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Dynastinae
6-8, see text Oryctes nasicornis DYNASTINAE or RHINOCEROS BEETLES are a subfamily of the scarab beetle family (Scarabaeidae). Other common names – some for particular groups of rhinoceros beetles – are for example HERCULES BEETLES , UNICORN BEETLES or HORN BEETLES. Over 300 species of rhinoceros beetles are known. Many rhinoceros beetles are well known for their unique shapes and large sizes. Some famous species are, for example, the Atlas beetle ( Chalcosoma atlas), common rhinoceros beetle ( Xylotrupes ulysses), elephant beetle ( Megasoma elephas), European rhinoceros beetle ( Oryctes nasicornis), Hercules beetle ( Dynastes hercules), Japanese rhinoceros beetle or kabutomushi ( Allomyrina dichotoma), ox beetle (Strategus aloeus) and the Eastern Hercules beetle ( Dynastes tityus)
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Fruit
In botany , a FRUIT is the seed -bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering . Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds . Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition ; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate ) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples , bananas , grapes , lemons , oranges , and strawberries
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Plant Sap
SAP is a fluid transported in xylem cells (vessel elements) or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant . These cells transport water and nutrients throughout the plant. Sap
Sap
is not to be confused with latex , resin or cell sap ; it is a separate substance, separately produced, and with different components and functions. CONTENTS* 1 Types of sap * 1.1 Xylem
Xylem
sap * 1.2 Phloem
Phloem
sap * 2 Human uses * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TYPES OF SAP Sap
Sap
droplets of Sansevieria trifasciata Saps may be broadly divided into two types: xylem sap and phloem sap. XYLEM SAP Xylem
Xylem
sap (pronounced /ˈzaɪləm/ ) consists primarily of a watery solution of hormones , mineral elements and other nutrients . Transport of sap in xylem is characterized by movement from the roots toward the leaves
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Pupae
A PUPA ( Latin
Latin
pupa for doll, plural: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. The pupal stage is found only in holometabolous insects, those that undergo a complete metamorphosis , going through four life stages: embryo , larva , pupa and imago . The pupae of different groups of insects have different names such as chrysalis for the pupae of butterflies and tumbler for those of the mosquito family. Pupae may further be enclosed in other structures such as cocoons , nests or shells . CONTENTS* 1 Position in life cycle * 1.1 Duration * 1.2 Emergence * 1.3 Pupal mating * 2 Defense * 3 Types * 4 Chrysalis * 5 Cocoon * 6 Puparium * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links POSITION IN LIFE CYCLEIn the life of an insect the pupal stage follows the larval stage and precedes adulthood (imago )
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Adult
Biologically , an ADULT is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity . In human context, the term adult additionally has meanings associated with social and legal concepts. In contrast to a "minor ", a LEGAL ADULT is a person who has attained the age of majority and is therefore regarded as independent, self-sufficient , and responsible. Human
Human
adulthood encompasses psychological adult development . Definitions of adulthood are often inconsistent and contradictory; a person may be biologically an adult, and have adult behavior but still be treated as a child if they are under the legal age of majority. Conversely, one may legally be an adult but possess none of the maturity and responsibility that may define an adult character. In different cultures there are events that relate passing from being a child to becoming an adult or coming of age
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Asia
Metropolitan areas of Asia
Asia
List of cities in Asia List * Bangkok
Bangkok

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Nectar
NECTAR is a sugar -rich liquid produced by plants in glands called NECTARIES, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by EXTRAFLORAL NECTARIES, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists , which in turn provide antiherbivore protection . Common nectar-consuming pollinators include mosquitoes , hoverflies , wasps , bees , butterflies and moths , hummingbirds , and bats . Nectar
Nectar
plays an important role in the foraging economics and overall evolution of nectar-eating species; for example, nectar and its properties are responsible for the differential evolution of the African honey bee, A. m. scutellata and the western honey bee . Nectar
Nectar
is an ecologically important item, the sugar source for honey . It is also useful in agriculture and horticulture because the adult stages of some predatory insects feed on nectar
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Camouflage
CAMOUFLAGE is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis ), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis ). Examples include the leopard 's spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier , and the leaf-mimic katydid 's wings. A third approach, motion dazzle, confuses the observer with a conspicuous pattern, making the object visible but momentarily harder to locate. The majority of camouflage methods aim for crypsis, often through a general resemblance to the background, high contrast disruptive coloration , eliminating shadow, and countershading
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Imago
In biology , the IMAGO is the last stage an insect attains during its metamorphosis , its process of growth and development; it also is called the IMAGINAL stage, the stage in which the insect attains maturity. It follows the final ecdysis of the immature instars . In a member of the Ametabola or Hemimetabola , in which metamorphosis is "incomplete", the final ecdysis follows the last immature or nymphal stage. In members of the Holometabola , in which there is a pupal stage, the final ecdysis follows emergence from the pupa , after which the metamorphosis is complete, although there is a prolonged period of maturation in some species. The imago is the only stage during which the insect is sexually mature and, if it is a winged species, has functional wings. The imago often is referred to as the ADULT stage. Members of the order Ephemeroptera (mayflies) do not have a pupal stage, but they briefly pass through an extra winged stage called the subimago
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Exoskeleton
An EXOSKELETON (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletos "skeleton" ) is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton ) of, for example, a human . In usage, some of the larger kinds of exoskeletons are known as "SHELLS ". Examples of animals with exoskeletons include insects such as grasshoppers and cockroaches , and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters . The shells of certain sponges and the various groups of shelled molluscs, including those of snails , clams , tusk shells , chitons and nautilus , are also exoskeletons. Some animals, such as the tortoise , have both an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton
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Predation
In an ecosystem, PREDATION is a biological interaction where a PREDATOR (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its PREY (the organism that is attacked). Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on it, but the act of predation often results in the death of the prey and the eventual absorption of the prey's tissue through digestion. It could also constitute a chase, stalking, or attack of prey. Thus predation is often, though not always, carnivory . Other categories of consumption are herbivory (eating parts of plants), fungivory (eating parts of fungi), and detritivory (the consumption of dead organic material). All of these are consumer-resource systems . It can often be difficult to separate various types of feeding behaviors . For example, some parasites prey on their host and then lay their eggs on it, for their offspring to feed on it while it continues to live, or on its decaying corpse after it has died
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Nocturnal
NOCTURNALITY is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day. The common adjective is "NOCTURNAL", versus diurnal meaning the opposite. Nocturnal creatures generally have highly developed senses of hearing , smell , and specially adapted eyesight . Such traits can help animals such as the Helicoverpa zea moths avoid predators. Some animals, such as cats and ferrets , have eyes that can adapt to both lowlevel and bright day levels of illumination (see metaturnal ). Others, such as bushbabies and (some) bats , can function only at night. Many nocturnal creatures including tarsiers and some owls have large eyes in comparison with their body size to compensate for the lower light levels at night. More specifically, they have been found to have a larger cornea relative to their eye size than diurnal creatures to increase their visual sensitivity in the low-light conditions
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Insect Fighting
INSECT FIGHTING is a range of competitive sporting activity, commonly associated with gambling, in which insects are pitted against each other. BACKGROUNDForms of insect fighting as spectator sport are practised in regions of China
China
, Japan
Japan
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, and Thailand
Thailand
. Some types have a long history; for example, cricket fighting is a traditional Chinese pastime that dates back to the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
(618–907). Originally an indulgence of emperors, cricket fighting later became popular among commoners. On a more casual basis, it has gained some popularity as a casual activity for youth in western countries and is known colloquially as "bugfighting". SEE ALSO * Spider fighting REFERENCES * ^ Andrew Jacobs (November 6, 2011). "Chirps and Cheers: China\'s Crickets Clash". The New York Times. p. A6
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Mating Call
A MATING CALL is the auditory signal used by animals to attract mates. It can occur in males or females, but literature is abundantly favored toward researching mating calls in males. In addition, mating calls are often the subject of mate choice , in which the preferences of one gender for a certain type of mating call can drive sexual selection in a species. This can result in sympatric speciation of some animals, where two species diverge from each other while living in the same environment. There are many different mechanisms to produce mating calls, which can be broadly categorized into vocalizations and mechanical calls. Vocalizations are considered as sounds produced by the larynx and are often seen in species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and insects. Mechanical calls refer to any other type of sound that the animal produces using unique body parts and/or tools for communication with potential mates
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Root Vegetable
ROOT VEGETABLES are plant roots eaten by humans as food. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 List of root vegetables
List of root vegetables
* 2.1 Bulb
Bulb
* 2.2 Modified plant stem * 2.3 Root-like stem * 2.4 True root * 3 References * 4 External links DEFINITIONAlthough botany distinguishes true roots (such as taproots and tuberous roots ) from non-roots (such as bulbs , corms , rhizomes , and tubers , although some contain both hypocotyl and taproot tissue), the term "root vegetable" is applied to all these types in ordinary, agricultural, and culinary usage . Root
Root
vegetables are generally storage organs , enlarged to store energy in the form of carbohydrates . They differ in the concentration and the balance among starches , sugars , and other types of carbohydrate
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Population Densities
POPULATION DENSITY (in agriculture : standing stock and standing crop ) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density . It is frequently applied to living organisms , and most of the time to humans . It is a key geographical term. CONTENTS* 1 Biological population densities * 1.1 Human
Human
population density * 1.1.1 By political boundaries * 1.1.2 Other methods of measurement * 2 See also * 2.1 Lists of entities by population density * 3 References * 4 External links BIOLOGICAL POPULATION DENSITIES Population
Population
density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may cause an extinction vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect
Allee effect
after the scientist who identified it
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