COFFEE is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans , which
are the seeds of berries from the
Coffea plant. The genus
native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia
Sudan ) and
Madagascar , the
Mauritius , and
the Indian Ocean. The plant was exported from Africa to countries
around the world and coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70
countries , primarily in the equatorial regions of the
Southeast Asia ,
India , and Africa. The two most commonly grown are
the highly regarded arabica , and the less sophisticated but stronger
and more hardy robusta . Once ripe, coffee berries are picked,
processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds (referred to as beans) are
roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted
beans are ground and brewed with near boiling water to produce coffee
as a beverage.
Coffee is slightly acidic and can have a stimulating effect on humans
because of its caffeine content.
Coffee is one of the most popular
drinks in the world. It can be prepared and presented in a variety of
ways (e.g., espresso ,
French press , cafe latte , etc.). It is
usually served hot, although iced coffee is also served. Clinical
studies indicate that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly
beneficial in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether
long-term consumption inhibits cognitive decline during aging or
lowers the risk of some forms of cancer .
The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in the
middle of the 15th century in the Sufi shrines of
Yemen . It was here
Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a similar
way to how it is now prepared.
Coffee seeds were first exported from
East Africa to Yemen, as the coffea arabica plant is thought to have
been indigenous to the former. Yemeni traders took coffee back to
their homeland and began to cultivate the seed. By the 16th century,
it had reached
Turkey , and
North Africa . From there, it
spread to Europe and the rest of the world.
Coffee is a major export commodity: it is the top agricultural export
for numerous countries and is among the world's largest legal
agricultural exports. It is one of the most valuable commodities
exported by developing countries. Green (unroasted) coffee is one of
the most traded agricultural commodities in the world. Some
controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and the way
developed countries trade with developing nations and the impact of
its cultivation on the environment, in regards to clearing of land for
coffee-growing and water use. Consequently, the markets for fair trade
coffee and organic coffee are expanding.
* 2 History
* 2.1 Legendary accounts
* 2.2 Historical transmission
* 3 Biology
* 4 Cultivation
* 4.1 Ecological effects
* 5 Production
* 6 Processing
* 6.1 Roasting
* 6.2 Grading roasted beans
* 6.3 Roast characteristics
* 6.5 Storage
* 6.6 Brewing
* 6.7 Nutrition
* 6.8 Serving
* 7 Sale and distribution
* 8 Health and pharmacology
* 8.1 Method of action
* 8.2 Health effects
* 8.2.1 Mortality
* 8.2.3 Mental health
* 8.2.4 Type II diabetes
* 8.2.6 Risks
* 9 Coffeehouses
* 10 Social and culture
* 10.1 Break
* 10.2 Prohibition
* 10.4 Folklore and culture
* 10.5 Economic impacts
* 10.6 Competition
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 12.1 Further reading
* 13 External links
The word "coffee" entered the English language in 1582 via the Dutch
koffie, borrowed from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, in turn borrowed
from the Arabic qahwah (قهوة).
The Arabic word qahwah was traditionally held to refer to a type of
wine whose etymology is given by Arab lexicographers as deriving from
the verb qahiya (قَهِيَ), "to lack hunger", in reference to the
drink's reputation as an appetite suppressant . It has also been
proposed that the source may be the Proto-Central Semitic root q-h-h
Alternatively, the word
Khat , a plant widely used as stimulant in
Ethiopia before being supplanted by coffee has been
suggested as a possible origin, or the Arabic word quwwah' (meaning
"strength"). It may also come from the
Kingdom of Kaffa in southeast
Coffea arabica grows wild, but this is considered less
likely; in the local Kaffa language, the coffee plant is instead
The expression "coffee break " was first attested in 1952. The term
"coffee pot " dates from 1705.
History of coffee
According to legend, ancestors of today's
Oromo people in a region of
Ethiopia were believed to have been the first to recognize
the energizing effect of the coffee plant, though no direct evidence
has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the
native populations might have used it as a stimulant or even known
about it, earlier than the 17th century. The story of
Kaldi , the
9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee when he noticed
how excited his goats became after eating the beans from a coffee
plant, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal
Other accounts attribute the discovery of coffee to Sheikh Omar.
According to an ancient chronicle (preserved in the Abd-Al-Kadir
manuscript), Omar, who was known for his ability to cure the sick
through prayer, was once exiled from Mocha in
Yemen to a desert cave
near Ousab (modern day Wusab, about 90 km east of
Zabid ). Starving,
Omar chewed berries from nearby shrubbery, but found them to be
bitter. He tried roasting the seeds to improve the flavor, but they
became hard. He then tried boiling them to soften the seed, which
resulted in a fragrant brown liquid. Upon drinking the liquid Omar was
revitalized and sustained for days. As stories of this "miracle drug"
reached Mocha, Omar was asked to return and was made a saint. From
Ethiopia, the coffee plant was introduced into the Arab World through
Egypt and Yemen.
View of Mocha ,
Yemen during the second half of the 17th century
The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking or knowledge of the
coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century in the accounts
of Ahmed al-Ghaffar in Yemen. It was here in
Arabia that coffee seeds
were first roasted and brewed, in a similar way to how it is now
Coffee was used by Sufi circles to stay awake for their
religious rituals. Accounts differ on the origin of coffee (seeds)
prior to its appearance in Yemen. One account credits Muhammad ben
Said for bringing the beverage to
Aden from the African coast. Other
early accounts say Ali ben Omar of the
Shadhili Sufi order was the
first to introduce coffee to Arabia. According to al Shardi, Ali ben
Omar may have encountered coffee during his stay with the Adal king
Sadadin 's companions in 1401. Famous 16th century Islamic scholar Ibn
Hajar al-Haytami notes in his writings of a beverage called qahwa
developed from a tree in the
Zeila region. Over the door of a
Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish
dress , receiving a cup of coffee from a boy
By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East,
Turkey , and northern Africa . The first coffee smuggled out
Middle East was by Sufi
Baba Budan from
India in 1670.
Before then, all exported coffee was boiled or otherwise sterilised.
Baba Budan depict him as having smuggled seven coffee
seeds by strapping them to his chest. The first plants grown from
these smuggled seeds were planted in
Coffee then spread to
Italy, and to the rest of Europe, to
Indonesia , and to the Americas.
A late 19th century advertisement for coffee essence A
coffee can from the first half of the 20th century. From the Museo del
Objeto del Objeto collection.
Leonhard Rauwolf , a German physician, gave this description
of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the
Near East :
A beverage as black as ink, useful against numerous illnesses ,
particularly those of the stomach. Its consumers take it in the
morning, quite frankly, in a porcelain cup that is passed around and
from which each one drinks a cupful. It is composed of water and the
fruit from a bush called bunnu. — Léonard Rauwolf, Reise in die
Morgenländer (in German)
John Evelyn recorded tasting the drink at
England in a
diary entry of May 1637 to where it had been brought by an Ottoman
Balliol College from Crete named Nathaniel Conopios of
Middle East , coffee spread to Italy. The thriving trade
Venice and North Africa,
Egypt , and the
Middle East brought
many goods, including coffee, to the Venetian port. From Venice, it
was introduced to the rest of Europe.
Coffee became more widely
accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII
in 1600, despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink." The first European
coffee house opened in Rome in 1645.
A 1919 advertisement for G Washington's Coffee. The first
instant coffee was invented by inventor George Washington in 1909.
The Dutch East
India Company was the first to import coffee on a
large scale. The Dutch later grew the crop in
Ceylon . The
first exports of
Indonesian coffee from
Java to the Netherlands
occurred in 1711.
Through the efforts of the British East
India Company , coffee became
England as well. Oxford's Queen\'s Lane
Coffee House ,
established in 1654, is still in existence today.
introduced in France in 1657, and in Austria and Poland after the 1683
Battle of Vienna
Battle of Vienna , when coffee was captured from supplies of the
defeated Turks .
When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period, it was
initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic
beverages remained more popular. During the Revolutionary War , the
demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their
scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was also due to
the reduced availability of tea from British merchants, and a general
resolution among many Americans to avoid drinking tea following the
Tea Party .
War of 1812
War of 1812 , during which Britain temporarily cut off
access to tea imports, the Americans' taste for coffee grew. Coffee
consumption declined in England, giving way to tea during the 18th
century. The latter beverage was simpler to make, and had become
cheaper with the British conquest of
India and the tea industry there.
Age of Sail , seamen aboard ships of the British Royal
Navy made substitute coffee by dissolving burnt bread in hot water.
Gabriel de Clieu took a coffee plant to the French
Martinique in the Caribbean, from which much of the
world's cultivated arabica coffee is descended.
Coffee thrived in the
climate and was conveyed across the Americas.
Coffee was cultivated
Haiti ) from 1734, and by 1788 it supplied half
the world's coffee. The conditions that the slaves worked in on
coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian
Revolution . The coffee industry never fully recovered there. It made
a brief come-back in 1949 when
Haiti was the world's 3rd largest
coffee exporter, but fell quickly into rapid decline.
Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to
Brazil in 1727, although its
cultivation did not gather momentum until independence in 1822. After
this time massive tracts of rainforest were cleared for coffee
plantations, first in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro and later São
Brazil went from having essentially no coffee exports in 1800,
to being a significant regional producer in 1830, to being the largest
producer in the world by 1852. In 1910–20,
Brazil exported around
70% of the world's coffee, Colombia, Guatemala, and Venezuela,
exported half of the remaining 30%, and Old World production accounted
for less than 5% of world exports.
Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the
latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved the
large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous people.
Harsh conditions led to many uprisings, coups and bloody suppression
of peasants. The notable exception was
Costa Rica , where lack of
ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. Smaller farms and
more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th
Rapid growth in coffee production in South America during the second
half of the 19th century was matched by growth in consumption in
developed countries, though nowhere has this growth been as pronounced
as in the United States, where high rate of population growth was
compounded by doubling of per capita consumption between 1860 and
1920. Though the
United States was not the heaviest coffee-drinking
nation at the time (
Nordic countries ,
Belgium , and
had comparable or higher levels of per capita consumption), due to its
sheer size, it was already the largest consumer of coffee in the world
by 1860, and, by 1920, around half of all coffee produced worldwide
was consumed in the USA.
Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many developing countries .
Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become
dependent on coffee as their primary source of income. It has become
the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda,
Burundi, Rwanda, and Ethiopia, as well as many Central American
Coffea and coffee varieties Illustration of
Coffea arabica plant and seeds
Robusta coffee flowers
Several species of shrub of the genus
Coffea produce the berries from
which coffee is extracted. The two main species commercially
Coffea canephora (predominantly a form known as
'robusta') and C. arabica . C. arabica, the most highly regarded
species, is native to the southwestern highlands of
Ethiopia and the
Boma Plateau in southeastern
Sudan and possibly
Mount Marsabit in
Kenya . C. canephora is native to western and central
Subsaharan Africa, from
Uganda and southern Sudan. Less
popular species are C. liberica , C. stenophylla, C. mauritiana, and
All coffee plants are classified in the large family
Rubiaceae . They
are evergreen shrubs or trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when
unpruned. The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10–15 cm
(4–6 in) long and 6 cm (2.4 in) wide, simple, entire, and opposite.
Petioles of opposite leaves fuse at base to form interpetiolar
stipules , characteristic of
Rubiaceae . The flowers are axillary ,
and clusters of fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously. Gynoecium
consists of inferior ovary, also characteristic of
Rubiaceae . The
flowers are followed by oval berries of about 1.5 cm (0.6 in). When
immature they are green, and they ripen to yellow, then crimson,
before turning black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds,
but 5–10% of the berries have only one; these are called peaberries
. Arabica berries ripen in six to eight months, while robusta take
nine to eleven months.
Coffea arabica is predominantly self-pollinating, and as a result the
seedlings are generally uniform and vary little from their parents. In
Coffea canephora, and C. liberica are self-incompatible and
require outcrossing . This means that useful forms and hybrids must be
propagated vegetatively . Cuttings, grafting, and budding are the
usual methods of vegetative propagation. On the other hand, there is
great scope for experimentation in search of potential new strains.
Oregon State University
Oregon State University entomologist George Poinar, Jr.
announced the discovery of a new plant species that's a
45-million-year-old relative of coffee found in amber. Named Strychnos
electri, after the Greek word for amber (electron), the flowers
represent the first-ever fossils of an asterid , which is a family of
flowering plants that not only later gave us coffee, but also
sunflowers, peppers, potatoes, mint — and deadly poisons.
List of countries by coffee production Map
showing areas of coffee cultivation:
Coffea canephora and
The traditional method of planting coffee is to place 20 seeds in
each hole at the beginning of the rainy season . This method loses
about 50% of the seeds' potential, as about half fail to sprout. A
more effective method of growing coffee, used in Brazil, is to raise
seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve
Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn ,
beans , or rice during the first few years of cultivation as farmers
become familiar with its requirements.
Coffee plants grow within a
defined area between the tropics of
Cancer and Capricorn , termed the
bean belt or coffee belt.
Of the two main species grown, arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is
generally more highly regarded than robusta coffee (from C.
canephora); robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better
body than arabica. For these reasons, about three-quarters of coffee
cultivated worldwide is C. arabica. Robusta strains also contain
about 40–50% more caffeine than arabica. Consequently, this species
is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial
coffee blends. Good quality robusta beans are used in traditional
Italian espresso blends to provide a full-bodied taste and a better
foam head (known as crema).
Coffea canephora is less susceptible to disease than C.
arabica and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates
where C. arabica will not thrive. The robusta strain was first
collected in 1890 from the
Lomani River , a tributary of the Congo
River , and was conveyed from the Congo Free State (now the Democratic
Republic of the Congo) to Brussels to
Java around 1900. From Java,
further breeding resulted in the establishment of robusta plantations
in many countries. In particular, the spread of the devastating
coffee leaf rust (
Hemileia vastatrix ), to which C. arabica is
vulnerable, hastened the uptake of the resistant robusta.
rust is found in virtually all countries that produce coffee.
Over 900 species of insect have been recorded as pests of coffee
crops worldwide. Of these, over a third are beetles , and over a
quarter are bugs . Some 20 species of nematodes , 9 species of mites,
and several snails and slugs also attack the crop. Birds and rodents
sometimes eat coffee berries, but their impact is minor compared to
invertebrates. In general, arabica is the more sensitive species to
invertebrate predation overall. Each part of the coffee plant is
assailed by different animals. Nematodes attack the roots, coffee
borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material, and the foliage
is attacked by over 100 species of larvae (caterpillars) of
butterflies and moths .
Mass spraying of insecticides has often proven disastrous, as
predators of the pests are more sensitive than the pests themselves.
Instead, integrated pest management has developed, using techniques
such as targeted treatment of pest outbreaks, and managing crop
environment away from conditions favouring pests. Branches infested
with scale are often cut and left on the ground, which promotes scale
parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in
the plant as well.
The 2-mm-long coffee borer beetle (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most
damaging insect pest to the world's coffee industry, destroying up to
50 percent or more of the coffee berries on plantations in most
coffee-producing countries. The adult female beetle nibbles a single
tiny hole in a coffee berry and lays 35 to 50 eggs. Inside, the
offspring grow, mate, and then emerge from the commercially ruined
berry to disperse, repeating the cycle. Pesticides are mostly
ineffective because the beetle juveniles are protected inside the
berry nurseries, but they are vulnerable to predation by birds when
they emerge. When groves of trees are nearby, the American yellow
warbler , rufous-capped warbler , and other insectivorous birds have
been shown to reduce by 50 percent the number of coffee berry borers
Costa Rica coffee plantations.
Beans from different countries or regions can usually be
distinguished by differences in flavor, aroma, body , and acidity.
These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's
growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals ) and
processing. Varietals are generally known by the region in which they
are grown, such as Colombian ,
Java and Kona .
Arabica coffee beans are cultivated mainly in
Latin America , eastern
Africa or Asia, while robusta beans are grown in central Africa ,
Asia , and Brazil.
Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation
Originally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees that
provided a habitat for many animals and insects. Remnant forest trees
were used for this purpose, but many species have been planted as
well. These include leguminous trees of the genera
Inga , and
Leucaena , as well as the
nitrogen-fixing non-legume sheoaks of the genus
Casuarina , and the
Grevillea robusta .
This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method,
or "shade-grown ". Starting in the 1970s, many farmers switched their
production method to sun cultivation, in which coffee is grown in rows
under full sun with little or no forest canopy. This causes berries to
ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields, but requires
the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides,
which damage the environment and cause health problems.
Unshaded coffee plants grown with fertilizer yield the most coffee,
although unfertilized shaded crops generally yield more than
unfertilized unshaded crops: the response to fertilizer is much
greater in full sun. While traditional coffee production causes
berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields, the quality of
the coffee is allegedly superior. In addition, the traditional shaded
method provides living space for many wildlife species. Proponents of
shade cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation ,
pesticide pollution , habitat destruction , and soil and water
degradation are the side effects of the practices employed in sun
American Birding Association , Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center
National Arbor Day Foundation , and the
Rainforest Alliance have
led a campaign for 'shade-grown' and organic coffees , which can be
sustainably harvested. Shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater
biodiversity than full-sun systems, and those more distant from
continuous forest compare rather poorly to undisturbed native forest
in terms of habitat value for some bird species.
Another issue concerning coffee is its use of water . It takes about
140 liters (37 U.S. gal ) of water to grow the coffee beans needed to
produce one cup of coffee, and coffee is often grown in countries
where there is a water shortage, such as
Used coffee grounds may be used for composting or as a mulch . They
are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as
blueberries . Some commercial coffee shops run initiatives to make
better use of these grounds, including
Starbucks ' "Grounds for your
Garden" project, and community sponsored initiatives such as "Ground
Climate change may significantly impact coffee yields within a few
decades. Kew Royal Botanic Gardens concluded that global warming
threatens the genetic diversity of Arabica plants found in Ethiopia
and surrounding countries.
Top ten green coffee producers in 2014
Coffee production Traditional coffee beans drying in
Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they
become the familiar roasted coffee. Berries have been traditionally
selectively picked by hand; a labor-intensive method, it involves the
selection of only the berries at the peak of ripeness. More commonly,
crops are strip picked, where all berries are harvested simultaneously
regardless of ripeness by person or machine. After picking, green
coffee is processed by one of two methods—the dry process method,
simpler and less labor-intensive as the berries can be strip picked,
and the wet process method, which incorporates fermentation into the
process and yields a mild coffee.
Then they are sorted by ripeness and color and most often the flesh
of the berry is removed, usually by machine, and the seeds are
fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the
seed. When the fermentation is finished, the seeds are washed with
large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue,
which generates massive amounts of coffee wastewater . Finally, the
seeds are dried.
The best (but least used) method of drying coffee is using drying
tables. In this method, the pulped and fermented coffee is spread
thinly on raised beds, which allows the air to pass on all sides of
the coffee, and then the coffee is mixed by hand. In this method the
drying that takes place is more uniform, and fermentation is less
likely. Most African coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee
farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method.
Next, the coffee is sorted, and labeled as green coffee. Another way
to let the coffee seeds dry is to let them sit on a concrete patio and
rake over them in the sunlight. Some companies use cylinders to pump
in heated air to dry the coffee seeds, though this is generally in
places where the humidity is very high.
An Asian coffee known as kopi luwak undergoes a peculiar process made
from coffee berries eaten by the
Asian palm civet , passing through
its digestive tract, with the beans eventually harvested from feces .
Coffee brewed from this process is among the most expensive in the
world, with bean prices reaching $160 per pound or $30 per brewed
Kopi luwak coffee is said to have uniquely rich, slightly smoky
aroma and flavor with hints of chocolate, resulting from the action of
digestive enzymes breaking down bean proteins to facilitate partial
Coffee roasting Roasted coffee beans
The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee.
Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state, and with rare exceptions
all coffee is roasted before it is consumed. It can be sold roasted by
the supplier, or it can be home roasted . The roasting process
influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both
physically and chemically. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is
lost and increases in volume, causing it to become less dense. The
density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and
requirements for packaging.
The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean
reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F), though different varieties of
seeds differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different
rates. During roasting, caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks
down starches , changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown,
which alters the color of the bean.
Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process, and may
disappear entirely in darker roasts. During roasting, aromatic oils
and acids weaken, changing the flavor; at 205 °C (401 °F), other
oils start to develop. One of these oils, caffeol , is created at
about 200 °C (392 °F), which is largely responsible for coffee's
aroma and flavor.
Roasting is the last step of processing the beans in their intact
state. During this last treatment, while still in the bean state, more
caffeine breaks down above 235 °C (455 °F). Dark roasting is the
utmost step in bean processing removing the most caffeine. Although,
dark roasting is not to be confused with the
GRADING ROASTED BEANS
Coffee "cuppers", or professional
tasters, grade the coffee
Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human
eye, they will be labeled as light, medium light, medium, medium dark,
dark, or very dark. A more accurate method of discerning the degree of
roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted seeds
illuminated with a light source in the near-infrared spectrum. This
elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a
number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee's relative
degree of roast or flavor development.
The degree of roast has an effect upon coffee flavor and body. Darker
roasts are generally bolder because they have less fiber content and a
more sugary flavor. Lighter roasts have a more complex and therefore
perceived stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise
destroyed by longer roasting times. Roasting does not alter the
amount of caffeine in the bean, but does give less caffeine when the
beans are measured by volume because the beans expand during roasting.
A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin
left on the seed after processing. Chaff is usually removed from the
seeds by air movement, though a small amount is added to dark roast
coffees to soak up oils on the seeds.
Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds
undergo. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. Many
methods can remove caffeine from coffee, but all involve either
soaking the green seeds in hot water (often called the "Swiss water
process") or steaming them, then using a solvent to dissolve
Decaffeination is often done by processing
companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the
Coffee bean storage
Coffee is best stored in an airtight container made of ceramic,
glass, or non-reactive metal. Higher quality prepackaged coffee
usually has a one-way valve which prevents air from entering while
allowing the coffee to release gases.
Coffee freshness and flavor is
preserved when it is stored away from moisture, heat, and light. The
ability of coffee to absorb strong smells from food means that it
should be kept away from such smells. Storage of coffee in the
refrigerator is not recommended due to the presence of moisture which
can cause deterioration. Exterior walls of buildings which face the
sun may heat the interior of a home, and this heat may damage coffee
stored near such a wall. Heat from nearby ovens also harms stored
In 1931, a method of packing coffee in a sealed vacuum in cans was
introduced. The roasted coffee was packed and then 99% of the air was
removed, allowing the coffee to be stored indefinitely until the can
was opened. Today this method is in mass use for coffee in a large
part of the world.
Coffee preparation a contemporary automatic
Coffee beans must be ground and brewed to create a beverage. The
criteria for choosing a method include flavor and economy. Almost all
methods of preparing coffee require that the beans be ground and then
mixed with hot water long enough to allow the flavor to emerge but not
so long as to draw out bitter compounds. The liquid can be consumed
after the spent grounds are removed. Brewing considerations include
the fineness of grind, the way in which the water is used to extract
the flavor, the ratio of coffee grounds to water (the brew ratio),
additional flavorings such as sugar, milk, and spices, and the
technique to be used to separate spent grounds. Ideal holding
temperatures range from 85–88 °C (185–190 °F) to as high as 93
°C (199 °F) and the ideal serving temperature is 68 to 79 °C (154
to 174 °F). The recommended brew ratio for non-espresso coffee is
around 55 to 60 grams of grounds per litre of water, or two level
tablespoons for a 5- or 6-ounce cup.
The roasted coffee beans may be ground at a roastery, in a grocery
store, or in the home. Most coffee is roasted and ground at a roastery
and sold in packaged form, though roasted coffee beans can be ground
at home immediately before consumption. It is also possible, though
uncommon, to roast raw beans at home.
Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. A burr grinder uses
revolving elements to shear the seed; a blade grinder cuts the seeds
with blades moving at high speed; and a mortar and pestle crushes the
seeds. For most brewing methods a burr grinder is deemed superior
because the grind is more even and the grind size can be adjusted.
The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which
it is generally used. Turkish grind is the finest grind, while coffee
French press are the coarsest grinds. The most common
grinds are between these two extremes: a medium grind is used in most
home coffee-brewing machines.
Coffee may be brewed by several methods. It may be boiled, steeped,
or pressurized. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method, and
Turkish coffee is an example of this method. It is prepared by
grinding or pounding the seeds to a fine powder, then adding it to
water and bringing it to the boil for no more than an instant in a pot
called a cezve or, in Greek , a bríki. This produces a strong coffee
with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (which is not meant
for drinking) settling at the bottom of the cup.
Coffee percolators and automatic coffeemakers brew coffee using
gravity. In an automatic coffeemaker, hot water drips onto coffee
grounds that are held in a paper, plastic, or perforated metal coffee
filter , allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while
extracting its oils and essences. The liquid drips through the coffee
and the filter into a carafe or pot, and the spent grounds are
retained in the filter.
In a percolator, boiling water is forced into a chamber above a
filter by steam pressure created by boiling. The water then seeps
through the grounds, and the process is repeated until terminated by
removing from the heat, by an internal timer, or by a thermostat that
turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain
Coffee may be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press
(also known as a cafetière, coffee press or coffee plunger). Ground
coffee and hot water are combined in a cylindrical vessel and left to
brew for a few minutes. A circular filter which fits tightly in the
cylinder fixed to a plunger is then pushed down from the top to force
the grounds to the bottom. The filter retains the grounds at the
bottom as the coffee is poured from the container. Because the coffee
grounds are in direct contact with the water, all the coffee oils
remain in the liquid, making it a stronger beverage. This method of
brewing leaves more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic
coffee machine. Supporters of the
French press method point out that
the sediment issue can be minimized by using the right type of
grinder: they claim that a rotary blade grinder cuts the coffee bean
into a wide range of sizes, including a fine coffee dust that remains
as sludge at the bottom of the cup, while a burr grinder uniformly
grinds the beans into consistently-sized grinds, allowing the coffee
to settle uniformly and be trapped by the press. Within the first
minute of brewing 95% of the caffeine is released from the coffee
The espresso method forces hot pressurized and vaporized water
through ground coffee. As a result of brewing under high pressure
(ideally between 9–10 atm ), the espresso beverage is more
concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the quantity of coffee to
water as gravity-brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex
physical and chemical constitution. A well-prepared espresso has a
reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface. Other
pressurized water methods include the moka pot and vacuum coffee maker
Cold brew coffee is made by steeping coarsely ground beans in cold
water for several hours, then filtering them. This results in a brew
lower in acidity than most hot-brewing methods.
Brewed coffee from typical grounds prepared with tap water contains
40 mg caffeine per 100 gram and no essential nutrients in significant
content. In espresso , however, likely due to its higher amount of
suspended solids, there are significant contents of magnesium , the B
vitamins , niacin and riboflavin , and 212 mg of caffeine per 100
grams of grounds.
List of coffee beverages Enjoying coffee, painting by
unknown artist in the
Once brewed, coffee may be served in a variety of ways. Drip-brewed,
percolated, or French-pressed/cafetière coffee may be served as white
coffee with a dairy product such as milk or cream, or dairy
substitute, or as black coffee with no such addition. It may be
sweetened with sugar or artificial sweetener. When served cold, it is
called iced coffee .
Espresso-based coffee has a variety of possible presentations. In its
most basic form, an espresso is served alone as a shot or short black,
or with hot water added, when it is known as
Caffè Americano . A long
black is made by pouring a double espresso into an equal portion of
water, retaining the crema , unlike
Caffè Americano. Milk is added
in various forms to an espresso: steamed milk makes a caffè latte ,
equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino , and a
dollop of hot foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato . A flat
white is prepared by adding steamed hot milk (microfoam ) to espresso
so that the flavour is brought out and the texture is unusually
velvety. It has less milk than a latte but both are varieties of
coffee to which the milk can be added in such a way as to create a
decorative surface pattern. Such effects are known as latte art .
Coffee can also be incorporated with alcohol to produce a variety of
beverages: it is combined with whiskey in
Irish coffee , and it forms
the base of alcoholic coffee liqueurs such as
Tia Maria .
Darker beers such as stout and porter give a chocolate or coffee-like
taste due to roasted grains even though actual coffee beans are not
added to it.
A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do
not want to prepare their own coffee or who do not have access to
Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or
freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water.
Originally invented in 1907, it rapidly gained in popularity in
many countries in the post-war period, with
Nescafé being the most
popular product. Many consumers determined that the convenience in
preparing a cup of instant coffee more than made up for a perceived
inferior taste, although, since the late 1970s, instant coffee has
been produced differently in such a way that is similar to the taste
of freshly brewed coffee. Paralleling (and complementing) the rapid
rise of instant coffee was the coffee vending machine invented in 1947
and widely distributed since the 1950s.
Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years,
particularly in China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Vending
machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee, much like
brewed or percolated coffee, available both hot and cold. Japanese
convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of
bottled coffee drinks, which are typically lightly sweetened and
pre-blended with milk. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the
Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional
situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people
at the same time. It is described as having a flavor about as good as
low-grade robusta coffee, and costs about 10¢ a cup to produce. The
machines can process up to 500 cups an hour, or 1,000 if the water is
SALE AND DISTRIBUTION
Economics of coffee Brazilian coffee sacks
Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in
North America and Europe. Worldwide, 6.7 million metric tons of coffee
were produced annually in 1998–2000, and the forecast is a rise to
seven million metric tons annually by 2010.
Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation, however Vietnam
tripled its exports between 1995 and 1999 and became a major producer
of robusta seeds.
Indonesia is the third-largest coffee exporter
overall and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee. Organic
Honduran coffee is a rapidly growing emerging commodity owing to the
Honduran climate and rich soil.
The Seattle Times reported that global coffee prices dropped
more than 50 percent year-over-year. In
Thailand , black ivory coffee
beans are fed to elephants whose digestive enzymes reduce the bitter
taste of beans collected from dung. These beans sell for up to $1,100
a kilogram ($500 per lb), achieving the world's most expensive coffee
some three times costlier than beans harvested from the dung of Asian
palm civets .
Coffee is bought and sold as green coffee beans by roasters,
investors, and price speculators as a tradable commodity in commodity
markets and exchange-traded funds .
Coffee futures contracts for Grade
3 washed arabicas are traded on the
New York Mercantile Exchange
New York Mercantile Exchange under
ticker symbol KC, with contract deliveries occurring every year in
March, May, July, September, and December.
Coffee is an example of a
product that has been susceptible to significant commodity futures
price variations. Higher and lower grade arabica coffees are sold
through other channels.
Futures contracts for robusta coffee are
traded on the London International Financial Futures and Options
Exchange and, since 2007, on the New York
Intercontinental Exchange .
Dating to the 1970s, coffee has been incorrectly described by many,
Mark Pendergrast , as the world's "second most
legally traded commodity". Instead, "coffee was the second most
valuable commodity exported by developing countries," from 1970 to
circa 2000. This fact was derived from the United Nations Conference
on Trade and Development Commodity Yearbooks which show "Third World"
commodity exports by value in the period 1970–1998 as being in order
of crude oil in first place, coffee in second, followed by sugar,
cotton, and others.
Coffee continues to be an important commodity
export for developing countries, but more recent figures are not
readily available due to the shifting and politicized nature of the
category "developing country".
International Coffee Day , which is claimed to have originated in
Japan in 1983 with an event organized by the All Japan Coffee
Association, takes place on September 29 in several countries.
HEALTH AND PHARMACOLOGY
METHOD OF ACTION
Skeletal structure of a caffeine molecule
The primary psychoactive chemical in coffee is caffeine , an
adenosine antagonist that is known for its stimulant effects. Coffee
also contains the monoamine oxidase inhibitors β-carboline and
harmane , which may contribute to its psychoactivity.
In a healthy liver , caffeine is mostly broken down by the hepatic
microsomal enzymatic system. The excreted metabolites are mostly
paraxanthines —theobromine and theophylline —and a small amount of
unchanged caffeine. Therefore, the metabolism of caffeine depends on
the state of this enzymatic system of the liver.
Polyphenols in coffee have been shown to affect free radicals in
vitro , but there is no evidence that this effect occurs in humans.
Polyphenol levels vary depending on how beans are roasted as well as
for how long. As interpreted by the
Linus Pauling Institute and the
European Food Safety Authority , dietary polyphenols, such as those
ingested by consuming coffee, have little or no direct antioxidant
value following ingestion.
Findings have been contradictory as to whether coffee has any
specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting
regarding the potentially harmful effects of coffee consumption.
Furthermore, results and generalizations are complicated by
differences in age, gender, health status, and serving size.
Extensive scientific research has been conducted to examine the
relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical
conditions. The consensus in the medical community is that moderate
regular coffee drinking in healthy individuals is either essentially
benign or mildly beneficial. There is no evidence that coffee stunts
a child's growth.
In 2012, the
National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health –AARP Diet and Health
Study analysed the relationship between coffee drinking and mortality
. They found that higher coffee consumption was associated with lower
risk of death, and that those who drank any coffee lived longer than
those who did not. However the authors noted, "whether this was a
causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data."
A 2014 meta-analysis found that coffee consumption (4 cups/day) was
inversely associated with all-cause mortality (a 16% lower risk), as
well as cardiovascular disease mortality specifically (a 21% lower
risk from drinking 3 cups/day), but not with cancer mortality.
Additional meta-analysis studies corroborated these findings, showing
that higher coffee consumption (2–4 cups per day) was associated
with a reduced risk of death by all disease causes.
Coffee is no longer thought to be a risk factor for coronary heart
disease . A 2012 meta-analysis concluded that people who drank
moderate amounts of coffee had a lower rate of heart failure , with
the biggest effect found for those who drank more than four cups a
day. Moreover, in one preliminary study, habitual coffee consumption
was associated with improved vascular function. A 2014 meta-analysis
concluded that cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease
and stroke is less likely with 3–5 cups of non-decaffeinated coffee
per day but more likely with over 5 cups per day. A 2016
meta-analysis showed that coffee consumption was associated with a
reduced risk of death in patients who have had a myocardial infarction
Drinking four or more cups of coffee per day does not affect the risk
of hypertension compared to drinking little or no coffee; however,
drinking 1–3 cups per day may be at a slightly increased risk.
One review published in 2004 indicated a negative correlation between
suicide rates and coffee consumption, but this effect has not been
confirmed in larger studies.
Long-term studies of both risk and potential benefit of coffee
consumption by elderly people, including assessment on symptoms of
Alzheimer\'s disease and cognitive impairment , are not conclusive.
Some research suggests that a minority of moderate regular caffeine
consumers experience some amount of clinical depression , anxiety, low
vigor, or fatigue when discontinuing their caffeine use. However, the
methodology of these studies has been criticized. Withdrawal effects
are more common and better documented in heavy caffeine users.
Coffee caffeine may aggravate pre-existing conditions such as
migraines , arrhythmias , and cause sleep disturbances . Caffeine
withdrawal from chronic use causes consistent effects typical of
physical dependence , including headaches, mood changes and the
possibility of reduced cerebral blood flow .
Type II Diabetes
In a systematic review and meta-analysis of 28 prospective
observational studies, representing 1,109,272 participants, every
additional cup of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumed in a
day was associated with a 9% (95% CI 6%, 11%) and 6% (95% CI 2%, 9%)
lower risk of type 2 diabetes, respectively.
The effects of coffee consumption on cancer risk remain unclear, with
reviews and meta-analyses showing either no relationship or a
slightly lower risk of cancer onset.
Instant coffee has a greater amount of acrylamide than brewed coffee.
It was once thought that coffee aggravates gastroesophageal reflux
disease but recent research suggests no link.
Depending on the type of coffee and method of preparation, the
caffeine content of a single serving can vary greatly. The
caffeine content of a cup of coffee varies depending mainly on the
brewing method, and also on the variety of seed. According to the
USDA National Nutrient Database , an 8-ounce (237 ml) cup of "coffee
brewed from grounds" contains 95 mg caffeine, whereas an espresso (25
ml) contains 53 mg.
According to an article in the Journal of the American Dietetic
Association, coffee has the following caffeine content, depending on
how it is prepared:
7 oz, 207 ml
7 oz, 207 ml
1.5–2 oz, 45–60 ml
While the percent of caffeine content in coffee seeds themselves
diminishes with increased roast level , the opposite is true for
coffee brewed from different grinds and brewing methods using the same
proportion of coffee to water volume. The coffee sack (similar to the
French press and other steeping methods) extracts more caffeine from
dark roasted seeds; the percolator and espresso methods extract more
caffeine from light roasted seeds:
Coffee sack – coarse grind
Percolator – coarse grind
Espresso – fine grind
Coffea arabica normally contains about half the caffeine of Coffea
robusta . A
Coffea arabica bean containing very little caffeine was
Ethiopia in 2004.
Low caffeine coffee .
Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee, and caffè for
specifically Italian traditions A coffeehouse in
Cairo , 18th
Widely known as coffeehouses or cafés, establishments serving
prepared coffee or other hot beverages have existed for over five
hundred years. Coffeehouses in
Mecca became a concern as places for
political gatherings to the imams who banned them, and the drink, for
Muslims between 1512 and 1524. In 1530 the first coffeehouse was
Damascus . The first coffeehouse in
opened in 1475 by traders arriving from
Aleppo . Soon
after, coffeehouses became part of the Ottoman Culture , spreading
rapidly to all regions of the
Ottoman Empire .
In the 17th century, coffee appeared for the first time in Europe
outside the Ottoman Empire, and coffeehouses were established and
quickly became popular. The first coffeehouses in Western Europe
Venice , as a result of the traffic between La Serenissima
and the Ottomans; the very first one is recorded in 1645. The first
England was set up in
Oxford in 1650 by a
named Jacob in the building now known as "The Grand Cafe". A plaque on
the wall still commemorates this and the Cafe is now a trendy cocktail
bar. By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses in England.
A legend says that after the second Turkish siege of Vienna in 1683,
the Viennese discovered many bags of coffee in the abandoned Ottoman
encampment. Using this captured stock, a Polish soldier named
Kulczycki opened the first coffeehouse in Vienna . This story never
happened. Nowadays it is proven that the first coffeehouse in Vienna
was opened by the Armenian Johannes Theodat in 1685.
In 1672 an Armenian named Pascal established a coffee stall in Paris
that was ultimately unsuccessful and the city had to wait until 1689
for its first coffeehouse when
Procopio Cutò opened the Café Procope
. This coffeehouse still exists today and was a major meeting place of
the French Enlightenment ;
Voltaire , Rousseau , and Denis Diderot
frequented it, and it is arguably the birthplace of the Encyclopédie
, the first modern encyclopedia. America had its first coffeehouse in
Boston , in 1676. Coffee, tea and beer were often served together in
establishments which functioned both as coffeehouses and taverns; one
such was the Green Dragon in Boston, where
John Adams , James Otis ,
Paul Revere planned rebellion. First patent for the espresso
machine, Angelo Moriondo (1884)
The modern steamless espresso machine was invented in
Milan, Italy ,
in 1938 by Achille
Gaggia , and from there spread across coffeehouses
and restaurants across Italy and the rest of Europe in the early
1950s. An Italian named Pino Riservato opened the first espresso bar,
the Moka Bar, in
Soho in 1952, and there were 400 such bars in London
alone by 1956.
Cappucino was particularly popular among English
drinkers. Similarly in the United States, the espresso craze spread.
North Beach in San Francisco saw the opening of the Caffe Trieste in
1957, which saw
Beat Generation poets such as
Allen Ginsberg and Bob
Kaufman alongside bemused Italian immigrants. Similar such cafes
existed in Greenwich Village and elsewhere.
The first Peet\'s
Coffee "> Baristas at work in the first
Starbucks coffee shop in
Seattle , WA
The international coffeehouse chain
Starbucks began as a modest
business roasting and selling coffee beans in 1971, by three college
Jerry Baldwin ,
Gordon Bowker , and
Zev Siegl . The first
store opened on March 30, 1971 at the
Pike Place Market
Pike Place Market in
followed by a second and third over the next two years. Entrepreneur
Howard Schultz joined the company in 1982 as Director of Retail
Operations and Marketing, and pushed to sell premade espresso coffee.
The others were reluctant, but Schultz opened Il Giornale in Seattle
in April 1986. He bought the other owners out in March 1987 and
pushed on with plans to expand—from 1987 to the end of 1991, the
chain (rebranded from Il Giornale to Starbucks) expanded to over 100
outlets. The company has 16,600 stores in over 40 countries
South Korea experienced almost 900 percent growth in the number of
coffee shops in the country between 2006 and 2011. The capital city
Seoul now has the highest concentration of coffee shops in the world,
with more than 10,000 cafes and coffeehouses.
A contemporary term for a person who makes coffee beverages, often a
coffeehouse employee, is a barista . The Specialty
of Europe and the Specialty
Coffee Association of America have been
influential in setting standards and providing training.
SOCIAL AND CULTURE
Coffee culture Davoser Café by Ernst Ludwig
Kirchner , 1928
Coffee is often consumed alongside (or instead of) breakfast by many
at home or when eating out at diners or cafeterias . It is often
served at the end of a formal meal, normally with a dessert, and at
times with an after-dinner mint, especially when consumed at a
restaurant or dinner party.
A coffee break in the
United States and elsewhere is a short
mid-morning rest period granted to employees in business and industry,
corresponding with the Commonwealth terms "elevenses ", "smoko" (in
Australia ), "morning tea", "tea break", or even just "tea". An
afternoon coffee break, or afternoon tea , often occurs as well.
The coffee break originated in the late 19th century in Stoughton,
Wisconsin , with the wives of Norwegian immigrants. The city
celebrates this every year with the Stoughton
Coffee Break Festival.
In 1951, Time noted that "ince the war, the coffee break has been
written into union contracts". The term subsequently became popular
through a Pan-American
Coffee Bureau ad campaign of 1952 which urged
consumers, "Give yourself a Coffee-Break – and Get What
John B. Watson
John B. Watson , a behavioral psychologist who worked with
Maxwell House later in his career, helped to popularize coffee breaks
within the American culture.
Coffee breaks usually last from 10 to 20
minutes and frequently occur at the end of the first third of the work
shift. In some companies and some civil service , the coffee break may
be observed formally at a set hour. In some places, a cart with hot
and cold beverages and cakes , breads and pastries arrives at the same
time morning and afternoon, an employer may contract with an outside
caterer for daily service, or coffee breaks may take place away from
the actual work-area in a designated cafeteria or tea room . More
generally, the phrase "coffee break" has also come to denote any break
Coffee Bearer, Orientalist painting by John Frederick Lewis
Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. At least 1,100 years
ago, traders brought coffee across the
Red Sea into
Yemen), where Muslim dervishes began cultivating the shrub in their
gardens. At first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the
fermented coffee berries. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in
modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies.
Coffee drinking was prohibited by jurists and scholars (ulema )
Mecca in 1511 as haraam , but the subject of whether it was
intoxicating was hotly debated over the next 30 years until the ban
was finally overturned in the mid-16th century. Use in religious
rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on
trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretical substance, and its
production and consumption were briefly repressed. It was later
prohibited in Ottoman
Turkey under an edict by the Sultan
Murad IV .
Coffee, regarded as a Muslim drink, was prohibited by Ethiopian
Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889; it is now considered a
national drink of
Ethiopia for people of all faiths. Its early
association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to
Charles II outlawing coffeehouses from January 1676 (although the
uproar created forced the monarch to back down two days before the ban
was due to come into force). Frederick the Great banned it in Prussia
in 1777 for nationalistic and economic reasons; concerned about the
price of import, he sought to force the public back to consuming beer.
Lacking coffee-producing colonies,
Prussia had to import all its
coffee at a great cost.
A contemporary example of religious prohibition of coffee can be
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints . The
organization holds that it is both physically and spiritually
unhealthy to consume coffee. This comes from the Mormon doctrine of
health, given in 1833 by founder
Joseph Smith in a revelation called
Word of Wisdom . It does not identify coffee by name, but includes
the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly," which has been
interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea.
Quite a number of members of the
Seventh-day Adventist Church also
avoid caffeinated drinks. In its teachings, the Church encourages
members to avoid tea, coffee, and other stimulants. Abstinence from
coffee, tobacco, and alcohol by many Adventists has afforded a
near-unique opportunity for studies to be conducted within that
population group on the health effects of coffee drinking, free from
confounding factors. One study was able to show a weak but
statistically significant association between coffee consumption and
mortality from ischemic heart disease, other cardiovascular disease ,
all cardiovascular diseases combined, and all causes of death.
For a time, there had been controversy in the
Jewish community over
whether the coffee seed was a legume and therefore prohibited for
Passover . Upon petition from coffeemaker
Maxwell House , the coffee
seed was classified in 1923 as a berry rather than a seed by orthodox
Jewish rabbi Hersch Kohn, and therefore kosher for Passover.
Fair trade coffee See also:
Fair trade debate
Small-sized bag of coffee beans
The concept of fair trade labeling, which guarantees coffee growers a
negotiated preharvest price, began in the late 1980s with the Max
Havelaar Foundation\'s labeling program in the Netherlands. In 2004,
24,222 metric tons (of 7,050,000 produced worldwide) were fair trade;
in 2005, 33,991 metric tons out of 6,685,000 were fair trade, an
increase from 0.34% to 0.51%. A number of fair trade impact studies
have shown that fair trade coffee produces a mixed impact on the
communities that grow it. Many studies are skeptical about fair trade,
reporting that it often worsens the bargaining power of those who are
not part of it.
Coffee was incorporated into the fair-trade movement
in 1988, when the
Max Havelaar mark was introduced in the Netherlands.
The very first fair-trade coffee was an effort to import a Guatemalan
coffee into Europe as "Indio Solidarity Coffee".
Since the founding of organizations such as the European Fair Trade
Association (1987), the production and consumption of fair trade
coffee has grown as some local and national coffee chains started to
offer fair trade alternatives. For example, in April 2000, after a
year-long campaign by the human rights organization
Global Exchange ,
Starbucks decided to carry fair-trade coffee in its stores. Since
September 2009 all
Espresso beverages in UK and Ireland are
made with Fairtrade and Shared Planet certified coffee.
A 2005 study done in
Belgium concluded that consumers' buying
behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical
products. On average 46% of European consumers claimed to be willing
to pay substantially more for ethical products, including fair-trade
products such as coffee. The study found that the majority of
respondents were unwilling to pay the actual price premium of 27% for
fair trade coffee.
FOLKLORE AND CULTURE
Oromo people would customarily plant a coffee tree on the graves
of powerful sorcerers. They believed that the first coffee bush sprang
up from the tears that the god of heaven shed over the corpse of a
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was inspired to compose the humorous Coffee
Cantata , about dependence on the beverage .
List of countries by coffee production Map
of coffee areas in
Market volatility, and thus increased returns, during 1830 encouraged
Brazilian entrepreneurs to shift their attention from gold to coffee,
a crop hitherto reserved for local consumption. Concurrent with this
shift was the commissioning of vital infrastructures, including
approximately 7,000 km of railroads between 1860 and 1885. The
creation of these railways enabled the importation of workers, in
order to meet the enormous need for labor. This development primarily
State of Rio de Janeiro , as well as the Southern States
of Brazil, most notably
São Paulo , due to its favourable climate,
soils, and terrain.
Coffee production attracted immigrants in search of better economic
opportunities in the early 1900s. Mainly, these were Portuguese,
Italian, Spanish, German, and Japanese nationals. For instance, São
Paulo received approximately 733,000 immigrants in the decade
preceding 1900, whilst only receiving approximately 201,000 immigrants
in the six years to 1890. The production yield of coffee increases. In
São Paulo produced 1.2 million bags (25% of total production),
in 1888 2.6 million (40%), in 1902 8 million bags (60%).
then 63% of the country's exports. The gains made by this trade allow
sustained economic growth in the country.
The four years between planting a coffee and the first harvest
extends seasonal variations in the price of coffee. The Brazilian
Government is thus forced, to some extent, to keep strong price
subsidies during production periods.
Coffee competitions take place across the globe with people at the
regional competing to achieve national titles and then compete on the
international stage. World
Coffee Events holds the largest of such
events moving the location of the final competition each year. The
competition includes the following events:
Latte Art and Cup Tasters. A World Brewer\'s Cup
Championship takes place in Melbourne, Australia, every year that
houses contestants from around the world to crown the World's Coffee
* Food portal
Coffee and doughnuts
* Gustav III of Sweden\'s coffee experiment
List of coffee drinks
List of hot beverages
International Coffee Agreement
National Coffee Association
The Coffeelands Trust
* ^ Topik, Steven (2014-12-18). The World That Trade Created.
Routledge. ISBN 9781317453826 . Retrieved January 27, 2016.
* ^ Maurin, O.; Davis, A. P.; Chester, M.; Myungi, E. F.;
Jaufeerally-Fakim, Y.; Fay, M. F. (2007). "Towards a Phylogeny for
Coffea (Rubiaceae): Identifying Well-supported Lineages Based on
Nuclear and Plastid DNA Sequences" . Annals of Botany. Oxford
University Press. 100 (7): 1565–1583. PMC 2759236 . PMID 17956855
. doi :10.1093/aob/mcm257 .
* ^ A B Oder, Tom (June 9, 2015). "How coffee changed the world".
Mother Nature Network. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
* ^ A B Nehlig, A. (2015). "Effects of coffee/caffeine on brain
health and disease: What should I tell my patients?". Practical
Neurology. 16 (Dec 16): 89–95. PMID 26677204 . doi
* ^ Liu, J.; Shen, B.; Shi, M.; Cai, J. (2016). "Higher Caffeinated
Coffee Intake Is Associated with Reduced Malignant Melanoma Risk: A
Meta-Analysis Study" . PLoS ONE. 11 (1): e0147056. Bibcode
:2016PLoSO..1147056L. PMC 4729676 . PMID 26816289 . doi
* ^ A B C D E Weinberg & Bealer 2001 , pp. 3–4
* ^ Wild, Antony (March 25, 2004). Coffee: A dark history. pp.
217–229. ISBN 9781841156491 .
* ^ "FAOSTAT Core Trade Data (commodities/years)". FAO Statistics
Division. 2007. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007.
Retrieved October 24, 2007. To retrieve export values: Select the
"commodities/years" tab. Under "subject", select "Export value of
primary commodity." Under "country," select "World." Under
"commodity," hold down the shift key while selecting all commodities
under the "single commodity" category. Select the desired year and
click "show data." A list of all commodities and their export values
will be displayed.
* ^ Mussatto, Solange I.; Machado, Ercília M. S.; Martins, Silvia;
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* ^ Pendergrast 2001 , p. 302
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Mr. Osmund Gunderson decided to ask the Norwegian wives, who lived
just up the hill from his warehouse, if they would come and help him
sort the tobacco. The women agreed, as long as they could have a break
in the morning and another in the afternoon, to go home and tend to
their chores. Of course, this also meant they were free to have a cup
of coffee from the pot that was always hot on the stove. Mr. Gunderson
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* ^ Pendergrast 2001 , p. 5
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This article's further reading MAY NOT FOLLOW\'S CONTENT
POLICIES OR GUIDELINES . Please improve this article by removing less
relevant or redundant publications with the same point of view ; or by
incorporating the relevant publications into the body of the article
through appropriate citations . (July 2016) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message )
* Allen, Stewart Lee (1999). The Devil's Cup: Coffee, the Driving
Force in History. Soho:
Random House . ISBN 1-56947-174-6 .
* Bersten, Ian (1999). Coffee, Sex & Health: A History of
Anti-coffee Crusaders and Sexual Hysteria. Sydney: Helian Books. ISBN
* Clarke, Ronald James; Macrae, R., eds. (1987). Coffee. 2:
Technology. Barking, Essex: Elsevier Applied Science. ISBN
* Clifford, M. N.; Wilson, K. C., eds. (1985). Coffee: Botany,
Biochemistry and Production of
Beans and Beverage. Westport,
Connecticut: AVI Publishing. ISBN 0-7099-0787-7 .
* Ganchy, Sally (2009). Islam and Science, Medicine, and Technology.
The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 1-4358-5066-1 .
* Hünersdorff, Richard von & Hasenkamp, Holger G. (2002) Coffee: a
bibliography : a guide to the literature on coffee London:
* Jacob, Heinrich Eduard (1998). Coffee: The Epic of a Commodity.
Short Hills, N.J.: Burford Books. ISBN 978-1-58080-070-9 . Retrieved
November 18, 2015.
* Kummer, Corby (August 19, 2003). The Joy of Coffee: The Essential
guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin .
ISBN 0-618-30240-9 .
* Luttinger, Nina and Dicum, Gregory. The
Coffee Book: Anatomy of an
Industry from Crop to the Last Drop(Bazaar Book, 2006)
* Metcalf, Allan A. (1999). The World in So Many Words: A
Country-by-country Tour of Words that have Shaped our Language.
Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-95920-9 . Retrieved November 18, 2015.
* Pendergrast, Mark (2001) . Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee
and How It Transformed Our World. London: Texere. ISBN 1-58799-088-1 .
* Rao, Scott. The Professional Barista's Handbook.
* Siasos, G.; Oikonomou, E.; Chrysohoou, C.; Tousoulis, D.;
Panagiotakos, D.; Zaromitidou, M.; Zisimos, K.; Kokkou, E.; Marinos,
G.; Papavassiliou, A. G.; Pitsavos, C.; Stefanadis, C. (2013).
"Consumption of a boiled Greek type of coffee is associated with
improved endothelial function: The Ikaria Study". Vascular Medicine.
18 (2): 55–62. PMID 23509088 . doi :10.1177/1358863X13480258 .
* Siasos, G.; Tousoulis, D.; Stefanadis, C. (February 2014).
"Effects of habitual coffee consumption on vascular function". Journal
of the American College of Cardiology. 63 (6): 606–607. PMID
24184234 . doi :10.1016/j.jacc.2013.08.1642 .
* Souza, Ricardo M. (2008). Plant-Parasitic Nematodes of Coffee.
978-1-4020-8719-6 . Retrieved November 18, 2015.
* Weinberg, Bennett Alan; Bealer, Bonnie K. (2001). The World of
Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World\'s Most Popular Drug.
New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92722-6 . Retrieved November 18, 2015.
* Weissman, Michaele. God in a Cup: The Obsessive Quest for the
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