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Duchy Of Bavaria
The DUCHY OF BAVARIA (German : _Herzogtum Bayern_) was, from the sixth through the eighth century, a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian kingdom. It was settled by Bavarian tribes and ruled by dukes (_duces_) under Frankish overlordship. A new duchy was created from this area during the decline of the Carolingian Empire in the late ninth century. It became one of the stem duchies of the East Frankish realm which evolved as the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire . During internal struggles of the ruling Ottonian dynasty , the Bavarian territory was considerably diminished by the separation of the newly established Duchy of Carinthia in 976. Between 1070 and 1180 the Holy Roman Emperors were again strongly opposed by Bavaria, especially by the ducal House of Welf . In the final conflict between the Welf and Hohenstaufen dynasties, Duke Henry the Lion was banned and deprived of his Bavarian and Saxon fiefs by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa . Frederick passed Bavaria over to the House of Wittelsbach , which held it until 1918. The Bavarian dukes were raised to prince-electors during the Thirty Years\' War in 1623
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Stem Duchy
A STEM DUCHY (German : Stammesherzogtum, from Stamm, meaning "tribe", in reference to the Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
of the Franks
Franks
, Saxons
Saxons
, Bavarians and Swabians ) was a constituent duchy of the kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
(the death of Louis the Child
Louis the Child
in 911) and the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
later in the 10th century. The Carolingians had dissolved the original tribal duchies of the Frankish Empire in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
declined in the late 9th century, the old tribal areas assumed new identities as the subdivisions of the realm. These are the five stem duchies (sometimes also called "younger stem duchies" in reference to the pre-Carolingian tribal duchies): Bavaria
Bavaria
, Franconia , Lotharingia
Lotharingia
, Saxony
Saxony
and Swabia (Alemannia) . The stem duchies were retained as the major divisions of Germany under the Salian dynasty , but they became increasingly obsolete during the early high medieval period under the Hohenstaufen , and they were finally abolished in 1180 by Frederick Barbarossa in favour of more numerous territorial duchies
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East Francia
EAST FRANCIA (Latin : _ Francia orientalis_) or the KINGDOM OF THE EAST FRANKS (_regnum Francorum orientalium_) was a successor state of Charlemagne 's empire and precursor of the Holy Roman Empire . Until 911 it was ruled by Carolingian dynasty . It was created after the 840-43 civil war between Charlemagne's grandchildren which ended with the Treaty of Verdun which divided the former empire into three kingdoms. By the middle of the 10th century, the kingdom had become usually referred to as Kingdom of Germany or the Holy Roman Empire, therefore making it the earliest stage in the development of the modern German state. The east–west division, enforced by the German-Latin language split, "gradually hardened into the establishment of separate kingdoms", with East Francia becoming the Kingdom of Germany and West Francia the Kingdom of France . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Terminology * 3 Kingship * 4 Church * 5 List of kings * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References HISTORY The partition of the Carolingian Empire by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. From Histoire Et Géographie - Atlas Général Vidal-Lablache, 1898. In August 843, after three years of civil war following the death of emperor Louis the Pious on 20 June 840, the Treaty of Verdun was signed by his three sons and heirs
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Kingdom Of Germany
The KINGDOM OF GERMANY or GERMAN KINGDOM (Latin : _Regnum Teutonicum_, "Teutonic Kingdom"; German : _Deutsches Reich_) developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire . Like Anglo-Saxon England and medieval France , it began as "a conglomerate, an assemblage of a number of once separate and independent... _gentes_ and _regna_ ." East Francia (_Ostfrankenreich_) was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, and was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, after which the kingship was elective . The initial electors were the rulers of the stem duchies , who generally chose one of their own. After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, the kingdom formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire , which also included Italy (after 951), Bohemia (after 1004) and Burgundy (after 1032). The term _rex teutonicorum_ ("king of the Germans ") first came into use in the chancery of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy (late 11th century), perhaps as a polemical tool against Emperor Henry IV . In the twelfth century, in order to stress the imperial and transnational character of their office, the emperors began to employ the title _rex Romanorum_ (king of the Romans ) on their election (by the prince-electors , seven German bishops and noblemen)
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Imperial State
An IMPERIAL STATE or IMPERIAL ESTATE (Latin : Status Imperii; German : Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was a part of the Holy Roman Empire
Empire
with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag). Rulers of these Estates were able to exercise significant rights and privileges and were "immediate ", meaning that the only authority above them was the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
. They were thus able to rule their territories with a considerable degree of autonomy . The system of imperial states replaces the more regular division of Germany into stem duchies in the early medieval period. The old Carolingian stem duchies were retained as the major divisions of Germany under the Salian dynasty , but they became increasingly obsolete during the early high medieval period under the Hohenstaufen , and they were finally abolished in 1180 by Frederick Barbarossa in favour of more numerous territorial divisions. From 1489, the imperial Estates represented in the Diet were divided into three chambers, the college of prince-electors (Kurfürstenkollegium/den Kurfürstenrat), the college of imperial princes (Reichsfürstenrat) and the college of imperial cities . Counts and nobles were not directly represented in the Diet in spite of their immediate status, but were grouped into "benches" (Grafenbänke) with a single vote each
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin : _Sacrum Imperium Romanum_; German : _Heiliges Römisches Reich_) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany , though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia , the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe , more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire . The title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar , in 924. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries. Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning
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Flag Of Bavaria
There are officially two FLAGS OF BAVARIA: the striped type, and the lozenge type, both of which are white and blue. Both flags are historically associated with the royal Bavarian Wittelsbach family , which ruled Bavaria
Bavaria
from 1180 to 1918. OVERVIEWBoth horizontal and vertical flags with stripes or white and blue lozenges without arms can be considered official for use as state and civil flag and as civil ensign (on lakes and rivers). The variants defaced with the arms are unofficial. However, the de facto civil flag used is in most cases a lozenge-style flag with the arms and a very popular symbol of regional pride used and displayed throughout the state. The exact shade of blue has never been set in stone, but most flags used by the public are approximately RGB 0-204-255; official use something closer to RGB 0-128-255. The lozenges are neither set in number, except there must be at least 21, and the top right (incomplete) lozenge must be white. Some Bavarians believe the lozenges to be representative of the lakes and rivers of Bavaria; or their color to be that of the lakes or the sky or both (as in the Bavarian anthem , which says "die Farben Seines Himmels, Weiß und Blau" – "the colors of His sky/heaven, white and blue"); but this has never been proven
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Coat Of Arms Of Bavaria
The COAT OF ARMS of the German state of BAVARIA has greater and lesser versions. It had been introduced by law fully by 5 June 1950: Article 1 (2) The colours of the state are white and blue. — State Government, Constitution of the Free State of Bavaria
Bavaria
of 2 December 1946; Bavarian Law and Official Gazette 1946, p. 333 ff. CONTENTS * 1 The meaning of the coat of arms * 2 History * 2.1 Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Kraiburg * 3 See also * 4 References THE MEANING OF THE COAT OF ARMSThe modern coat of arms was designed by Eduard Ege , following heraldic traditions, in 1946. * First Quarter (The Golden Lion): At the dexter chief, sable, a lion rampant Or, armed and langued gules. This represents the administrative region of Upper Palatinate . It is identical to the coat of arms of the Electorate of the Palatinate . * Second Quarter (The "Franconian Rake"): At the sinister chief, per fess dancetty, gules and argent. This represents the administrative regions of Upper , Middle and Lower Franconia . This was the coat of arms of the prince bishops of Würzburg , who were also dukes of Franconia . * Third Quarter (The Blue Panther): At the dexter base, argent, a panther rampant azure, armed Or. This represents the regions of Lower and Upper Bavaria
Bavaria

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Regensburg
REGENSBURG (German pronunciation: ( listen ); Latin : Castra-Regina; Czech : Řezno; French : Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon) is a city in south-east Germany
Germany
, situated at the confluence of the Danube
Danube
, Naab and Regen rivers. With over 140,000 inhabitants, Regensburg
Regensburg
is the fourth-largest city in the State of Bavaria
Bavaria
after Munich
Munich
, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Augsburg
Augsburg
. The city is the political , economic and cultural centre of Eastern Bavaria
Bavaria
and the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate . The medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
and a testimony of the city's status as cultural centre of southern Germany in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. In 2014, Regensburg
Regensburg
was among the top sights and travel attractions in Germany. Generally known in English as Ratisbon until well into the twentieth century, the city is known as Ratisbonne in French and as Ratisbona in Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Catalan and Albanian
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Munich
MUNICH (/ˈmjuːnɪk/ ; German: _München_, pronounced (_ listen ), Bavarian : Minga_ , Czech : _Mnichov_) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria , on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps . Munich is also the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg , and the 12th biggest city of the European Union, with a population of around 1.5 million. The Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 6 million people. The city is a major centre of art, advanced technologies, finance, publishing, culture, innovation, education, business, and tourism in Germany and Europe and enjoys a very high standard and quality of living, reaching #1 in Germany and #4 worldwide according to the 2015 Mercer survey . According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city , as of 2015 . The name of the city is derived from the Old / Middle High German term _Munichen_, meaning "by the monks", which in turn is derived from Mönch (which in the end derives from ancient Greek μοναχός). It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order , who ran a monastery at the place that was later to become the Old Town of Munich; hence the monk depicted on the city\'s coat of arms . Munich was first mentioned in 1158
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Feudal Monarchy
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs . A broader definition of feudalism, as described by Marc Bloch (1939), includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but also those of all three estates of the realm : the nobility, the clergy , and the peasantry bound by manorialism ; this is sometimes referred to as a "feudal society". Since the publication of Elizabeth A. R. Brown 's "The Tyranny of a Construct" (1974) and Susan Reynolds 's Fiefs and Vassals (1994), there has been ongoing inconclusive discussion among medieval historians as to whether feudalism is a useful construct for understanding medieval society
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Medieval Europe
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES or MEDIEVAL PERIOD lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages . Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period , including various Germanic peoples , formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire —came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate , an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad\'s successors . Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power
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Garibald I Of Bavaria
GARIBALD I (also GARIVALD; Latin : Garibaldus; born 540) was Duke (or King) of Bavaria from 555 until 591. He stands at the head of the Agilolfings
Agilolfings
and the Bavarian Dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of the Lombards
Lombards
. After the death of the Merovingian king Theudebald
Theudebald
of Austrasia
Austrasia
, his successor Chlothar I
Chlothar I
had "begun to have intercourse with" his widow Waldrada (531–572), daughter of the Lombard king Wacho . Chlothar's bishops objected, so he gave Waldrada to Garibald to marry in 556. Not only did this grant Garibald prestige, but it created lasting political ties between the Bavarii
Bavarii
and the Lombards
Lombards
of Pannonia
Pannonia
and Bohemia
Bohemia
. This would have consequences after the Lombards
Lombards
moved into Italy
Italy
in 568
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Arnulf, Duke Of Bavaria
ARNULF (birth unknown; died 14 July 937), also known as THE BAD (German : der Schlimme) or THE EVIL (der Böse), a member of the Luitpolding dynasty, held the title of a Duke of Bavaria from about 907 until his death in 937. CONTENTS* 1 Life * 1.1 Duke of Bavaria * 1.2 Imperial politics * 1.3 Later years * 2 Marriage and children * 3 References * 4 Sources LIFEThe year of Arnulf's birth is unknown, but it is said that he was the namesake of other Arnulfs and so would have been born around the time of the reign of the seventh century bishop Arnulf of Metz and the Carolingian king Arnulf of Carinthia . Arnulf was the son of Margrave Luitpold of Bavaria and Cunigunde , herself a member of the Ahalolfing dynasty, daughter of Berthold I , the count palatine of Swabia . Her brother Erchanger assumed the Swabian ducal title in 915. Under the weak rule of the East Frankish king Louis the Child , Margrave Luitpold had already achieved a strong position in the Bavarian lands, succeeding the Wilhelminer margraves. He ruled over extended estates along the Danube with Regensburg (Ratisbon), and in the adjacent Nordgau . DUKE OF BAVARIATogether with numerous Bavarian nobles, Arnulf's father was killed in the 907 Battle of Pressburg (Bratislava), when the Bavarian Heerbann under his command suffered a crushing defeat in a campaign against the Hungarian forces of Grand Prince Árpád
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Duchy Of Carinthia
The DUCHY OF CARINTHIA (German : Herzogtum Kärnten; Slovene : Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy located in southern Austria
Austria
and parts of northern Slovenia
Slovenia
. It was separated from the Duchy
Duchy
of Bavaria in 976, and was the first newly created Imperial State
Imperial State
after the original German stem duchies . Carinthia remained a State of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
until its dissolution in 1806, though from 1335 it was ruled within the Austrian dominions of the Habsburg dynasty. A constituent part of the Habsburg Monarchy and of the Austrian Empire , it remained a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary until 1918. By the Carinthian Plebiscite in October 1920, the main area of the duchy formed the Austrian state of Carinthia
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Duchy Of Austria
The DUCHY OF AUSTRIA (German : _Herzogtum Österreich_) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, established in 1156 by the _ Privilegium Minus _, when the Margraviate of Austria (_Ostarrîchi _) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right. After the ruling dukes of the House of Babenberg became extinct, the German king Rudolf I took over the dominion as the first monarch of the Habsburg
Habsburg
dynasty in 1276. Thereafter, Austria became the ancestral homeland of the dynasty and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy . In 1453, the archducal title of the Austrian rulers, invented by Duke Rudolf IV in the forged _ Privilegium Maius _ of 1359, was officially acknowledged by the Habsburg
Habsburg
emperor Frederick III . CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 2.1 House of Babenberg * 2.2 Fortune and fall of King Ottokar * 2.3 House of Habsburg
Habsburg
* 3 See also * 4 References GEOGRAPHYInitially, the duchy was comparatively small in area, roughly comprising the modern-day Austrian state of Lower Austria . As a former border march , it was located on the eastern periphery of the Empire, on the northern and southern shores of the Danube
Danube
River, east of ("below") the Enns tributary
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