Wilhelm), son of the above, 1386–1406 duke in Inner Austria
Austria
(Carinthia, Styria) * Leopold IV , son of Leopold III, 1391 regent of Further Austria, 1395–1402 duke of Tyrol, after 1404 also duke of Austria, 1406–1411 duke of Inner Austria

Leopoldine-Inner Austrian Sub-line

* Ernest the Iron (der Eiserne), 1406–1424 duke of Inner Austria
Austria
, until 1411 together and competing with his brother Leopold IV. * Frederick V (Friedrich), son of Ernst, became emperor Frederick III in 1440. He was duke of Inner Austria
Austria
from 1424 on. Guardian of Sigismund 1439–1446 and of Ladislaus Posthumus 1440–1452. See also below . * Albert VI (Albrecht VI), brother of the above, 1446–1463 regent of Further Austria, duke of Austria
Austria
1458–1463 * Ernestine line of Saxon princes , ancestor of George I of Great Britain -descended from sister of Frederick III ; also Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse King of Finland 1918

Leopoldine-Tyrol Sub-line

* Frederick IV (Friedrich), brother of Ernst, 1402–1439 duke of Tyrol and Further Austria * Sigismund , also spelled Siegmund or Sigmund, 1439–1446 under the tutelage of the Frederick V above, then duke of Tyrol, and after the death of Albrecht VI in 1463 also duke of Further Austria.

REUNITING OF HABSBURG POSSESSIONS

Sigismund had no children and adopted Maximilian I , son of duke Frederick V (emperor Frederick III). Under Maximilian, the possessions of the Habsburgs would be united again under one ruler, after he had re-conquered the Duchy of Austria
Duchy of Austria
after the death of Matthias Corvinus , who resided in Vienna
Vienna
and styled himself duke of Austria
Austria
from 1485–1490.

King Of The Romans And Holy Roman Emperors Prior To The Reunion Of The Habsburg
Habsburg
Possessions

* Rudolph I , emperor 1273–1291 (never crowned) * Albert I , emperor 1298–1308 (never crowned) * Albert II , emperor 1438–1439 (never crowned) -ancestor of Empress Catherine II of Russia
Catherine II of Russia
* Frederick III , emperor 1440–1493

Kings Of Hungary
Hungary
And Bohemia Prior To The Reunion Of The Habsburg Possessions

* Albert , king of Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia (1437–1439) * Ladislaus V Posthumus , king of Hungary
Hungary
(1444–1457) and Bohemia (1453–1457)

HOLY ROMAN EMPERORS, ARCHDUKES OF AUSTRIA

The title Archduke of Austria, the one most famously associated with the Habsburgs, was invented in the Privilegium Maius , a 14th-century forgery initiated by Duke
Duke
Rudolf IV of Austria
Austria
. Originally, it was meant to denote the ruler of the (thus 'Arch')duchy of Austria
Austria
, in an effort to put that ruler on par with the Prince-electors , as Austria had been passed over in the Golden Bull of 1356 , when the electorships had been assigned. Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognize the title. Ladislaus the Posthumous
Ladislaus the Posthumous
, Duke
Duke
of Austria, who died in 1457, was never in his lifetime authorized to use it, and accordingly, not he nor anyone in his branch of the dynasty ever used the title.

Duke
Duke
Ernest the Iron and his descendants unilaterally assumed the title "archduke". This title was only officially recognized in 1453 by his son, Emperor
Emperor
Frederick III , when the Habsburgs had (permanently) gained control of the office of the Holy Roman Emperor . Emperor Frederick III himself used just Duke
Duke
of Austria, never Archduke, until his death in 1493.

Frederick's son and heir, the future Emperor
Emperor
Maximilian I , started to use the title, but apparently only after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy (died 1482) as the title never appears in documents of joint Maximilian and Mary rule in the Low Countries (where Maximilian is still titled Duke
Duke
of Austria). The title appears first in documents of joint Maximilian and Philip (his under-age son) rule in the Low Countries. It only gained currency with Charles V and the descendants of his brother, the Emperor
Emperor
Ferdinand.

* Maximilian I , emperor 1508–1519 * Charles V , emperor 1519–1556, his arms are explained in an article about them

TITULAR DUKES OF BURGUNDY, LORDS OF THE NETHERLANDS

The reigning duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold
Charles the Bold
, was the chief political opponent of Maximilian's father Frederick III. Charles controlled not only Burgundy (both dukedom and county), but the wealthy and powerful Southern Netherlands , current Flanders
Flanders
, the real center of his power. Frederick was concerned about Burgundy's expansive tendencies on the western border of his Holy Roman Empire , and to forestall military conflict, he attempted to secure the marriage of Charles's only daughter, Mary of Burgundy , to his son Maximilian. After the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), he was successful. The wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on the evening of 16 August 1477, after the death of Charles. Mary and the Habsburgs lost the Duchy of Burgundy to France, but managed to defend and hold onto the rest what became the 17 provinces of the Habsburg
Habsburg
Netherlands . After Mary's death in 1482, Maximilian acted as regent for his son:

* Philip the Handsome
Philip the Handsome
(1482–1506) * Charles V (1506–1555) * Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy , regent (1507–1515) and (1519–1530) * Mary of Hungary
Hungary
, dowager queen of Hungary, sister of Charles V, governor of the Netherlands, 1531–1555 * Margaret of Parma , illegitimate daughter of Charles V, Duchess of Parma, and mother of Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma , governor 1559–1567 * Don John of Austria
Austria
, illegitimate son of Charles V, victor of Lepanto, governor of the Netherlands, 1576–1578 * Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma , son of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Netherlands, 1578–1592

The Netherlands were frequently governed directly by a regent or governor-general , who was a collateral member of the Habsburgs. By the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 Charles V combined the Netherlands into one administrative unit, to be inherited by his son Philip II. Charles effectively united the Netherlands as one entity. The Habsburgs controlled the 17 Provinces of the Netherlands until the Dutch Revolt in the second half of the 16th century, when they lost the seven northern Protestant provinces. They held onto the southern Catholic part (roughly modern Belgium
Belgium
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
) as the Spanish and Austrian Netherlands
Austrian Netherlands
until they were conquered by French Revolutionary armies in 1795. The one exception to this was the period of (1601–1621), when shortly before Philip II died on 13 September 1598, he renounced his rights to the Netherlands in favor of his daughter Isabella and her fiancé, Archduke Albert of Austria
Austria
, a younger son of Emperor
Emperor
Maximilian II . The territories reverted to Spain on the death of Albert in 1621, as the couple had no surviving offspring, and Isabella acted as regent-governor until her death in 1633:

* the Archdukes Albert and Isabella , 1601-1621

KING OF ENGLAND

* Philip II of Spain ( Jure uxoris King, with Mary I of England 1554–1558)

SPANISH HABSBURGS: KINGS OF SPAIN, KINGS OF PORTUGAL (1581–1640)

See also: Spanish Habsburgs and Philippine Dynasty
Dynasty
Coat of arms of Spanish Habsburgs (1581–1621 Version) showing the shield as kings of Portugal. Portugal regained its independence in 1640, and when Spain acknowledged this in 1668, it was removed.

The Habsburg
Habsburg
Kingdom(s) of Spain were more a personal union of possessions of the Habsburg
Habsburg
king and dynast, who was King of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Valencia, sometime of Portugal, Naples and Sicily, Duke of Milan, and Lord of the Americas, as well as Duke
Duke
of Brabant, Count of Flanders
Flanders
and Holland, Duke
Duke
of Luxemburg (i.e. all the Habsburg Netherlands ). A listing of a number of the titles can be seen here. The dynast (head of the Spanish Habsburgs, i.e. the King, showed this wide range of claims in his arms. There are many more variants of these arms in the Habsburg
Habsburg
Armory, Spanish Section as well as coat of arms of the King of Spain , coat of arms of Spain , coat of arms of the Prince of Asturias , and coats of arms of Spanish Monarchs in Italy . The Spanish Habsburgs also kept up the Burgundian court tradition of the dynast being known by a "nickname" (e.g. the Bold, the Prudent, the Bewitched). In Spain they were known as the ""Casa de Austria", and illegitimate sons were known as "de Austria" (see Don Juan de Austria
Austria
and Don Juan José de Austria
Austria
).

* Philip I of Castile
Philip I of Castile
the Handsome , second son of Maximilian I , founded the Spanish Habsburgs in 1496 by marrying Joanna the Mad , daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. Philip died in 1506, leaving the thrones of Castile and Aragon
Aragon
to be inherited and united into the throne of Spain by his son: * Charles I 1516–1556, aka Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; divided the House into Austrian and Spanish lines The meanings of his arms are analyzed here . * Philip II the Prudent 1556–1598, also Philip I of Portugal 1581–1598 and Philip I of England with his wife Mary I of England 1554–1558. The meanings of his arms are analyzed here . . * Philip III the Pious , also Philip II of Portugal 1598–1621 * Philip IV the Great 1621–1665, also Philip III of Portugal 1621–1640 * Charles II the Bewitched ( "El Hechizado") 1665–1700

The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
took place after the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg
Habsburg
line, to determine the inheritance of Charles II. Spanish branch's family tree with connections to Emperors' branch

AUSTRIAN HABSBURGS: HOLY ROMAN EMPERORS, KINGS OF HUNGARY AND BOHEMIA, ARCHDUKES OF AUSTRIA

The main junior line of the house ruled the Duchy of Austria
Duchy of Austria
, as well as the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
and the Kingdom of Hungary . The dynasty however was split up again in 1564 among the children of deceased Emperor
Emperor
Ferdinand I of Habsburg
Habsburg
. The Inner Austrian line founded by Archduke Charles II prevailed again, when his son and successor as regent of Inner Austria
Austria
(i.e. the Duchy of Styria
Duchy of Styria
, the Duchy of Carniola
Carniola
with March of Istria , the Duchy of Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
, the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, and the Imperial City of Trieste
Trieste
, ruled from Graz
Graz
) Ferdinand II in 1619 became Archduke of Austria
Austria
and Holy Roman Emperor as well as King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
and Hungary in 1620. The Further Austrian/Tyrolean line of Ferdinand's brother Archduke Leopold V survived until the death of his son Sigismund Francis in 1665, whereafter their territories ultimately returned to common control with the other Austrian Habsburg
Habsburg
lands. Inner Austrian stadtholders went on to rule until the days of Empress Maria Theresa in the 18th century.

* Ferdinand I , emperor 1556–1564 (→Family Tree ) * Maximilian II , emperor 1564–1576 * Rudolf II , emperor 1576–1612 * Matthias , emperor 1612–1619 * Ferdinand II , emperor 1619–1637 * Ferdinand III , emperor 1637–1657 (→Family Tree ) * Leopold I , emperor 1658–1705 * Josef I , emperor 1705–1711 * Charles VI , emperor 1711–1740 * Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria
, Habsburg
Habsburg
heiress and wife of emperor Francis I Stephen , reigned as Archduchess of Austria
Austria
and Queen of Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia 1740–1780.

The War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
took place after the extinction of the male line of the Austrian Habsburg
Habsburg
line upon the death of Charles VI . The direct Habsburg
Habsburg
line itself became totally extinct with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria
, when it was followed by the House of Lorraine , styled of Habsburg-Lorraine. Holy Roman Emperors and their families

HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE, MAIN LINE: HOLY ROMAN EMPERORS, KINGS OF HUNGARY AND BOHEMIA, ARCHDUKES OF AUSTRIA

* Francis I Stephen , emperor 1745–1765 (→Family Tree ) * Joseph II , emperor 1765–1790 * Leopold II , emperor 1790–1792 (→Family Tree ) * Francis II , emperor 1792–1806 (→Family Tree )

Queen Maria Christina of Austria
Austria
of Spain, great-granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor above. Wife of Alfonso XII of Spain and mother of Alfonso XIII
Alfonso XIII
of the House of Bourbon . Alfonso XIII's wife Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was descended from King George I of Great Britain from the Habsburg
Habsburg
Leopold Line {above}.

The House of Habsburg-Lorraine retained Austria
Austria
and attached possessions after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; see below.

A son of Leopold II was Archduke Rainer of Austria
Austria
whose wife was from the House of Savoy ; a daughter Adelaide, Queen of Sardina was the wife of King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont
Piedmont
, Savoy
Savoy
, and Sardinia and King of Italy . Their Children married into the Royal Houses of Bonaparte ; Saxe-Coburg and Gotha {Bragança} {Portugal}; Savoy {Spain}; and the Dukedoms of Montferrat and Chablis
Chablis
.

HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE, MAIN LINE: EMPERORS OF AUSTRIA

Small Coat of Arms of the Austrian Empire adopted by Francis I in 1804. On the center is the Small (personal) Coat of arms of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine adopted by Emperor
Emperor
Francis I. It shows (left to right) the arms of Habsburg, which had all but been abandoned in favor of Austria
Austria
when the Habsburgs acquired Austria, the Arms of Austria, and the Arms of Lorraine.

* Francis I , Emperor
Emperor
of Austria
Austria
1804–1835: formerly Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor

(→Family Tree )

* Ferdinand I , Emperor
Emperor
of Austria
Austria
1835–1848 * Francis Joseph , Emperor
Emperor
of Austria
Austria
1848–1916. * Charles I , Emperor
Emperor
of Austria
Austria
1916–1918. He died in exile in 1922. His wife was of the House of Bourbon-Parma .

HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE: GRAND DUKES OF TUSCANY

* Francis Stephen 1737–1765 (later Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor)

Francis Stephen assigned the grand duchy of Tuscany to his second son Peter Leopold, who in turn assigned it to his second son upon his accession as Holy Roman Emperor. Tuscany remained the domain of this cadet branch of the family until Italian unification .

* Peter Leopold 1765–1790 (later Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor) * Ferdinand III 1790–1800, 1814–1824 (→Family Tree ) * Leopold II 1824–1849, 1849–1859 * Ferdinand IV 1859–1860

HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE: TUSCANY LINE, POST MONARCHY

* Ferdinand IV 1860–1908 * Archduke Joseph Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany 1908–1942 * Archduke Peter Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany 1942–1948 * Archduke Gottfried, Prince of Tuscany 1948–1984 * Archduke Leopold Franz, Prince of Tuscany 1984–1993 * Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke
Duke
of Tuscany 1993–present

HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE (AUSTRIA-ESTE): DUKES OF MODENA

The duchy of Modena
Modena
was assigned to a minor branch of the family by the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
. It was lost to Italian unification . The Dukes named their line the House of Austria-Este, as they were descended from the daughter of the last D'Este Duke
Duke
of Modena.

* Francis IV 1814–1831, 1831–1846 (→Family Tree ) * Francis V 1846–1848, 1849–1859

HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE: MODENA LINE, POST MONARCHY

* Francis V (1859–1875) * Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este "> Coat of Arms of the Mexican Empire adopted by Maximilian I in 1864

Maximilian, the adventurous second son of Archduke Franz Karl, was invited as part of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
's manipulations to take the throne of Mexico
Mexico
, becoming Emperor
Emperor
Maximilian I of Mexico
Mexico
. The conservative Mexican nobility
Mexican nobility
, as well as the clergy, supported this Second Mexican Empire . His consort, Charlotte of Belgium
Belgium
, a daughter of King Leopold I of Belgium
Belgium
and a princess of the House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha , encouraged her husband's acceptance of the Mexican crown and accompanied him as Empress Carlota of Mexico
Mexico
. The adventure did not end well. Maximilian was shot in Cerro de las Campanas , Querétaro , in 1867 by the republican forces of Benito Juárez
Benito Juárez
.

* Maximilian I (1864–1867) (→Family Tree )

HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE, MAIN LINE: HEADS OF THE HOUSE OF HABSBURG (POST-MONARCHY)

Charles I was expelled from his domains after World War I and the empire was abolished. Current personal arms of the head of the house of Habsburg, claiming only the personal title of Archduke

* Charles I (1918–1922) (→Family Tree ) * Otto von Habsburg (1922–2007) * Zita of Bourbon-Parma , guardian, (1922–1930) * Karl von Habsburg
Habsburg
, (2007–present)

see Line of succession to the Austro-Hungarian throne

BURIALS

Main articles: Imperial Crypt, Vienna
Vienna
; El Escorial
El Escorial
§ Pantheon of the Kings ; and Palatinal Crypt

KINGS OF HUNGARY

The kingship of Hungary
Hungary
remained in the Habsburg
Habsburg
family for centuries; but as the kingship was not strictly inherited ( Hungary
Hungary
was an elective monarchy until 1687) and was sometimes used as a training ground for young Habsburgs, as "Palatine" of Hungary, the dates of rule do not always match those of the primary Habsburg
Habsburg
possessions. Therefore, the kings of Hungary
Hungary
are listed separately.

ALBERTINE LINE: KINGS OF HUNGARY

* Albert , king of Hungary
Hungary
1437–1439 * Ladislaus V Posthumus , King of Hungary
King of Hungary
1444–1457

AUSTRIAN HABSBURGS: KINGS OF HUNGARY

* Ferdinand I , king of Hungary
Hungary
1526–1564 * Maximilian I , king of Hungary
Hungary
1563–1576 * Rudolf I , king of Hungary
Hungary
1572–1608 * Matthias II , king of Hungary
Hungary
1608–1619 * Ferdinand II , king of Hungary
Hungary
1618–1637 * Ferdinand III , king of Hungary
Hungary
1625–1657 * Ferdinand IV , king of Hungary
Hungary
1647–1654 * Leopold I , king of Hungary
Hungary
1655–1705 * Joseph I , king of Hungary
Hungary
1687–1711 * Charles III , king of Hungary
Hungary
1711–1740 * Maria Theresa , queen of Hungary
Hungary
1741–1780

HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE, MAIN LINE: KINGS OF HUNGARY

* Joseph II , king of Hungary
Hungary
1780–1790 * Leopold II , king of Hungary
Hungary
1790–1792 * Francis , king of Hungary
Hungary
1792–1835 * Ferdinand V , king of Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia 1835–1848 * Francis Joseph I , king of Hungary
Hungary
1867–1916 * Charles IV , king of Hungary
Hungary
1916–1918

KINGS OF BOHEMIA

The kingship of Bohemia was from 1306 a position elected by its nobles. As a result, it was not an automatically inherited position. Until the rule of Ferdinand I, Habsburgs didn't gain hereditary accession to the throne and were displaced by other dynasties. Hence, the kings of Bohemia and their ruling dates are listed separately. The Habsburgs became hereditary kings of Bohemia in 1627. By their acquisition of the Bohemian Crown in 1526 the Habsburgs secured the highest rank among the secular prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire.

MAIN LINE

* Rudolph I , king of Bohemia 1306–1307

ALBERTINE LINE: KINGS OF BOHEMIA

* Albert , king of Bohemia 1437–1439 * Ladislaus Posthumus , king of Bohemia 1453–1457

AUSTRIAN HABSBURGS: KINGS OF BOHEMIA

* Ferdinand I , king of Bohemia 1526–1564 * Maximilian I , king of Bohemia 1563–1576 * Rudolph II , king of Bohemia 1572–1611 * Matthias , king of Bohemia 1611–1618 * Ferdinand II , king of Bohemia 1621–1637 * Ferdinand III , king of Bohemia 1625–1657 * Ferdinand IV , king of Bohemia 1647–1654 * Leopold I , king of Bohemia 1655–1705 * Joseph I , king of Bohemia 1687–1711 * Charles VI , king of Bohemia 1711–1740 * Maria Theresa , queen of Bohemia 1743–1780

HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE, MAIN LINE: KINGS OF BOHEMIA

* Joseph II , king of Bohemia 1780–1790 * Leopold II , king of Bohemia 1790–1792 * Francis , king of Bohemia 1792–1835 * Ferdinand V , king of Bohemia 1835–1848 * Francis Joseph I , king of Bohemia 1848–1916 * Charles III , king of Bohemia 1916–1918

FAMILY NAME HABSBURG

Most royal families did not have a family name until the 19th century. They were known as "of" (in German von) based on the main territory they ruled. For example, sons, daughters, grandsons and granddaughters of a ruling French King were known as "of France" (see on House of Bourbon ). The name "Capet" was an invention of the French Revolutionaries. "Bourbon" was in some sense the name of the house as it was differentiated from the previous Valois kings. Princes and Princesses of the royal house of England were known as "of England", or later "Great Britain" (see House of Windsor ) or "of" the main title associated with their parent (see Prince William of Wales ). In the Middle Ages, princes of England were often known by the town or castle of their birth (see John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
, Henry Bolingbroke , or Henry of Monmouth ). Even when the royal family had a last name (see House of Tudor
House of Tudor
, House of Stuart
House of Stuart
or House of Windsor ), it was not used in their titles.

Similarly, the Habsburg
Habsburg
name was used as one of the subsidiary titles of the rulers above, as in "Princely Count
Count
of Habsburg" (see above under Habsburg-Lorraine). The Habsburg
Habsburg
arms (see above) were displayed only in the most complete (great arms) of the prince. The dynasty was known as the "house of Austria". Most of the princes above were known as Archduke xyz "of Austria" and had no need of a surname. Charles V was known in his youth after his birthplace as "Charles of Ghent". When he became king of the Spains he was known as "Charles of Spain", until he became emperor, when he was known as Charles V ("Charles Quint"). In Spain, the dynasty was known as the "casa de Austria", and illegitimate sons were given the title of "de Austria" (see Don Juan de Austria
Austria
and Don Juan José de Austria
Austria
). The arms displayed in their simplest form were those of Austria, which the Habsburgs had made their own, at times impaled with the arms of the Duchy of Burgundy (ancient).

Arms of Austria
Austria
impaled with Burgundy (ancient). The most personal arms of Austrian princes from 1477 until 1740 (see here Personal Arms of Joseph II and Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
showing Austria impaled with Lorraine. Tripartite personal arms of Leopold II and Francis II/I showing Austria, Lorraine and Tuscany, and used by the House of Habsburg-Tuscany (see Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke
Duke
of Tuscany ). Tripartite personal arms of the "Habsburg" ruling house after 1805 showing the return to prominence of the Habsburg
Habsburg
arms. Used today by most archdukes/archduchesses.

When Maria Theresa married the duke of Lorraine, Francis Stephen (see above), there was a desire to show that the ruling dynasty continued as did all its inherited rights, as the ruling dynasty's right to rule was based on inherited legitimate birthright in each of the constituent territories. Using the concept of "Habsburg" as the traditional Austrian ruler was one of those ways. When Francis I became Emperor
Emperor
of Austria, there was an even further reinforcement of this by the reappearance of the arms of Habsburg
Habsburg
in the tripart personal arms of the house with Austria
Austria
and Lorraine. This also reinforced the "Germaness" of the Austrian Emperor
Emperor
and his claim to rule in Germany against the Prussian Kings, or at least to be included in "Germany". As Emperor
Emperor
Francis Joseph wrote to Napoleon III
Napoleon III
„Nein, ich bin ein deutscher Fürst“ In the genealogical table above, some younger sons who had no prospects of the throne, were given the personal title of "count of Habsburg".

Today, as the dynasty is no longer on the throne, the surname of members of the house is taken to be "von Habsburg" or more completely "von Habsburg-Lothringen" (see Otto von Habsburg and Karl von Habsburg ). Princes and members of the house use the Tripartite arms shown above, generally forgoing any imperial pretentions.

ARMS OF DOMINION OF THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE

The arms of dominion began to take on a life of their own in the 19th century as the idea of the state as independent from the Habsburg dynasty took root. They are the national arms as borne by a sovereign in his capacity as head of state and represent the state as separate from the person of the monarch or his dynasty. That very idea had been, heretofore, foreign to the concept of the Habsburg
Habsburg
state. The state had been the personal property of the Habsburg
Habsburg
dynast. Since the states, territories, and nationalities represented were in many cases only united to the Austro-Hungarian Empire by their historic loyalty to the head of the house of Habsburg
Habsburg
as hereditary lord, these full ("grand") arms of dominion of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
reflect the complex political infrastructure that was necessarily to accommodate the many different nationalities and groupings within the empire after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
. Shield of the Austrian part of the empire (1867–1915). Enumeration

After 1867 the eastern part of the empire, also called Transleithania , was mostly under the domination of the Kingdom of Hungary . The shield integrated the arms of the kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
, with two angels and supporters and the crown of St. Stephen, along with the territories that were subject to it:

The Kingdom of Dalmatia , the Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
, the Kingdom of Slavonia
Slavonia
(conjoined with Croatia
Croatia
as the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
- formally known as the Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, although the claim to Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was mostly de jure ), the Great Principality of Transylvania , the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1915–1918), the City of Fiume and its district (modern Rijeka
Rijeka
), and in the center, the Kingdom of Hungary.

The western or Austrian part of the empire, Cisleithania
Cisleithania
, continued using the shield of the Empire in 1815 but with the seals of various member territories located around the central shield. Paradoxically, some of these coats of arms belonged to the territories that were part of the Hungarian part of the empire and shield. This shield, the most frequently used until 1915, was known as the middle shield. There was also the small shield, with just the personal arms of the Habsburgs, as used in 1815.

I II III IV V

Middle Coat of arms of the Austrian part of the Empire in 1915. It shows as a center shield (inescutcheon) the personal arms of Habsburg-Lorraine over the arms of dominions of the Habsburg
Habsburg
lands. It usually had the personal arms of Habsburg-Lorraine in the center.

In the heraldic composition of 1915, the shields of the two foci of the empire, Austria
Austria
and Hungary, were brought together. The griffin supporter on the left was added for Austria
Austria
and an angel on the right as a supporter for Hungary. The center featured the personal arms of the Habsburgs (Habsburg, Austria
Austria
and Lorraine). This small shield was topped with a royal crown and surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece , below which was the Military Order of Maria Theresa , below which was the collars of the Orders of St. Stephen\'s and Leopold . At the bottom was the motto that read "AC INDIVISIBILITER INSEPARABILITER" ("indivisible and inseparable"). There were other simplified versions which did not have the supports depicted, and the simple shields of Austria
Austria
and Hungary. These were the arms of the Empire of Austria
Austria
with an inescutcheon of Austria, and the Arms of Hungary
Hungary
(with chequer of Croatia
Croatia
at the tip). Middle Common Coat of Arms of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1915 showing most of the larger possessions of the Austrian Empire (left shield) and the Kingdom of Hungary (right shield). The personal arms of the Habsburg-Lorraines is in the center. The collection of territories that acknowledged the head of the Habsburgs as personal ruler shown by this representation put the Empire at a distinct disadvantage in comparison with the unified nation states that it shared the continent of Europe with.

AUSTRIAN LANDS

SHIELD PARTITION TERRITORY

I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Dalmatia Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia
Silesia
Duchy of Salzburg Margraviate of Moravia
Moravia
County of Tirol Duchy of Bukovina Province of Vorarlberg Margraviate of Istria County of Gorizia (part of the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca ) County of Gradisca (also part of the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca ) Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Conjoined) Imperial Free City of Trieste
Trieste
Archduchy of Lower Austria
Austria
Archduchy of Upper Austria
Austria
Duchy of Styria
Duchy of Styria
Duchy of Carniola
Carniola
Duchy of Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
Archduchy of Austria

TERRITORIES OF THE CROWN OF ST. STEPHEN

SHIELD PARTITION TERRITORY

I II III IV V VI VII Kingdom of Dalmatia (Legally Hungarian) Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
Kingdom of Slavonia
Slavonia
Grand Principality of Transylvania Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Conjoined) City of Fiume and its district Kingdom of Hungary

PERSONAL SHIELD OF THE DYNASTY

SHIELD PARTITION SIGNIFICANCE

I II III Count
Count
of Habsburg Archduke of Austria
Archduke of Austria
Duke
Duke
of Lorraine

GALLERY

ARMS OF THE LANDS OF THE CROWN OF SAINT STEPHEN (1867–1915) ARMS OF THE LANDS OF THE CROWN OF SAINT STEPHEN (1915–1918) SMALL ARMS OF AUSTRIA (CISLEITHANIA )(1805–1918)

SIMPLE ARMS OF CISLEITHANIA (1915–1918) PERSONAL ARMS OF THE EMPEROR FRANZ JOSEF (1848–1916) SIMPLE ARMS OF THE AUSTRIAN AND HUNGARIAN PARTS OF THE EMPIRE. (1915–1918)

SEE ALSO

* A.E.I.O.U.
A.E.I.O.U.
* Austria- Hungary
Hungary
* Austrian Empire * Dukes of Lorraine family tree * Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
* Habsburg
Habsburg
family tree * Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy

* Habsburg Spain
Habsburg Spain

* Monarchs of Spain family tree

* Kings of Germany family tree * List of rulers of Austria
Austria
* List of rulers of Lorraine * Royal intermarriage * Mandibular prognathism (" Habsburg
Habsburg
lip") * Mayerling Incident * Ottoman– Habsburg
Habsburg
wars * Thirty Years\' War

*

Hofburg Palace , Vienna
Vienna
*

Schönbrunn Palace
Schönbrunn Palace
, Vienna
Vienna
*

Prague Castle *

Buda Castle *

El Escorial
El Escorial

NOTES

* ^ Siegal, Allan M. ; Connolly, William G. (1999). The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-8129-6389-2 . Retrieved 27 April 2012. * ^ "The House of Austria
Austria
– the Habsburgs and the Empire" * ^ Paula Sutter Fichtner, "Dynastic Marriage in Sixteenth-Century Habsburg
Habsburg
Diplomacy and Statecraft: An Interdisciplinary Approach," American Historical Review Vol. 81, No. 2 (April 1976), pp. 243-265 in JSTOR * ^ The Kingdom of Germany
Kingdom of Germany
was within the Holy Roman Empire from 962 until 1806. * ^ "King of the Romans" was, from the time of Emperor
Emperor
Henry II (1014–1024), the title used by the German king following his election by the princes. The title "King of the Romans" became functionally obsolete after 1508. * ^ "Habsburger-Gedenkjahr im Aargau", Neue Zürcher Zeitung
Neue Zürcher Zeitung
, (page 17) 23 May 2008. * ^ art-tv.ch * ^ "Kanton Aargau" (in German). Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. * ^ A B C D E F G Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche. ISBN 3-406-44754-6 . * ^ A B Erbe, Michael: Die Habsburger 1493-1918. Eine Dynastie im Reich und in Europa. W. Kohlhammer, 2000. ISBN 3-17-011866-8 * ^ Great Events from History, The Renaissance Ceballos, Francisco C.; Quinteiro, Celsa; Bauchet, Marc (April 15, 2009). Bauchet, Marc, ed. "The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty". PLoS ONE. PLoS ONE. 4 (4): e5174. PMC 2664480  . PMID 19367331 . doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0005174 . Retrieved 2009-04-19. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ FC Ceballos; G Alvarez (2013). "Royal dynasties as human inbreeding laboratories: the Habsburgs". Heredity. 111 (2): 114–121. PMID 23572123 . doi :10.1038/hdy.2013.25 . * ^ Maria Theresa was originally engaged to Léopold Clément of Lorraine , older brother of Francis Stephan. * ^ A B Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Austria-Hungary". Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2–39. * ^ Microsoft Encarta: The height of the dual monarchy * ^ Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization: Comprehensive Volume. 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2003. 330. Print. * ^ Image: Habsburg
Habsburg
Family Tree.jpg * ^ Genealogisches Hanbduch des Adels, Furstliche Hauser Band XIV. Limburg ad der Lahn, Germany: C. A. Starke Verlag. 1991. pp. 91–93. ISBN 3-7980-0700-4 . * ^ Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche. ISBN 3-406-44754-6 . pp. 38–45. * ^ A B C D E F List of nicknames of European royalty and nobility: C * ^ "Otto von Habsburg, heir to Austria\'s last emperor, dies at 98". The Local: Germany's News in English. Retrieved 18 December 2012.

* ^ 1: Wolfgang Menzel : Die letzten 120 Jahre der Weltgeschichte, Band 6 (1740-1860), Adolph Krabbe, Stuttgart 1860, S. 211 Online, p. 211, at Google Books
Google Books
2.: Wolfgang Menzel: Supplementband zu der Geschichte der letzten 40 Jahre (1816-1856). Adolph Krabbe, Stuttgart 1860, S. 153 Online, p. 153, at Google Books
Google Books
Aus diesem wurde später: „Sire, ich bin ein deutscher Fürst“: Hermann Struschka: Kaiser Franz Josef
Franz Josef
I. Georg Szelinski, Wien 1888, S. 22 Online, p. 22, at Google Books
Google Books
Es kommt auch in der anglifizierten Schreibung „Sir, ich bin deutscher Fürst“ vor. Stenographische Protokolle – Abgeordnetenhaus – Sitzungsprotokolle. Haus der Abgeordneten – 14. Sitzung der XVIII. Session am 16. Juli 1907, S. 1337 alex.onb.ac.at 3: wikiquote:de:Franz Joseph I. von Österreich * ^ H. Ströhl: Die neuen österreichischen, ungarischen und gemeinsamen Wappen. Hrsg. auf Grund der mit d. allerhöchsten Handschreiben vom 10. u. 11. Okt. 1915, bezw. 2. u. 5. März 1916 erfolgten Einführung. Viena 1917. * ^ "Diem, P. Die Entwicklung des österreichischen Doppeladlers". Retrieved 5 July 2012.

FURTHER READING

* Agamov A.M. Dynasties of Europe 400--2016: Complete Genealogy of Sovereign Houses (In Russian). URSS, Moscow, 2017. P. 27-33 * Brewer-Ward, Daniel A. The House of Habsburg: A Genealogy of the Descendants of Empress Maria Theresia. Clearfield, 1996. * Crankshaw, Edward. The Fall of the House of Habsburg. Sphere Books Limited, London, 1970. (first published by Longmans in 1963) * Evans, Robert J. W. The Making of the Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy, 1550–1700: An Interpretation. Clarendon Press, 1979. * McGuigan, Dorothy Gies. The Habsburgs. Doubleday, 1966. * Palmer, Alan. Napoleón and Marie Louise Ariel Mexico, 2003. * Wandruszka, Adam. The House of Habsburg: Six Hundred Years of a European Dynasty. Doubleday, 1964 (Greenwood Press, 1975).

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article HABSBURG .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to HOUSE OF HABSBURG .

* http://habsburg.yolasite.com/ The Habsburg
Habsburg
Family Association * "Erzherzog Dr. Otto von Habsburg" (Autorisierte Ehrenseite) in German * Habsburg
Habsburg
Biographies * Habsburg
Habsburg
History * Habsburg
Habsburg
Resource Centre on SurnameWeb * http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~stephan/Rulers/hapsburg3.html * Genealogical tree of the house of Habsburg
Habsburg
(up until Maria Theresia) * Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy of the Habsburgs from Genealogy.eu". Genealogy.EU.