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(i)

REGENSBURG (German pronunciation: ( listen ); Latin : Castra-Regina; Czech : Řezno; French : Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon) is a city in south-east Germany
Germany
, situated at the confluence of the Danube
Danube
, Naab and Regen rivers. With over 140,000 inhabitants, Regensburg
Regensburg
is the fourth-largest city in the State of Bavaria
Bavaria
after Munich
Munich
, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Augsburg
Augsburg
. The city is the political , economic and cultural centre of Eastern Bavaria
Bavaria
and the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate .

The medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
and a testimony of the city's status as cultural centre of southern Germany in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. In 2014, Regensburg
Regensburg
was among the top sights and travel attractions in Germany. Generally known in English as Ratisbon until well into the twentieth century, the city is known as Ratisbonne in French and as Ratisbona in Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Catalan and Albanian.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Early history * 1.2 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 1.3 Modern history * 1.4 Nazism
Nazism
and World War II
World War II
* 1.5 History after 1945

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Topography * 2.2 Climate
Climate

* 3 Main sights

* 3.1 The city * 3.2 The surrounding

* 4 Culture

* 4.1 Museums and exhibitions * 4.2 Theaters * 4.3 Music * 4.4 Film and cinema * 4.5 Buildings * 4.6 Recreation * 4.7 Memorial sites * 4.8 Events * 4.9 Nightlife
Nightlife

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Population * 5.2 International communities * 5.3 Religion

* 6 Politics

* 6.1 Government * 6.2 Boroughs * 6.3 Twin towns – Sister cities

* 7 Economy

* 7.1 Companies * 7.2 Tourism
Tourism

* 8 Infrastructure
Infrastructure

* 8.1 Transport * 8.2 Energy * 8.3 Health

* 9 Education

* 9.1 Universities and academia * 9.2 Research * 9.3 Schools

* 10 Sports

* 10.1 Football * 10.2 Ice hockey
Ice hockey
* 10.3 Baseball
Baseball
* 10.4 Athletics

* 11 Notable residents * 12 Gallery * 13 See also * 14 Notes * 15 References * 16 External links

HISTORY

EARLY HISTORY

The remains of the East Tower of the Porta Praetoria of Roman times

The first settlements in Regensburg
Regensburg
date from the Stone Age
Stone Age
. The Celtic name RADASBONA was the oldest given to a settlement near the present city. Around AD 90, the Romans built a fort there.

In 179, a new Roman fort CASTRA REGINA ("fortress by the river Regen") was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
. It was an important camp on the most northerly point of the Danube: it corresponds to what is today the core of Regensburg's Old City or Altstadt east of the Obere and Untere Bachgasse and West of the Schwanenplatz. It is believed that as early as in late Roman times the city was the seat of a bishop, and St Boniface re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg in 739.

From the early 6th century, Regensburg
Regensburg
was the seat of a ruling family known as the Agilolfings . From about 530 to the first half of the 13th century, it was the capital of Bavaria. Regensburg
Regensburg
remained an important city during the reign of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
. In 792, Regensburg hosted the ecclesiastical section of Charlemagne's General Assembly, the bishops in council who condemned the heresy of adoptionism taught by their Spanish counterparts, Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel . After the partition of the Carolingian Empire in 843, the city became the seat of the Eastern Frankish ruler, Louis II the German. Two years later, fourteen Bohemian princes came to Regensburg
Regensburg
to receive baptism there. This was the starting point of Christianization of the Czechs , and the diocese of Regensburg
Regensburg
became the mother diocese of that of Prague
Prague
. These events had a wide impact on the cultural history of the Czech lands, as they were consequently part of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and not the Slavic-Orthodox world . A memorial plate at St John's Church (the alleged place of the baptism) was unveiled a few years ago, commemorating the incident in the Czech and German languages.

On 8 December 899 Arnulf of Carinthia , descendant of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, died at Regensburg
Regensburg
(known as Ratisbon at the time), Bavaria
Bavaria
, Germany .

In 800 AD the city had 23,000 inhabitants and by 1000 AD this had almost doubled to 40,000 people.

In 1096, on the way to the First Crusade , Peter the Hermit
Peter the Hermit
led a mob of Crusaders
Crusaders
that attempted to force the mass conversion of the Jews of Regensburg
Regensburg
and killed all those who resisted. Regensburg
Regensburg
in the 16th century

Between 1135 and 1146, the Stone Bridge across the Danube
Danube
was built at Regensburg. This bridge opened major international trade routes between northern Europe and Venice
Venice
, and this began Regensburg's golden age as a residence of wealthy trading families. Regensburg became the cultural centre of southern Germany
Germany
and was celebrated for its gold work and fabrics.

MIDDLE AGES

Imperial City of Regensburg

Reichsstadt Regensburg
Regensburg
(German )

Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire

1245–1803

CAPITAL Regensburg

GOVERNMENT Republic
Republic

HISTORICAL ERA Middle Ages
Middle Ages

• First settled Stone Age
Stone Age

• Gained Imperial immediacy (Reichsfreiheit)a 1245

• City annexed by Bavaria
Bavaria
1486–96

• City adopted Reformation 1542

• Made permanent seat of the Imperial Diet 1663

• Mediatised to new Archbishopric 2 27 April 1803

• Ceded to Bavaria
Bavaria
by Treaty of Paris 1810

PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY

Duchy of Bavaria
Bavaria

Archbishopric of Regensburg

TODAY PART OF Germany

a: The Bishopric of Regensburg acquired Imperial immediacy around the same time as the City. Of the three Imperial Abbeys in Regensburg, Niedermünster had already acquired immediacy in 1002, St. Emmeram\'s Abbey
Abbey
did in 1295 and Obermünster in 1315. b: The Bishopric , the Imperial City and all three Imperial Abbeys were mediatised simultaneously.

In 1245 Regensburg
Regensburg
became a Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
and was a trade centre before the shifting of trade routes in the late Middle Ages. At the end of the 15th century in 1486, Regensburg
Regensburg
became part of the Duchy of Bavaria
Bavaria
, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor ten years later. The city adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1542 and its Town Council remained entirely Lutheran . From 1663 to 1806, the city was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, which became known as the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg . Thus, Regensburg
Regensburg
was one of the central towns of the Empire, attracting visitors in large numbers. Ceremonial arrival at the Imperial Diet, 1711

A minority of the population remained Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
, and Roman Catholics were denied civil rights (Bürgerrecht). But the town of Regensburg
Regensburg
must not be confused with the Bishopric of Regensburg. Although the Imperial city had adopted the Reformation, the town remained the seat of a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
bishop and several abbeys . Three of the latter, St. Emmeram , Niedermünster and Obermünster , were estates of their own within the Holy Roman Empire, meaning that they were granted a seat and a vote at the Imperial Diet (Reichstag). So there was the unique situation that the town of Regensburg comprised five independent "states" (in terms of the Holy Roman Empire): the Protestant city itself, the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
bishopric, and the three monasteries (mentioned previously). In addition, it was seen as the traditional capital of the region Bavaria
Bavaria
(not the state), acted as functional co-capital of the Empire (second to the Emperor's court at Vienna) due to the presence of the Perpetual Diet, and it was residence of the Emperor's Commissary-Principal to the same diet, who with one very brief exception was a prince himself (longstandingly the Prince Thurn and Taxis , still resident in the town).

MODERN HISTORY

In 1803 the city lost its status as a free city, following its incorporation into the Principality of Regensburg . It was handed over to the Archbishop of Mainz
Mainz
and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Carl von Dalberg in compensation for Mainz, which had become French under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. The archbishopric of Mainz
Mainz
was formally transferred to Regensburg. Dalberg united the bishopric, the monasteries, and the town itself, making up the Principality of Regensburg (Fürstentum Regensburg). Dalberg strictly modernized public life. Most importantly, he awarded equal rights to Protestants
Protestants
and Roman Catholics alike. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg
Regensburg
to the Kingdom of Bavaria
Bavaria
, he himself being compensated by the award of Fulda
Fulda
and Hanau
Hanau
to him under the title of "Grand Duke of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
".

Between April 19 and April 23, 1809, Regensburg
Regensburg
was the scene of the Battle of Ratisbon between forces commanded by Henri Gatien Bertrand and Napoleon himself and the retreating Austrian forces. The city was eventually overrun, after supplies and ammunition ran out. The city suffered severe damage during the fight, with about 150 houses being burnt and others being looted.

NAZISM AND WORLD WAR II

Regensburg
Regensburg
was home to both a Messerschmitt Bf 109
Bf 109
aircraft factory and an oil refinery, which were bombed by the Allies on August 17, 1943, by the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission , and on February 5, 1945, during the Oil Campaign of World War II . Although both targets were badly damaged, Regensburg
Regensburg
itself suffered little damage from the Allied strategic bombing campaign , and the nearly intact medieval city centre is listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. The city's most important cultural loss was that of the Romanesque church of Obermünster , which was destroyed in a March 1945 air raid and was not rebuilt (the belfry survived). Also, Regensburg's slow economic recovery after the war ensured that historic buildings were not torn down, to be replaced by newer ones. When the upswing in restoration reached Regensburg
Regensburg
in the late 1960s, the prevailing mindset had turned in favour of preserving the city's heritage.

HISTORY AFTER 1945

Cancel by the Ukrainian Camp Post at Regensburg
Regensburg
DP Camp

REGENSBURG Regensburg
Regensburg

UNESCO
UNESCO
WORLD HERITAGE SITE

LOCATION Upper Palatinate , Germany
Germany

COORDINATES 49°01′00″N 12°05′00″E / 49.0167°N 12.0833°E / 49.0167; 12.0833

AREA

CRITERIA ii, iii, iv

REFERENCE 1155

INSCRIPTION 2006 (30th Session )

WEBSITE www.regensburg.de

Location of Regensburg
Regensburg

Between 1945 and 1949, Regensburg
Regensburg
was the site of the largest Displaced persons (DP) camp in Germany. At its peak in 1946–1947, the workers' district of Ganghofersiedlung housed almost 5,000 Ukrainian and 1,000 non-Ukrainian refugees and displaced persons. With the approval of U.S. Military Government in the American Allied Occupation Zone , Regensburg
Regensburg
and other DP camps organised their own camp postal service. In Regensburg, the camp postal service began operation on December 11, 1946.

At the beginning of the 1960s, Regensburg
Regensburg
invested a lot in technical and social infrastructure to attract industry. Siemens
Siemens
was the first multinational company to come to Regensburg, a milestone in the city's development after World War II. In 1965, Regensburg University was founded, Regensburg University of Applied Sciences was established in 1971. The second multinational company, BMW
BMW
, came in 1986 to build up a large production plant. Since the 1990s, several well-known hightech companies are located in Regensburg, such as Infineon and OSRAM, contributing to the city's current wealth.

In 1997, Regensburg
Regensburg
was awarded the Europe Prize for its outstanding achievements in european integration .

The World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee
listed Regensburg's Old Town a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in July 2006. It is the largest medieval old town north of the Alps and very well preserved, dubbing it "Italy's most northern city". Close to the Stone Bridge, the city of Regensburg established a World Heritage Centre in the historic Salzstadl in 2007, where detailed information on Regensburg's 2000-year-old history is given.

GEOGRAPHY

TOPOGRAPHY

Regensburg
Regensburg
is situated on the northernmost part of the Danube
Danube
river at the geological crossroads of four distinct landscapes :

* to the north and northeast lies the Bavarian Forest
Bavarian Forest
(Bayerischer Wald) with granite and gneiss mountains, wide forests and its national park * to the east and south-east is the fertile Danube
Danube
plain (Gäuboden) which are highly cultivated loess plains * the south is dominated by the tertiary hill country (Tertiär-Hügelland), a continuation of Alpine foothills * to the West is Franconian Jura
Franconian Jura
(Fränkische Jura)

CLIMATE

The climate in Regensburg
Regensburg
is categorized in the Köppen climate classification as Dfb (humid continental ). The average temperature of 8.5 °C (47.3 °F) is slightly above the German average (7.8 °C or 46.0 °F), the average precipitation of 636 millimetres (25.0 inches ) per year below the German average (approximately 700 millimetres or 28 inches ). With a total of 1670 sunshine hours per year, Regensburg
Regensburg
is roughly 120 hours above German average.

The warmest month of the year, on average, is July. The coolest month of the year, on average, is January.

CLIMATE DATA FOR REGENSBURG

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 2.6 (36.7) 4.1 (39.4) 10.5 (50.9) 17.3 (63.1) 20.6 (69.1) 24.2 (75.6) 26.3 (79.3) 24.5 (76.1) 20.6 (69.1) 14.4 (57.9) 7.2 (45) 2.9 (37.2) 14.6 (58.3)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −2.6 (27.3) −2.8 (27) 0.1 (32.2) 4.4 (39.9) 8.1 (46.6) 11.8 (53.2) 13.6 (56.5) 12.5 (54.5) 9.3 (48.7) 5.1 (41.2) 1.8 (35.2) −1.7 (28.9) 5.0 (41)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 51 (2.01) 34 (1.34) 37 (1.46) 41 (1.61) 76 (2.99) 77 (3.03) 81 (3.19) 79 (3.11) 43 (1.69) 38 (1.5) 45 (1.77) 56 (2.2) 658 (25.91)

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 88 84 78 72 71 71 70 74 79 84 88 89 79

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 44 73 140 194 211 226 240 194 158 105 45 37 1,667

Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation

Source #2: German Weather Service

MAIN SIGHTS

THE CITY

St. Peter\'s Church – the Regensburg Cathedral Kohlenmarkt with Town Hall, site of the Perpetual Diet from 1663 to 1806. St. Emmeram\'s Abbey
Abbey
, now Schloss Thurn und Taxis , a huge palace

Regensburg
Regensburg
includes the largest medieval old town north of the Alps with nearly 1,500 listed buildings and a picturesque cityscape . Its most famous sights are located mainly in the Old Town, such as:

* The Dom (Cathedral) is an example of pure German Gothic and counts as the main work of Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
in Bavaria. It was founded in 1275 and completed in 1634, with the exception of the towers, which were finished in 1869. The interior contains numerous interesting monuments, including one of Peter Vischer 's masterpieces. Adjoining the cloisters are two chapels of earlier date than the cathedral itself, one of which, known as the old cathedral, goes back perhaps to the 8th century. The official choir for the liturgical music at St Peter's Cathedral are the famous Regensburger Domspatzen . * The stone bridge , built 1135–1146, is a highlight of medieval bridge building. The knights of the 2nd and 3rd crusade used it to cross the Danube
Danube
on their way to the Holy Land
Holy Land
. * The Regensburg Sausage Kitchen is a major tourist destination, but locals eat there as well. It was originally built as the construction headquarters of the stone bridge and now lies adjacent to it. * Remains of the Roman fortress' walls including the Porta Praetoria * The Church of St. James , also called Schottenkirche, a Romanesque basilica of the 12th century, derives its name from the monastery of Irish Benedictines ( Scoti
Scoti
) to which it was attached; the principal doorway is covered with very singular grotesque carvings. It stands next to the Jakobstor, a medieval city gate named after it. * The old parish church of St. Ulrich is a good example of the Transition style of the 13th century, and contains a valuable antiquarian collection. It houses the diocesan museum for religious art. * Examples of the Romanesque basilica style are the church of Obermünster , dating from 1010, and the abbey church of St. Emmeram , built in the 13th century, remarkable as one of the few German churches with a detached bell tower. The beautiful cloisters of the ancient abbey, one of the oldest in Germany, are still in a fair state of preservation. In 1809 the conventual buildings were converted into a palace for the prince of Thurn and Taxis , hereditary postmaster-general of the Holy Roman Empire. * The Adler-Apotheke, located nearby the Regensburg
Regensburg
Cathedral, was founded in 1610 and is one of the oldest Pharmacies in Regensburg. Even today you can take a look at the ancient interior and historical vessels. * Wealthy patrician families competed against each other to see who would be able to build the highest tower of the city. In 1260, the Goldener Turm (golden tower) was built on Wahlenstraße. * The Old Town Hall, dating in part from the 14th century, contains the rooms occupied by the Imperial diet from 1663 to 1806. * A historical interest is also attached to the Gasthof zum Goldenen Kreuz (Golden Cross Inn), where Charles V made the acquaintance of Barbara Blomberg, the mother of Don John of Austria (born 1547). * Perhaps the most pleasant modern building in the city is the Gothic villa of the king of Bavaria
Bavaria
on the bank of the Danube. * Among the public institutions of the city are the public library , picture gallery, botanical garden , and the institute for the making of stained glass . The city's colleges (apart from the University of Regensburg
Regensburg
) include an episcopal clerical seminary , and a school of church music . * St. Emmeram\'s Abbey
Abbey
, now known as Schloss Thurn und Taxis, is a huge castle owned by the powerful Thurn and Taxis family. * The City Park, the oldest and largest park in Regensburg
Regensburg
with a lot of artwork * The Botanischer Garten der Universität Regensburg is a modern botanical garden located on the University of Regensburg campus. * Herzogspark also contains several small botanical gardens.

The Stone Bridge , St. Peter's Church and the Old Town of Regensburg
Regensburg

THE SURROUNDING

Klenze's Walhalla , built in 1842 Bavarian Forest National Park stamp

Near Regensburg
Regensburg
there are two very imposing Classical buildings , erected by Ludwig I of Bavaria
Bavaria
as national monuments to German patriotism and greatness:

* The more imposing of the two is the Walhalla , a costly reproduction of the Parthenon
Parthenon
, erected as a Teutonic temple of fame on a hill rising from the Danube
Danube
at Donaustauf , 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) to the east. The interior, which is as rich as coloured marble , gilding , and sculptures can make it, contains the busts of more than a hundred Germanic worthies * The second of King Ludwig's buildings is the Befreiungshalle
Befreiungshalle
at Kelheim , 25 kilometres (16 miles) above Regensburg, a large circular building which has for its aim the glorification of the heroes of the 1813 War of Liberation

Besides, there is the famous Weltenburg Abbey
Abbey
(Kloster Weltenburg), a Benedictine
Benedictine
monastery in Weltenburg near Kelheim on the Danube. The abbey is situated on a peninsula in the Danube, on the so-called "Weltenburg Narrows" or the " Danube
Danube
Gorge". The monastery, founded by Irish or Scottish monks in about 620, is held to be the oldest monastery in Bavaria.

To the east of Regensburg
Regensburg
lies the Bavarian Forest
Bavarian Forest
with its National Park , one of the most visited protected areas in Germany.

CULTURE

MUSEUMS AND EXHIBITIONS

Altogether Regensburg
Regensburg
is home to 20 museums. Among the most prominent museums are for instance the Regensburg Museum of History which shows history, culture and arts of Regensburg
Regensburg
and Eastern Bavaria
Bavaria
from stone age to present. Then there is the Imperial diet museum (Reichstagsmuseum) in the Old Town Hall describing the life during the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Its main attractions are an original torture chamber and the Reichssaal, the rooms occupied by the Imperial diet from 1663 to 1806. The Kepler Memorial House (Keplergedächtnishaus) illustrates the life of the famous astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
. The Municipal Art Gallery
Art Gallery
Leerer Beutel offers art collections, film events and cultural festivals. Over the last years, the city added several outdoor museums to its cultural landscape, the so-called document sites. These give an overview on specific topics such as Roman , Jewish and Bavarian history .

Besides, there are the diocese museums (Bistumsmuseen) of Regensburg and a branch of the Bavarian National Museum located in the St. Emmeram's Abbey, which contains the Princely Treasure Chamber of the family Thurn and Taxis . The Domschatzmuseum where church treasures, monstrances and tapestries are displayed is in St. Peter\'s Cathedral . Other museums are the Kunstforum Ostdeutsche Galerie, the Naturkundemuseum Ostbayern, the reptile zoo, the Regensburg
Regensburg
Museum of Danube
Danube
Shipping (Donau-Schiffahrts-Museum), the Public Observatory Regensburg
Regensburg
as well as the watch museum (Uhrenmuseum), the golf museum, the post museum and the Dinoraeum. To celebrate its centenary, the State of Bavaria
Bavaria
will open the museum of Bavarian history in Regensburg
Regensburg
in May, 2018. Besides, there are guided tours in most of the historical monuments of Regensburg, as well as organized tourist tours through the city available in several languages.

THEATERS

Inside Regensburg
Regensburg
Theater

The Regensburg
Regensburg
Theater at the Bismarckplatz is 200 years old and is the most important theater of the city. Operas, operettas, musicals and ballets are shown. In summer, open-air performances are carried out as well. With the theater at the Bismarckplatz as the oldest and largest one, the Regensburg
Regensburg
theater has four other stages with programmes that complement each other: in the Neuhaussaal of the theater at the Bismarckplatz, concerts by the Philharmonic Orchestra Regensburg
Regensburg
take place. The Velodrom Theater presents musicals and plays. In the Haidplatz Theater mainly literary and modern plays are performed, whereas the Turmtheater at the Goliathplatz shows modern plays as well, but also cabarets, musicals and plays for children.

MUSIC

Regensburg
Regensburg
is home to the famous Regensburger Domspatzen . Since 2003 there are the Regensburger Schlossfestspiele in the inner courtyard of the St. Emmeram\'s Abbey
Abbey
every July, sponsored by the Princely Family of Thurn und Taxis. Meanwhile, those were attracting musicians like Elton John , David Garrett , Tom Jones or Plácido Domingo . Modern music styles, especially Jazz
Jazz
, are presented every summer during the Bavarian Jazz
Jazz
weekend. All over the Old Town, over hundred bands, combos and soloists are performing. In 2015, the House of Music was opened, giving home to skilled musicians and their education.

FILM AND CINEMA

The international short film season is hosted annually in Regensburg. It is a non-profit event and takes place every March, being one of the most important of its type in Germany. Aside, there are several cinemas, such as CinemaxX, the largest one showing blockbusters and arthouse films , and smaller independent cinemas such as Garbo, Ostentor Kino and Regina Filmtheater. Regensburg
Regensburg
has two open air cinemas as well.

BUILDINGS

The Old Town of Regensburg
Regensburg
with nearly 1,500 listed buildings offers a huge cultural diversity from Roman to modern times.

RECREATION

The Old Town of Regensburg
Regensburg
is surrounded completely by a green belt . Numerous inner-city parks like the City Park (Stadtpark), the Herzogspark, the Dörnbergpark, the Villapark or the university's botanical garden are a source for recreation and leisure.

MEMORIAL SITES

The city of Regensburg
Regensburg
erected several memorials to combat racism , intolerance towards minorities and all other forms of contempt for human dignity :

* Memorial for the victims of the Holocaust
Holocaust
* Memorial for the victims of euthanasy * Memorial for concentration camp and war prisoners * Memorial for violence against women

A specific in Regensburg
Regensburg
are the so-called Stolpersteine (stumbling blocks) in honor of deported Jews
Jews
during Nazism
Nazism
.

EVENTS

Twice a year takes place the Regensburg
Regensburg
Dult, the city's Volksfest , which is Bavaria's fourth largest. The Bürgerfest (citizen celebration) in the Old Town is every two years, attracting over 100,000 visitors. Every second weekend in July, knights and other medieval people come together at the Regensburg
Regensburg
Spectaculum, a medieval market, on the Stone Bridge . Every December, there are several Christmas markets all over the city.

NIGHTLIFE

With over 500 bars, restaurants, clubs and other locations merely in the inner city, Regensburg
Regensburg
provides a rich and diverse nightlife due to its young population.

DEMOGRAPHICS

POPULATION

In 2013, Regensburg
Regensburg
had 140,276 inhabitants , making it the fourth largest city in Bavaria. Over the last hundred years, the city has experienced a strong increase in population, surpassing 100,000 inhabitants in 1945 due to Germans who were ethnically cleansed from eastern parts of the Third Reich , especially from the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
. Today, Regensburg
Regensburg
is one of fastest growing cities in Germany
Germany
and is supposed to reach 150,000 inhabitants in the near future.

INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITIES

Nearly 12% of the total population are foreign residents. Most of them come from Turkey
Turkey
and Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
:

NATIONALITY POPULATION (2014)

Romania
Romania
1,651

Turkey
Turkey
1,630

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
1,108

Hungary
Hungary
922

Poland
Poland
916

Italy
Italy
753

Austria
Austria
688

Russia
Russia
679

Vietnam
Vietnam
627

RELIGION

A majority of Regensburg's population is Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
. In 2013, about 56.5% of the city's inhabitants identified with the Roman Catholic Church , 14.0% were registered Protestants
Protestants
and about 29.5% identified with other religions or did not have any registered religious affiliation.

POLITICS

GOVERNMENT

The Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
and the City Council
City Council
are elected for a period of six years. Both elections take place at the same time. The City Council
City Council
is composed of 51 members and includes the Lord Mayor, two deputy mayors, five counsellors and the other council members.

The municipal elections in Bavaria
Bavaria
of 2014 delivered the following results:

PARTY VOTES CHANGE SEATS CHANGE COOPERATION

Social Democratic Party 33,7% +12,2 17 +6 X

Christian Social Union 32,8% –7,1 16 –4

The Greens 10,5% -0,1 5 - X

Free Voters 6,9% -0,2 3 -1 X

Ecological Democratic Party
Ecological Democratic Party
6,4% -0,5 3 -

The Left 3,1% -1,5 2 -

Free Democratic Party 3,0% -2,4 2 -1 X

Pirate Party
Pirate Party
2,3% +2,3 1 +1 X

Christian Social Federation 1,5% -2,3 1 -1

After 18 years of a City Council
City Council
with conservative majority, the social-democratic candidate, Joachim Wolbergs, became Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
in Mai 2014.

BOROUGHS

Regensburg
Regensburg
is subdivided into 18 boroughs (Stadtbezirke): Innenstadt, Stadtamhof, Steinweg-Pfaffenstein, Sallern-Gallingkofen, Konradsiedlung-Wutzlhofen, Brandlberg-Keilberg, Reinhausen, Weichs, Schwabelweis, Ostenviertel, Kasernenviertel, Galgenberg, Kumpfmühl-Ziegetsdorf-Neuprüll, Großprüfening-Dechbetten-Königswiesen, Westenviertel, Ober- und Niederwinzer-Kager, Oberisling-Graß, Burgweinting-Harting. Each borough contains a number of localities (Ortsteile), which can have historic roots in older municipalities that became urbanized and incorporated into the city.

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Regensburg
Regensburg
is twinned with:

* Tempe , Arizona
Arizona
, United States
United States
, since 1976 * Aberdeen
Aberdeen
, Scotland
Scotland
since 1955 * Brixen
Brixen
, South Tyrol
South Tyrol
, Italy
Italy
, since 1969 * Clermont-Ferrand , Auvergne , France
France
, since 1969

* Plzeň , Plzeň Region , Czech Republic
Republic
, since 1993 * Odessa
Odessa
, Odessa
Odessa
Oblast , Ukraine
Ukraine
, since 1980 * Qingdao
Qingdao
, Shandong
Shandong
, China
China
, since 2009 * Budavar (part of Budapest
Budapest
), Hungary
Hungary
, since May 2005

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Germany

ECONOMY

Regensburg's economy counts among the most dynamic and fastest growing in Germany. Focus is on manufacturing industries, such as automotive , industrial and electrical engineering .

COMPANIES

There are several multinational corporations located in Regensburg, such as BMW
BMW
, Continental , E.ON , General Electric
General Electric
, Infineon , Osram , Schneider Electric , Siemens
Siemens
, Telekom and Toshiba
Toshiba
as well as hidden champions ( Krones , MR ).

BMW
BMW
operates an automobile production plant in Regensburg; the Regensburg
Regensburg
BMW
BMW
plant produces 3-series , 1-series and (previously) Z4 vehicles. Continental AG , with the headquarters of its car component business, Osram
Osram
Opto-Semiconductors and Siemens
Siemens
as well as Infineon , the former Siemens
Siemens
semiconductor branch, provide a high level of innovation and technical development in Regensburg. Other well known international companies, such as AREVA
AREVA
, Schneider Electric and Toshiba, have built plants in or near Regensburg. GE Aviation founded a greenfield site to innovate, develop and produce turbinemachinery components with a new manufacturing casting technology. Amazon.com located its first German customer service centre in Regensburg. The hidden champions Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen (MR) and Krones both are headquartered in or close to Regensburg
Regensburg
and are among the major employeurs.

Aside from the industrial sector, tourism contributes a lot to Regensburg's economical growth, especially since 2006, when the city gained status as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site . The University of Regensburg
Regensburg
, the Regensburg University of Applied Sciences and mercantile trade also play major roles in Regensburg's economy. Increasingly, biotech companies were founded in Regensburg
Regensburg
over the last two decades and have their headquarters and laboratories in the city's "BioPark". Another focus is on information technology , with the city running a start-up centre for IT firms. One of these former start-ups, CipSoft GmbH , now is a known video game company still based in Regensburg.

OTTI, the Eastern Bavaria
Bavaria
Technology Transfer-Institut e.V., is headquartered in Regensburg.

TOURISM

The city recorded 912,238 overnight hotel stays and 531,943 hotel guests in 2012. Tourism
Tourism
figures have nearly doubled within the last 15 years and Regensburg
Regensburg
has become one of the most-visited German cities from 100,000 to 500,000 residents. In 2014, Regensburg
Regensburg
was ranked as a Top-30 travel attraction in Germany
Germany
by international tourists.

INFRASTRUCTURE

TRANSPORT

Regensburg Hauptbahnhof (central station) is connected to lines to Munich
Munich
, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
, Passau
Passau
, Hof and Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
and Ulm
Ulm
. The city lies also on two motorways, the A3 from Cologne
Cologne
and Frankfurt
Frankfurt
to Vienna
Vienna
, and the A93 from Holledau to Hof .

The local transport is provided by a bus network run by the RVV (Regensburger Verkehrsverbund).

ENERGY

Regensburg's energy is mainly supplied by the German company E.ON , one of the world's largest electric utility service providers. Its subsidiary Bayernwerk runs the local hydropower station in the Danube River. In 2012, about 9,1% of the total electricity consumption was generated by renewable energy sources, about 5,1% of the total heat consumption were generated by renewables. Both figures show, that Regensburg
Regensburg
is behind other Bavarian cities in this context. Therefore, the municipal government presented an energy plan in 2014, which should enhance the transformation towards renewable energy sources over the next decade.

HEALTH

Regensburg
Regensburg
hosts one of the most modern university hospitals in Europe, the Universitätsklinikum Regensburg. Aside, there are several other renowned hospitals such as the Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brüder and the St. Josef-Krankenhaus. In the Bezirksklinikum, mental diseases are treated. With 19,4 hospital beds per 1000 residents, Regensburg owns the fourth highest density of beds per residents in Germany. Concerning medical doctors per residents, Regensburg
Regensburg
obtains the third place in Germany
Germany
(339 per 100,000 residents).

The city's BioPark, representing Bavaria's second largest biotech cluster, hosts numerous research institutions and biotech companies .

EDUCATION

University of Regensburg, Vielberth building, faculty of business Regensburg University of Applied Sciences, campus

UNIVERSITIES AND ACADEMIA

Regensburg
Regensburg
is known for its institutions of higher education. The biggest of those is the University of Regensburg . Founded in 1962, it is one of Germany's youngest institutions and ranked among the Top 400 universities worldwide. Among the prominent thinkers associated with the institution are Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
, Udo Steiner and Wolfgang Wiegard . The campus is situated in one area together with the Regensburg University of Applied Sciences .

Since 1874 there has been a College of Catholic Music, the Hochschule für Katholische Kirchenmusik und Musikpädagogik Regensburg
Regensburg
.

RESEARCH

In addtition to the research centres and institutes of the universities, there are several research institutions situated in the city of Regensburg. Among them are the Leibniz-Institute for East and Southeast European Studies (IOS), the Regensburg
Regensburg
Centre for Interventional Immunology (RCI), the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM) and the BioPark, the Bavarian biotech cluster.

SCHOOLS

Regensburg
Regensburg
is home to 18 elementary schools . There are several institutions of secondary education , both public and private, representing all levels of the German school system. There are eight Gymnasiums in Regensburg, five Realschule, six Hauptschule and four vocational schools (the so-called Berufsschule). In addition, there are several folk high schools with different specialisations. Aside, there is the Swiss International School which is offering families an international educational infrastructure.

SPORTS

FOOTBALL

SSV Jahn Regensburg is the local football club and attracts a fairly large local following. The team was part of a larger sports club founded in 1889 as Turnerbund Jahn Regensburg
Regensburg
which took its name from Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
, whose ideas of gymnastics greatly influenced German sport in the 19th century. The football department was created in 1907. The footballers and swimmers left their parent club in 1924 to form Sportbund Jahn Regensburg.

ICE HOCKEY

EV Regensburg
Regensburg
is the local ice hockey club, currently playing in the Oberliga Süd , Germany's third highest professional league.

BASEBALL

Regensburg
Regensburg
Legionäre is the baseball and softball club from Regensburg. The team is also known as Buchbinder Legionäre, following a sponsorship of the Buchbinder company. The club is playing in the German Bundesliga and is one of the most famous and most successful baseball clubs in Germany. Several players now playing in the MLB formerly played at the club. Its arena, Armin-Wolf-Arena, was built in 1996 and has a capacity of 10,000 spectators, making it to Germany's largest baseball stadium .

ATHLETICS

The local athletics club, LG TELIS FINANZ Regensburg, offers a wide range of different competitions and is counted among the most successful clubs in Germany.

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

Honorary photo for Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
in Regensburg Cathedral Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
(1610) Joseph Hanisch von Greifenthal (1825-1892)

* Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
, professor of theology at the University of Regensburg
Regensburg
from 1969 to 1977, who retains the title, honorary professor; he is not a former resident of the city of Regensburg, but his house, less than 1 kilometer from the city, lies in Pentling in the district of Regensburg
Regensburg
. He has been an honorary citizen since 2006. * The Princely House of Thurn und Taxis , a German noble family and one of Europe's largest landowners * Joseph Hanisch of Greifenthal , musician, composer and organist. * Albrecht Altdorfer (printmaker, painter of landscapes, historical and Biblical subjects of the Renaissance
Renaissance
) * Willie Duncan (Spider Murphy Gang) * Ulrich Eberl , science and technology journalist * The Rev. Dr. Franz Xaver Haberl , one of the most important Roman Catholic musicians in history, teacher of Perosi (see also Cecilian Movement ) * Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
(mathematician and astronomer) * Konrad of Megenberg , scholar and academic * Simone Laudehr (German national team footballer, women's world cup champion 2007) * Albertus Magnus
Albertus Magnus
(13th century polymath ) * Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg , a 12th–13th century rabbi and mystic, founder of Chassidei Ashkenaz * Maximilian Oberst , physician who introduced the Oberst method of block anesthesia * Petachiah of Ratisbon , a 12th–13th century rabbi , best known for his extensive travels throughout Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. * Hisham Zreiq - (born 1968), award-winning Palestinian Christian Independent filmmaker, poet and visual artist. * Walter Röhrl
Walter Röhrl
(racing driver) * Saint Emmeram , Christian bishop and a martyr, St. Emmeram\'s Abbey
Abbey
* Andrea Maria Schenkel , best-selling author of Tannöd and other works. * Emanuel Schikaneder
Emanuel Schikaneder
(Librettist of The Magic Flute ) * Oskar Schindler
Oskar Schindler
(1908–1974), German industrialist (after World War II until his emigration to Argentina
Argentina
) * Ulrich Schmidl (supposed co-founder of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
) * Anton Vilsmeier , (1894–1962), German chemist best known for the Vilsmeier-Haack reaction, born in Burgweinting, which is now part of Regensburg, and attended the Altes Gymnasium in Regensburg * Charles von Hügel , (1795–1870), Austrian army officer , diplomat , botanist , and explorer * Ulrich of Zell , a Cluniac reformer of Germany, abbot, founder and saint * Wolfgang of Regensburg , Bishop
Bishop
of Regensburg
Regensburg
* Elisabeth Elli Erl , winner of German Pop Idol 2004 – singer and teacher at a German secondary school in Düsseldorf * Ludwig Bemelmans , (1898–1962), Austro-Hungarian born American writer of children's books and internationally renowned gourmet, spent his early life in Regensburg

GALLERY

*

The Interior of Regensburg Cathedral *

The Stone Bridge and Regensburg Cathedral by night *

Protestant Church *

The romanic chapel St. George and Afra *

The Danube
Danube
seen from the Stone Bridge *

The bay window of the Old Town Hall *

Goliath
Goliath
House *

Monument of Don Juan de Austria
Austria
*

St. Emmeram\'s Abbey
Abbey
*

Dampfnudel bakery in the Baumburger Turm *

The Stone Bridge *

Little Boy (Bruckmandl) on the Stone Bridge

SEE ALSO

* Bishops
Bishops
of Regensburg
Regensburg
* Jewish history
Jewish history
of Regensburg
Regensburg
* List of mayors of Regensburg * Regensburg (district)

NOTES

* ^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). June 2016.

* ^ A B Deutsche Zentrale für Tourismus e.V. (2015-08-14). "The TOP 100 sights and attractions in Germany
Germany
Tourism
Tourism
in Germany
Germany
– travel, breaks, holidays". germany.travel. Retrieved 2015-08-16. * ^ "Iron Age Braumeisters of the Teutonic Forests". BeerAdvocate. Retrieved 2006-06-02. * ^ The Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Vol. III, Part II (page 623), printed by William Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street, London, 1844 * ^ Tellier, L.N. (2009). Urban World History: An Economic
Economic
and Geographical Perspective. Presses de l'Universite du Quebec. p. 266. ISBN 9782760522091 . Retrieved 2014-10-10. * ^ Herald of Destiny by Berel Wein . New York: Shaar Press, 1993, page 144. * ^ Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data, ed. (1991), Amtliches Ortsverzeichnis für Bayern, Munich: Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data, p. 242 , Wikidata
Wikidata
Q15707237 * ^ Karen Lemiski, Focus on Philately: The stamps of Regensburg, Camp Ganghofersiedlung in The Ukrainian Weekly , February 4, 2001, No. 5, Vol. LXIX * ^ "Europeprize". europeprize.net. Retrieved 2015-08-16. * ^ Ursula Hagner (26 November 2009). "Europäische Wetterlagen" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-08-16. * ^ "World Weather Information Service – Regensburg". June 2011. * ^ "Klima Regensburg
Regensburg
- Station Regensburg
Regensburg
(365 m)". Wetterdienst.de. Retrieved 28 July 2017. * ^ " Regensburg
Regensburg
Theaters". regensburgtravel.com. Retrieved 2015-08-16. * ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Regensburg" (PDF). Stadt Regensburg
Regensburg
– Amt für Stadtentwicklung. Retrieved 2016-05-30. * ^ "Stadt Regensburg
Regensburg
– Abteilung Statistik". statistik.regensburg.de. Retrieved 2015-08-16. * ^ "Who is Aberdeen
Aberdeen
twinned with?". Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City Council. Retrieved 2008-03-02. * ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 2013-12-26. * ^ "Prognos Zukunftsatlas 2013: Ergebnisübersicht Gesamtranking" (PDF). 7 November 2013. Retrieved 2015-08-16. * ^ "OTTI – Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V.". otti.de. Retrieved 2014-10-10. * ^ "Stadt Regensburg
Regensburg
– Abteilung Statistik". statistik.regensburg.de. Retrieved 2015-08-16. * ^ "Energienutzungsplan Stadt Regensburg
Regensburg
– Teilbericht C – Ist-Zustand Erzeugung" (PDF). 16 April 2014. Retrieved 2015-08-16. * ^ "Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland – Interaktive Karten – AI014-1". www-genesis.destatis.de. Retrieved 2015-08-16. * ^ Wirtschaftswoche, Nr. 49, 2014, Städteranking, p. 28 * ^ http://www.ihk-regensburg.de/ihk-r/autoupload/officefiles/RIS_Unternehmen_engl.pdf * ^ "Book of Nature". World Digital Library
Library
. 1481. Retrieved 2013-08-27.

REFERENCES

* David L. Sheffler, Schools and Schooling in Late Medieval
Medieval
Germany: Regensburg, 1250–1500 (Leiden, Brill, 2008) (Education and Society in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance, 33).

ATTRIBUTION

* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Regensburg". Encyclopædia Britannica . 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 37.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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