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The Info List - Scarabaeidae


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The family Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae
as currently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide, often called scarabs or scarab beetles. The classification of this family is fairly unstable, with numerous competing theories, and new proposals appearing quite often. Many of the subfamilies listed here probably will not be recognized very much longer, as they will likely be reduced in status below subfamily rank, or elevated to family status (the latter is most likely, e.g., with the family "Melolonthidae" already appearing in some recent classifications).[citation needed] Other families have been removed recently, and are nearly universally accepted (e.g., Pleocomidae, Glaresidae, Glaphyridae, Ochodaeidae, Geotrupidae, and Bolboceratidae).

Contents

1 Scarabs 2 Ancient Egypt 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Scarabs[edit]

Sacred scarab in a cartouche of Thutmosis III
Thutmosis III
from Karnak
Karnak
temple of Amun-Ra, Egypt

Scarabs are stout-bodied beetles, many with bright metallic colours, measuring between 1.5 and 160 mm. They have distinctive, clubbed antennae composed of plates called lamellae that can be compressed into a ball or fanned out like leaves to sense odours. The front legs of many species are broad and adapted for digging. In some groups males (and sometimes females) have prominent horns on the head and/or pronotum to fight over mates or resources.[1] The C-shaped larvae, called grubs, are pale yellow or white. Most adult beetles are nocturnal, although the flower chafers (Cetoniinae) and many leaf chafers (Rutelinae) are active during the day. The grubs mostly live underground or under debris, so are not exposed to sunlight. Many scarabs are scavengers that recycle dung, carrion, or decaying plant material.[2] Others, such as the Japanese beetle, are plant-eaters. Some of the well-known beetles from the Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae
are Japanese beetles, dung beetles, June beetles, rose chafers (Australian, European, and North American), rhinoceros beetles, Hercules beetles and Goliath beetles. Several members of this family have structurally coloured shells which act as left-handed circular polarisers; this was the first-discovered example of circular polarization in nature.[3] Ancient Egypt[edit] In Ancient Egypt, the dung beetle now known as Scarabaeus sacer (formerly Ateuchus sacer) was revered as sacred. Egyptian amulets representing the sacred scarab beetles were traded throughout the Mediterranean world.[1] See also[edit]

List of genera of Scarabaeidae Scarab artifact Grapevine beetle Dung beetle
Dung beetle
- Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae
dung beetles play an important role in temperate and tropical environments

References[edit]

^ a b bugguide.net Family Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae
- Scarab Beetles ^ Marcos Paulo Gomes Gonçalves (2017). "Relação Entre Tempo e Besouros em Mata de Cocal" [Relationship Between Meteorological Conditions and Beetles in Mata de Cocal] (in Portuguese). doi:10.1590/0102-7786324003.  ^ A. A. Michelson (1911). "On metallic colourings in birds and insects". Philosophical Magazine. 21: 554–567. doi:10.1080/14786440408637061. 

Further reading[edit]

RU Ehlers. Current and Future Use of Nematodes in Biocontrol: Practice and Commercial Aspects with Regard to Regulatory Policy Issues. Biocontrol Science and Technology Volume 6, Issue 3, 1996.

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Scarabaeidae

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scarabaeidae.

Flickr Images on Flickr Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae
breeding site Photos of various Cetonidae, Dynastidae, Euchiridae, Lucanidae and Trichinae] Family SCARABAEIDAE June Beetles, Family: Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae
- Diagnostic photographs Scarab Beetle
Beetle
Research, Databases, and Links from Scarab Central at University of Nebraska State Museum Bibliography of literature published on scarab beetles since 1 January 2001 (worldwide coverage; through 2005) UNL Generic Guide to New World Scarabaeidae Heredity Scientific paper on scarab horns

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Extant Coleoptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Archostemata

Crowsoniellidae (Crowsoniella relicta) Cupedidae
Cupedidae
(reticulated beetles) Jurodidae (Sikhotealinia zhiltzovae) Micromalthidae (telephone-pole beetle) Ommatidae

Suborder Adephaga

Extant families

Amphizoidae (trout-stream beetles) Aspidytidae Carabidae (ground beetles) Dytiscidae
Dytiscidae
(predaceous diving beetles) Gyrinidae (whirligig beetles) Haliplidae
Haliplidae
(crawling water beetles) Hygrobiidae Meruidae (Meru phyllisae) Noteridae
Noteridae
(burrowing water beetles) Rhysodidae
Rhysodidae
(wrinkled bark beetles) Trachypachidae
Trachypachidae
(false ground beetles)

Suborder Myxophaga

Hydroscaphidae
Hydroscaphidae
(skiff beetles) Lepiceridae Sphaeriusidae Torridincolidae

Suborder Polyphaga

Bostrichiformia

Bostrichoidea

Anobiidae
Anobiidae
(furniture beetles, death watch beetles, spider beetles) Bostrichidae
Bostrichidae
(auger beetles) Dermestidae
Dermestidae
(skin beetles) Jacobsoniidae
Jacobsoniidae
(Jacobson's beetles) Nosodendridae
Nosodendridae
(wounded-tree beetles)

Derodontoidea

Derodontidae
Derodontidae
(tooth-necked fungus beetles)

Cucujiformia

Chrysomeloidea

Cerambycidae (longhorn beetles) Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles) Disteniidae Megalopodidae Orsodacnidae Oxypeltidae Vesperidae

Cleroidea

Acanthocnemidae (Acanthocnemus nigricans) Chaetosomatidae Cleridae
Cleridae
(checkered beetles) Melyridae
Melyridae
(soft-wing flower beetles) Phloiophilidae (Phloiophilus edwardsi) Phycosecidae Prionoceridae Trogossitidae
Trogossitidae
(bark-gnawing beetles)

Cucujoidea

Alexiidae Biphyllidae
Biphyllidae
(false skin beetles) Boganiidae Bothrideridae
Bothrideridae
(dry bark beetles) Byturidae
Byturidae
(fruitworm beetles) Cavognathidae Cerylonidae
Cerylonidae
(minute bark beetles) Coccinellidae
Coccinellidae
(lady beetles, or God's cows) Corylophidae
Corylophidae
(minute fungus beetles) Cryptophagidae
Cryptophagidae
(silken fungus beetles) Cucujidae
Cucujidae
(flat bark beetles) Cyclaxyridae Discolomatidae Endomychidae
Endomychidae
(handsome fungus beetles) Erotylidae
Erotylidae
(pleasing fungus beetles) Helotidae Hobartiidae Kateretidae
Kateretidae
(short-winged flower beetles) Laemophloeidae
Laemophloeidae
(lined flat bark beetles) Lamingtoniidae (Lamingtonium binnaberrense) Latridiidae
Latridiidae
(minute brown scavenger beetles) Monotomidae (root-eating beetles) Myraboliidae Nitidulidae (sap beetles) Passandridae
Passandridae
(parasitic flat bark beetles) Phalacridae
Phalacridae
(shining flower beetles) Phloeostichidae Propalticidae Protocucujidae Silvanidae
Silvanidae
(silvanid flat bark beetles) Smicripidae (palmetto beetles) Sphindidae
Sphindidae
(dry-fungus beetles)

Curculionoidea (weevils)

Anthribidae
Anthribidae
(fungus weevils) Attelabidae
Attelabidae
(leaf-rolling weevils) Belidae
Belidae
(primitive weevils) Brentidae
Brentidae
(straight snout weevils, New York weevil) Caridae Curculionidae
Curculionidae
(true weevils, bark beetles, ambrosia beetles) Nemonychidae
Nemonychidae
(pine flower weevils)

Lymexyloidea

Lymexylidae
Lymexylidae
(ship-timber beetles)

Tenebrionoidea

Aderidae
Aderidae
(ant-like leaf beetles) Anthicidae
Anthicidae
(ant-like flower beetles) Archeocrypticidae (cryptic fungus beetles) Boridae
Boridae
(conifer bark beetles) Chalcodryidae Ciidae
Ciidae
(minute tree-fungus beetles) Melandryidae
Melandryidae
(false darkling beetles) Meloidae (blister beetles) Mordellidae
Mordellidae
(tumbling flower beetles) Mycetophagidae
Mycetophagidae
(hairy fungus beetles) Mycteridae (palm and flower beetles) Oedemeridae
Oedemeridae
(false blister beetle) Perimylopidae, or Promecheilidae Prostomidae
Prostomidae
(jugular-horned beetles) Pterogeniidae Pyrochroidae (fire-coloured beetles) Pythidae
Pythidae
(dead log bark beetles) Ripiphoridae
Ripiphoridae
(wedge-shaped beetles) Salpingidae
Salpingidae
(narrow-waisted bark beetles) Scraptiidae
Scraptiidae
(false flower beetles) Stenotrachelidae
Stenotrachelidae
(false longhorn beetles) Synchroidae
Synchroidae
(synchroa bark beetles) Tenebrionidae (darkling beetles) Tetratomidae (polypore fungus beetles) Trachelostenidae Trictenotomidae Ulodidae Zopheridae
Zopheridae
(ironclad beetles, cylindrical bark beetles)

Elateriformia

Buprestoidea

Buprestidae
Buprestidae
(jewel beetles, or metallic wood-boring beetles) Schizopodidae

Byrrhoidea

Byrrhidae
Byrrhidae
(pill beetles) Callirhipidae (cedar beetles) Chelonariidae (turtle beetles) Cneoglossidae Dryopidae
Dryopidae
(long-toed water beetles) Elmidae
Elmidae
(riffle beetles) Eulichadidae (forest stream beetles) Heteroceridae
Heteroceridae
(variegated mud-loving beetles) Limnichidae (minute mud beetles) Lutrochidae (travertine beetles) Psephenidae (water-penny beetles) Ptilodactylidae

Dascilloidea

Dascillidae (soft bodied plant beetles) Rhipiceridae
Rhipiceridae
(cicada beetle, cicada parasite beetles)

Elateroidea

Anischiidae Artematopodidae
Artematopodidae
(soft-bodied plant beetles) Brachypsectridae (Texas beetles) Cantharidae (soldier beetles) Cerophytidae (rare click beetles) Drilidae Elateridae (click beetles) Eucnemidae
Eucnemidae
(false click beetles) Lampyridae (fireflies) Lycidae
Lycidae
(net-winged beetles) Omalisidae Omethidae
Omethidae
(false fireflies) Phengodidae
Phengodidae
(glowworm beetles, long-lipped beetles) Plastoceridae (Plastocerus angulosus) Podabrocephalidae Rhagophthalmidae Rhinorhipidae (Rhinorhipus tamborinensis) Throscidae (false metallic wood-boring beetles)

Scirtoidea

Clambidae Decliniidae (Declinia relicta) Eucinetidae
Eucinetidae
(plate-thigh beetles) Scirtidae

Scarabaeiformia

Scarabaeoidea

Belohinidae ( Belohina inexpectata) Bolboceratidae Ceratocanthidae Diphyllostomatidae (false stag beetles) Geotrupidae
Geotrupidae
(dor beetles) Glaphyridae
Glaphyridae
(bumble bee scarab beetles) Glaresidae (enigmatic scarab beetles) Hybosoridae
Hybosoridae
(scavenger scarab beetles) Lucanidae (stag beetles) Ochodaeidae
Ochodaeidae
(sand-loving scarab beetles) Passalidae
Passalidae
(betsy beetles) Pleocomidae
Pleocomidae
(rain beetles) Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae
(scarabs) Trogidae
Trogidae
(hide beetles)

Staphyliniformia

Histeroidea

Histeridae
Histeridae
(clown beetles) Sphaeritidae (false clown beetles) Synteliidae

Hydrophiloidea

Epimetopidae Georissidae (minute mud-loving beetles) Helophoridae Hydrochidae Hydrophilidae
Hydrophilidae
(water scavenger beetles) Spercheidae

Staphylinoidea

Agyrtidae
Agyrtidae
(primitive carrion beetles) Hydraenidae Leiodidae
Leiodidae
(round fungus beetles) Ptiliidae
Ptiliidae
(feather-winged beetles) Scydmaenidae
Scydmaenidae
(ant-like stone beetles) Silphidae
Silphidae
(carrion beetles) Staphylinidae (rove beetles)

List of subgroups of the order Coleoptera

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Insects in culture

Aspects of insects in culture

In the arts

Insects in art

Beetlewing John Hampson

Insects in film Insects in literature Insects in music

List of insect-inspired songs

Insects on stamps

In fishing

Fishing bait Fly fishing Artificial fly Fly tying Maggot Mayfly Mealworm

In medicine

Apitherapy

Apitoxin Melittin

Maggot Spanish fly

Cantharidin

In mythology

Bee Butterfly Cicada Dragonfly Praying mantis Scarab

Entomophagy (as food)

Adults

Ant Cicada Cricket Grasshopper Termite

Larvae

Bamboo worm Darkling beetle Mealworm Mopani worm Rhinoceros beetle Silkworm Waxworm Witchetty grub

Other aspects

Biomimicry Cricket fighting Entomological warfare Flea
Flea
circus Insects in religion Jingzhe

Economic entomology

Beneficial insects

Pest control

Encarsia formosa Ichneumon wasp Ladybird

Pollination

Bees

crops pollinated Bumblebee Honey
Honey
bee

western

Beetles Flies Lepidoptera

Products

Beekeeping

Bee
Bee
pollen Beeswax Honey Propolis Royal jelly

Other insects

Carmine/Cochineal

Polish

Chitin Kermes Sericulture

Silk

Lac/Shellac

Model organism

Drosophila melanogaster

Harmful insects

Crop pests

Aphid Boll weevil Colorado potato beetle Cottony cushion scale Japanese beetle Locust Phylloxera Western corn rootworm

Livestock pests

Botfly Horn fly Horse-fly Screwworm fly Tsetse fly Warble fly

Biting/stinging

Insect
Insect
bites and stings Insect
Insect
sting allergy Bed bug Bee
Bee
sting Flea Horse-fly Louse Mosquito Wasp

Wood-eating

Deathwatch beetle Furniture beetle House longhorn beetle Termite Woodworm

Other pests

Home-stored product entomology Clothes moth Cockroach Housefly

Pioneers

Jan Swammerdam Alfred Russel Wallace Jean-Henri Fabre Hans Zinsser
Hans Zinsser
(Rats, Lice and History) Lafcadio Hearn
Lafcadio Hearn
( Insect
Insect
Literature)

Related

Living things in culture

Arthropods Birds Fish Fungi Mammals Microbes Molluscs Reptiles Plants

Zoomusicology

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q186946 ADW: Scarabaeidae BugGuide: 187 EoL: 8134 EPPO: 1SCARF Fauna Europaea: 11126 Fossilworks: 69312 GBIF: 5840 ITIS: 114493 NCBI:

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