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Steelmaking
Steelmaking is the process of producing steel from iron ore and/or scrap. In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and excess carbon (most important impurity) are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, chromium, carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Limiting dissolved gases such as nitrogen and oxygen and entrained impurities (termed "inclusions") in the steel is also important to ensure the quality of the products cast from the liquid steel.[1] Steelmaking has existed for millennia, but it was not commercialized on a massive scale until the late the 14th century. An ancient process of steelmaking was the crucible process. In the 1850s and 1860s, the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process turned steelmaking into a heavy industry
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Food Processing
Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food, or of one form of food into other forms. Food processing includes many forms of processing foods, from grinding grain to make raw flour to home cooking to complex industrial methods used to make convenience foods. Some food processing methods play important roles in reducing food waste and improving food preservation, thus reducing the total environmental impact of agriculture and improving food security. Primary food processing is necessary to make most foods edible, and secondary food processing turns the ingredients into familiar foods, such as bread
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Moody's
Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name. Moody's Investors Service provides international financial research on bonds issued by commercial and government entities. Moody's, along with Standard & Poor's and Fitch Group, is considered one of the Big Three credit rating agencies. The company ranks the creditworthiness of borrowers using a standardized ratings scale which measures expected investor loss in the event of default. Moody's Investors Service rates debt securities in several bond market segments
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List Of Countries By Credit Rating
This is a list of countries by credit rating, showing long-term foreign currency credit ratings for sovereign bonds as reported by the largest three major credit rating agencies: Standard & Poor's, Fitch, and Moody's. The list also includes all country subdivisions not issuing sovereign bonds, but it excludes regions, provinces and municipalities issuing sub-sovereign bonds. For S&P, a bond is considered investment grade if its credit rating is BBB- or higher. Bonds rated BB+ and below are considered to be speculative grade, sometimes also referred to as "junk" bonds.[1]
 Abu Dhabi, UAE 201 AA Stable 2012-02-20 [2]
 Albania 091 B+ Stable 2016-02-05 [3]
 Andorra 141 BBB Stable 2020-04-24 [4]
For S&P, a bond is considered investment grade if its credit rating is BBB- or higher
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