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Dyshidrosis
DYSHIDROSIS, is a type of dermatitis , that is characterized by itchy blisters on the palms of the hands and bottoms of the feet. Blisters are generally one to two millimeters in size and heal over three weeks. However, they often recur. Redness is not usually present. Repeated attacks may result in fissures and skin thickening . The cause is unknown. Triggers may include allergens, physical or mental stress , frequent hand washing, or metals. Diagnosis is typically based on what it looks like and the symptoms. Allergy testing and culture may be done to rule out other problems. Other conditions that produce similar symptoms include pustular psoriasis and scabies . Avoiding triggers may be useful as may a barrier cream . Treatment is generally with steroid cream . High strength steroid creams may be required for the first week or two. Antihistamines may be used to help with the itch. If this is not effective steroid pills, tacrolimus , or psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) may be tried. About 1 in 2,000 people are affected in Sweden
Sweden
. Males and females appear to be affected equally. The first description was in 1873. The name comes from the word "dyshidrotic," meaning "difficult sweating," as problems with sweating was once believed to be the cause
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Specialty (medicine)
A SPECIALTY (or SPECIALITY) in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school , physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a MEDICAL SPECIALIST. CONTENTS * 1 History of medical specialization * 2 Classification of medical specialization * 3 Specialties that are common worldwide * 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area * 5 List of North American medical specialties and others * 6 Physician
Physician
compensation * 7 Specialties by country * 7.1 Australia and New Zealand * 7.2 Canada * 7.3 Germany * 7.4 India * 7.5 United States
United States
* 8 Other uses * 9 Training * 10 Satisfaction * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References HISTORY OF MEDICAL SPECIALIZATIONTo a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized. According to Galen
Galen
, specialization was common among Roman physicians. The particular system of modern medical specialities evolved gradually during the 19th century. Informal social recognition of medical specialization evolved before the formal legal system. The particular subdivision of the practice of medicine into various specialities varies from country to country, and is somewhat arbitrary
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Dermatology
DERMATOLOGY (from ancient Greek δέρμα, _derma_ which means skin and λογία, _logia)_ is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin , nails , hair and its diseases . It is a specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist treats diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Training * 3.1 United States * 4 Fields * 4.1 Cosmetic dermatology * 4.2 Dermatopathology * 4.3 Immunodermatology * 4.4 Mohs surgery * 4.5 Pediatric dermatology * 4.6 Teledermatology * 4.7 Dermatoepidemiology * 5 Therapies * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYAttested in English in 1819, the word _dermatology_ derives from the Greek δέρματος (_dermatos_), genitive of δέρμα (_derma_), "skin" (itself from δέρω _dero_, "to flay" ) and -λογία _-logia_. HISTORY Main article: History of dermatology Readily visible alterations of the skin surface have been recognized since the dawn of history, with some being treated, and some not. In 1801 the first great school of dermatology became a reality at the famous Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris, while the first textbooks (Willan's, 1798–1808) and atlases (Alibert\'s , 1806–1814) appeared in print during the same period of time
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Blister
A BLISTER is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph , serum , plasma , blood , or pus ) within the upper layers of the skin , typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction ), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection. Most blisters are filled with a clear fluid, either serum or plasma. However, blisters can be filled with blood (known as "blood blisters" ) or with pus (if they become infected). The word "blister" entered English in the 14th century. It came from the Middle Dutch"bluyster" and was a modification of the Old French "blostre", which meant a leprous nodule—a rise in the skin due to leprosy . In dermatology today, the words _vesicle_ and _bulla_ refer to blisters of smaller or greater size, respectively. To heal properly, a blister should not be popped unless medically necessary. Once popped, the excess skin should not be removed because the skin underneath needs that top layer to heal properly. CONTENTS* 1 Causes * 1.1 Friction
Friction
or rubbing * 1.2 Extreme temperature * 1.3 Chemical exposure * 1.4 Crushing/pinching * 1.5 Medical conditions * 2 Pathophysiology * 2.1 Friction
Friction
blisters * 3 Prevention * 3.1 Friction
Friction
blisters * 3.2 Other * 4 References * 5 External links CAUSESA blister may form when the skin has been damaged by friction or rubbing, heat, cold or chemical exposure
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Complication (medicine)
COMPLICATION, in medicine , is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease , a health condition or a therapy . The disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems. A new disease may also appear as a complication to a previous existing disease. A medical treatment, such as drugs or surgery may produce adverse effects and/or produce new health problem(s) by itself. Therefore, a complication may be iatrogenic , i.e., literally brought forth by the physician. Medical knowledge about a disease, procedure or treatment usually entails a list of the most common complications, so that they can be foreseen, prevented or recognized more easily and speedily. Depending on the degree of vulnerability, susceptibility, age , health status, immune system condition, etc. complications may arise more easily. Complications affect adversely the prognosis of a disease. Non-invasive and minimally invasive medical procedures usually favor fewer complications in comparison to invasive ones. Disorders that are concomitant but are not caused by the other disorder are comorbidities . This conceptual dividing line is sometimes blurred by the complexity of the causation or the lack of definite information about it
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Lichenification
A CUTANEOUS CONDITION is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system —the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin , hair , nails , and related muscle and glands . The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment. Conditions of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of diseases, also known as dermatoses, as well as many nonpathologic states (like, in certain circumstances, melanonychia and racquet nails ). While only a small number of skin diseases account for most visits to the physician, thousands of skin conditions have been described. Classification of these conditions often presents many nosological challenges, since underlying causes and pathogenetics are often not known. Therefore, most current textbooks present a classification based on location (for example, conditions of the mucous membrane ), morphology (chronic blistering conditions ), cause (skin conditions resulting from physical factors ), and so on. Clinically, the diagnosis of any particular skin condition is made by gathering pertinent information regarding the presenting skin lesion(s), including the location (such as arms, head, legs), symptoms (pruritus , pain), duration (acute or chronic), arrangement (solitary, generalized, annular, linear), morphology (macules, papules , vesicles ), and color (red, blue, brown, black, white, yellow)
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Diagnostic Method
MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS (abbreviated DX or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs . It is most often referred to as DIAGNOSIS with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES, such as diagnostic tests , are also done during the process. Sometimes Posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific . For example, redness of the skin (erythema ), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus doesn't tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis , in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed. This involves the correlation of various pieces of information followed by the recognition and differentiation of patterns. Occasionally the process is made easy by a sign or symptom (or a group of several) that is pathognomonic . Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is a major component of the procedure of a doctor\'s visit . From the point of view of statistics , the diagnostic procedure involves classification tests
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Differential Diagnosis
In medicine , a DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features. Differential diagnostic procedures are used by physicians and other trained medical professionals to diagnose the specific disease in a patient , or, at least, to eliminate any imminently life-threatening conditions. Often, each individual option of a possible disease is called a differential diagnosis (for example, bronchitis could be a differential diagnosis in the evaluation of a cough that ends up with a final diagnosis of common cold ). More generally, a DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE is a systematic diagnostic method used to identify the presence of a disease entity where multiple alternatives are possible. This method is essentially a process of elimination or at least a process of obtaining information that shrinks the "probabilities" of candidate conditions to negligible levels, by using evidence such as symptoms, patient history, and medical knowledge to adjust epistemic confidences in the mind of the diagnostician (or, for computerized or computer-assisted diagnosis, the software of the system). Differential diagnosis can be regarded as implementing aspects of the hypothetico-deductive method , in the sense that the potential presence of candidate diseases or conditions can be viewed as hypotheses that physicians further determine as being true or false
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Pustular Psoriasis
The term PUSTULAR PSORIASIS is used for a heterogeneous group of diseases that share pustular skin characteristics. PUSTULAR PSORIASIS Severe pustular psoriasis. CLASSIFICATION AND EXTERNAL RESOURCES ICD -10 L40.1 ICD -9-CM 696.1CLASSIFICATION Pustular psoriasis
Pustular psoriasis
is classified into two major forms: localized and generalized pustular psoriasis . Within these two categories there are several variants: CLASSIFICATION OF LOCALIZED AND GENERALIZED PUSTULAR PSORIASIS LOCALIZED PUSTULAR PSORIASIS * Palmoplantar pustulosis (acute and chronic) * Acrodermatitis continua (of Hallopeau) GENERALIZED PUSTULAR PSORIASIS * (von Zumbusch) acute generalized pustular psoriasis * Acute generalized pustular psoriasis of pregnancy (impetigo herpetiformis ) * Infantile and juvenile * Subacute circinate and annularSIGNS AND SYMPTOMSCharacteristics may vary according to the subtype of pustular psoriasis. For example, it can be localized, commonly to the hands and feet (localized pustular psoriasis ), or generalized with widespread patches occurring randomly on any part of the body (generalized pustular psoriasis ). However, all forms of pustular psoriasis share in common the presence of red and tender blotchy skin covered with pustules
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Scabies
SCABIES, previously known as the SEVEN-YEAR ITCH, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei . The most common symptoms are severe itchiness and a pimple -like rash. Occasionally, tiny burrows may be seen in the skin. Once infected, a never-before-infected person will usually develop symptoms in between two and six weeks. If a person has a second exposure later in life, the body's immune system will often respond much more quickly and symptoms may begin within as little as 24 hours. These symptoms can be present across most of the body or just certain areas such as the wrists, between fingers, or along the waistline. The head may be affected, but this is typically only in young children. The itch is often worse at night. Scratching may cause skin breakdown and an additional bacterial infection of the skin. Scabies
Scabies
is caused by infection with the female mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis . The mites burrow into the skin to live and deposit eggs. The symptoms of scabies are due to an allergic reaction to the mites. Often, only between 10 and 15 mites are involved in an infection. Scabies
Scabies
is most often spread during a relatively long period of direct skin contact with an infected person (at least 10 minutes) such as that which may occur during sex. Spread of disease may occur even if the person has not developed symptoms yet
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Barrier Cream
A BARRIER CREAM is a topical formulation used in industrial applications and as a cosmetic to place a physical barrier between the skin and contaminants that may irritate the skin (contact dermatitis or occupational dermatitis ). There are many other terms for creams designed to protect skin from harmful substances, including skin protective creams, pre-work creams, antisolvent gels, protective ointments, and SHIELDING LOTIONS. Three classes of barrier creams are used: water repellent creams, water-soluble creams, and creams designed for special applications. Barrier creams may contain substances such as zinc oxide , talc or kaolin to layer over the skin. For hand care they are designed to protect against the harm from detergents and other irritants. The efficacy of barrier creams is controversial. They have not been demonstrated to be useful in preventing hand eczema . A 2010 Cochrane review concluded that there was insufficient evidence to determine whether barrier cream could prevent occupational contact dermatitis . They are a poor substitute for protective clothing for workers. Gloves provide a greater protection than barrier creams. However they are reasonably effective for the protection of face against some airborne substances. Some evidence suggests that improper use of barrier cream could cause a harmful rather than a beneficial effect
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Corticosteroids
CORTICOSTEROIDS are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates , as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids , are involved in a wide range of physiologic processes, including stress response , immune response , and regulation of inflammation , carbohydrate metabolism , protein catabolism , blood electrolyte levels, and behavior. Some common naturally occurring steroid hormones are cortisol (C 21H 30O 5), corticosterone (C 21H 30O 4), cortisone (C 21H 28O 5) and aldosterone (C 21H 28O 5). (Note that aldosterone and cortisone share the same chemical formula but the structures are different.) The main corticosteroids produced by the adrenal cortex are cortisol and aldosterone
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Antihistamines
ANTIHISTAMINES are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies . Antihistamines
Antihistamines
can give relief when a person has nasal congestion , sneezing , or hives because of pollen , dust mites , or animal allergy . Typically people take antihistamines as an inexpensive, generic , over-the-counter drug with few side effects. As an alternative to taking an antihistamine, people who suffer from allergies can instead avoid the substance which irritates them. Antihistamines
Antihistamines
are usually for short-term treatment. Chronic allergies increase the risk of health problems which antihistamines might not treat, including asthma , sinusitis , and lower respiratory tract infection . Doctors recommend that people talk to them before any longer term use of antihistamines. Although typical people use the word “antihistamine” to describe drugs for treating allergies, doctors and scientists use the term to describe a class of drug that opposes the activity of histamine receptors in the body. In this sense of the word, antihistamines are subclassified according to the histamine receptor that they act upon. The two largest classes of antihistamines are H1-antihistamines and H2-antihistamines . Antihistamines
Antihistamines
that target the histamine H1-receptor are used to treat allergic reactions in the nose (e.g., itching, runny nose, and sneezing) as well as for insomnia
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Dermatitis
DERMATITIS, also known as ECZEMA, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin . These diseases are characterized by itchiness , red skin , and a rash. In cases of short duration there may be small blisters while in long-term cases the skin may become thickened . The area of skin involved can vary from small to the entire body. Dermatitis
Dermatitis
is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis , allergic contact dermatitis , irritant contact dermatitis , and stasis dermatitis . The exact cause of dermatitis is often unclear. Cases are believed to often involve a combination of irritation, allergy , and poor venous return . The type of dermatitis is generally determined by the person's history and the location of the rash. For example, irritant dermatitis often occurs on the hands of people who frequently get them wet. Allergic contact dermatitis, however, can occur following brief exposures to substances a person is sensitive to. Treatment of atopic dermatitis is typically with moisturizers and steroid creams. The steroid creams should generally be of mid- to high strength and used for less than two weeks at a time as side effects can occur. Antibiotics may be required if there are signs of skin infection . Contact dermatitis is typically treated by avoiding the allergen or irritant. Antihistamines may help with sleep and to decrease nighttime scratching
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Millimeters
The MILLIMETRE (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures ; SI unit symbol MM) or MILLIMETER (American spelling ) is a unit of length in the metric system , equal to one thousandth of a metre , which is the SI base unit
SI base unit
of length. Therefore there are one thousand millimetres in a metre. There are ten millimetres in a centimetre. One millimetre is equal to 7003100000000000000♠1000 micrometres or 7006100000000000000♠1000000 nanometres . A millimetre is equal to exactly  5⁄127 (approximately 0.039370) of an inch . CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Unicode symbols * 3 Measurement * 4 See also * 5 References DEFINITIONSince 1983, the metre has been defined as "the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/7008299792458000000♠299792458 of a second ". A millimetre, 1/1000 of a metre, is therefore the distance travelled by light in 1/7011299792458000000♠299792458000 of a second. UNICODE SYMBOLSFor the purposes of compatibility with Chinese , Japanese and Korean ( CJK ) characters, Unicode has symbols for: * millimetre (㎜) - code U+339C * square millimetre (㎟) - code U+339F * cubic millimetre (㎣) - code U+33A3 MEASUREMENTOn a metric ruler, the smallest measurements are normally millimetres. High-quality engineering rules may be graduated in increments of 0.5 mm
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Stress (biology)
Physiological or biological STRESS is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. Stress is the body's method of reacting to a challenge. Stimuli that alter an organism's environment are responded to by multiple systems in the body. The autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are two major systems that respond to stress. The sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) axis may activate the fight or flight response through the sympathetic nervous system , which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to acute adaption to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis. The second major physiological stress, the HPA axis regulates the release of cortisol , which influences many bodily functions such as metabolic, psychological and immunological functions. The SAM and HPA axes are regulated by a wide variety of brain regions, including the limbic system , prefrontal cortex , amygdala , hypothalamus , and stria terminalis . Through these mechanisms, stress can alter memory functions, reward , immune function , metabolism and susceptibility to diseases. Definitions of stress differ; however, one system proposed by Elliot and Eisdorfer suggests five types of stress. The five types of stress are labeled "acute time limited stressors", "brief naturalistic stressors", "stressful event sequence", "chronic stressors", and "distant stressors"
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