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Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the German state of
Bavaria Bavaria ( ; ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no ), is a state in the south-east of Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the sec ...
. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the third-largest city in
Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated between ...
, after
Berlin Berlin ( , ) is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3.7 million inhabitants make it the European Union's most populous city, according to population within city limits. One of Germany's sixteen constituen ...
and
Hamburg (male), (female) en, Hamburger(s), Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal ...
, and thus the largest which does not constitute its own state, as well as the 11th-largest city in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a supranational union, supranational political union, political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe, Europe. The union has a total area of ...
. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar (a
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage b ...
of the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is a river that was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire and today connects 10 European countries, running through their territories or being a border. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for , pa ...
) north of the
Bavarian Alps The Bavarian Alps (german: Bayerische Alpen) is a collective name for several mountain ranges of the Northern Limestone Alps The Northern Limestone Alps (german: Nördliche Kalkalpen), also called the Northern Calcareous Alps, are the mountai ...
, Munich is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of
Upper Bavaria Upper Bavaria (german: Oberbayern, ; ) is one of the seven Regierungsbezirk, administrative districts of Bavaria, Germany. Geography Upper Bavaria is located in the southern portion of Bavaria, and is centered on the city of Munich, both state ...
, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany (4,500 people per km2). Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the
Austria The Republic of Austria, commonly just Austria, , bar, Östareich is a country in the southern part of Central Europe, lying in the Eastern Alps. It is a federation of nine States of Austria, states, one of which is the capital, Vienna, ...
n capital of
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, most populou ...
. The city was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich strongly resisted the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...
and was a political point of divergence during the resulting
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was one of the longest and List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, most destructive conflicts in History of Europe, European history, lasting from 1618 to 1648. Fought primarily in Central Europe, an es ...
, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant
Swedes Swedes ( sv, svenskar) are a North Germanic peoples, North Germanic ethnic group native to the Nordic region, primarily their nation state of Sweden, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and language. They mostly inhabit Sweden and th ...
. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, Munich became a major European centre of arts, architecture, culture and science. In 1918, during the
German Revolution German(s) may refer to: * Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European ...
, the ruling
house of Wittelsbach The House of Wittelsbach () is a German dynasty, with branches that have ruled over territories including Bavaria, the Palatinate, Holland and Zeeland, Sweden (with Finland), Denmark, Norway, Hungary (with Romania), Bohemia, the Electorate o ...
, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived
socialist republic Socialism is a left-wing Economic ideology, economic philosophy and Political movement, movement encompassing a range of economic systems characterized by the dominance of social ownership of the means of production as opposed to Private prop ...
was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the
NSDAP The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was a far-right politics, far-right political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945 that crea ...
. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". The city was heavily bombed during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
, but has restored most of its traditional cityscape. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of ''
Wirtschaftswunder The ''Wirtschaftswunder'' (, "economic miracle"), also known as the Miracle on the Rhine, was the rapid reconstruction and development of the Economy, economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting an ordoliberalism-based soc ...
'', or "economic miracle". The city hosted the
1972 Summer Olympics The 1972 Summer Olympics (), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad () and commonly known as Munich 1972 (german: München 1972), was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ...
and was one of the host cities of the
1974 Major events in 1974 include the aftermath of the 1973 oil crisis and the resignation of President of the United States, United States President Richard Nixon following the Watergate scandal. In the Middle East, the aftermath of the 1973 Yom K ...
and
2006 FIFA World Cup The 2006 FIFA World Cup, also branded as Germany 2006, was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international Association football, football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which had won ...
s. Today, Munich is a global centre of
art Art is a diverse range of human activity, and resulting product, that involves creative or imaginative talent expressive of technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of wha ...
,
science Science is a systematic endeavor that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Science may be as old as the human species, and some of the earli ...
,
technology Technology is the application of knowledge to reach practical goals in a specifiable and Reproducibility, reproducible way. The word ''technology'' may also mean the product of such an endeavor. The use of technology is widely prevalent in me ...
,
finance Finance is the study and discipline of money, currency and capital assets. It is related to, but not synonymous with economics, the study of Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics) ...
,
publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, such as books, newsp ...
,
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior, institutions, and Social norm, norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the ...
,
innovation Innovation is the practical implementation of ideas that result in the introduction of new goods or service (economics), services or improvement in offering goods or services. ISO TC 279 in the standard ISO 56000:2020 defines innovation as "a ...
,
education Education is a purposeful activity directed at achieving certain aims, such as transmitting knowledge or fostering skills and character traits. These aims may include the development of understanding, rationality, kindness, and honesty ...
,
business Business is the practice of making one's living or making money by producing or Trade, buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and Service (economics), services). It is also "any activity or enterprise entered into for pr ...
, and
tourism Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring (disambiguation), touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tour (disambiguation), tours. Th ...
and enjoys a very high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, and being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. Munich is consistently ranked as one of the most expensive cities in Germany in terms of real estate prices and rental costs. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute, Munich is considered an
alpha Alpha (uppercase , lowercase ; grc, ἄλφα, ', or ell, άλφα, álfa) is the first Letter (alphabet), letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of one. Alpha is derived from the Phoenician alphabet, P ...
- world city, . It is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany. The city is home to more than 530,000 people of foreign background, making up 37.7% of its population. Munich's economy is based on
high tech High technology (high tech), also known as advanced technology (advanced tech) or exotechnology, is technology that is at the state of the art, cutting edge: the highest form of technology available. It can be defined as either the most complex ...
,
automobiles A car or automobile is a motor vehicle with Wheel, wheels. Most definitions of ''cars'' say that they run primarily on roads, Car seat, seat one to eight people, have four wheels, and mainly transport private transport#Personal transport, pe ...
, the
service sector The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic sectors in the three-sector model (also known as the economic cycle). The others are the primary sector (raw materials) and the second ...
and creative industries, as well as IT,
biotechnology Biotechnology is the integration of Natural science, natural sciences and Engineering Science, engineering sciences in order to achieve the application of organisms, cells, parts thereof and molecular analogues for products and services. The te ...
,
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specializ ...
and
electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons using Electronic component, electronic devices. Electronics uses Passivity (engineering), active devices ...
among many other sectors. It has one of the strongest economies of any German city and the lowest unemployment rate of all cities in Germany with more than 1 million inhabitants. Munich is also one of the most attractive business locations in Germany. The city houses many multinational companies, such as BMW,
Siemens Siemens AG ( ) is a German Multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate corporation and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe headquartered in Munich with branch offices abroad. The principal ...
, MAN,
Allianz Allianz ( , ) is a German multinational financial services company headquartered in Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a pop ...
and MunichRE. In addition, Munich is home to two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions, and world-renowned technology and science museums like the
Deutsches Museum The Deutsches Museum (''German Museum'', officially (English: ''German Museum of Masterpieces of Science and Technology'')) in Munich, Germany, is the world's largest museum of science museum, science and technology museum, technology, with a ...
and BMW Museum. Munich's numerous architectural and cultural attractions, sports events, exhibitions and its annual
Oktoberfest The Oktoberfest (; bar, Wiesn, Oktobafest) is the world's largest Volksfest, featuring a beer festival and a travelling carnival. It is held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. It is a 16- to 18-day folk festival running from mid- or lat ...
, the world's largest
Volksfest A Volksfest ( ; German for "people's festival")Cognate of "folk festival" in English is a large event in German-speaking countries which usually combines a beer festival or wine festival and a travelling funfair. Attractions may include amusement ...
, attract considerable
tourism Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring (disambiguation), touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tour (disambiguation), tours. Th ...
.


History


Etymology

The name of the city is usually interpreted as deriving from the Old/
Middle High German Middle High German (MHG; german: Mittelhochdeutsch (Mhd.)) is the term for the form of German language, German spoken in the High Middle Ages. It is conventionally dated between 1050 and 1350, developing from Old High German and into Early New Hi ...
form ''Munichen'', meaning "by the monks". A monk is also depicted on the city's coat of arms. The town is first mentioned as ''forum apud Munichen'' in the of 14 June 1158 by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I. The name in modern German is , but this has been variously translated in different languages: in English, French,
Spanish Spanish might refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language, spoken in Spain and many Latin American countries **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Cana ...
and various other languages as "Munich", in Italian as "Monaco di Baviera", in Portuguese as "Munique".


Prehistory

Archeological finds in Munich, such as in Freiham/Aubing, indicate early settlements and graves dating back to the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a historic period, lasting approximately from 3300 BC to 1200 BC, characterized by the use of bronze Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of ...
(7th–6th century BC). Evidence of
Celt The Celts (, see Names of the Celts#Pronunciation, pronunciation for different usages) or Celtic peoples () are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-Europea ...
ic settlements from the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic) and the Bronze Age (Chalcolithic). The concept has been mostly appl ...
have been discovered in areas around Perlach.


Roman period

The ancient Roman road Via Julia, which connected Augsburg and Salzburg, crossed over the Isar River south of modern-day Munich, at the towns of Baierbrunn and Gauting. A Roman settlement north-east of downtown Munich was excavated in the neighborhood of Denning/Bogenhausen.


Post-Roman settlements

In the 6th Century and beyond, various ethnic groups, such as the
Baiuvarii The Baiuvarii or Bavarians (german: Bajuwaren) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the 19th c ...
, populated the area around what is now modern Munich, such as in Johanneskirchen, Feldmoching, Bogenhausen and Pasing. The first known Christian church was built ca. 815 in Fröttmanning.


Origin of medieval town

The origin of the modern city of Munich is the result of a power struggle between a military warlord and an influential Catholic bishop.
Henry the Lion Henry the Lion (german: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty who ruled as the duke of Saxony and duke of Bavaria, Bavaria from 1142 and 1156, respectively, until 1180. Henry was one of the most po ...
, Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria (d. 1195) was one of the most powerful German princes of his time. He ruled over vast territories in the German
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire was a Polity, political entity in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central, and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, dissolution i ...
from the North and Baltic Sea to the Alps. Henry wanted to expand his power in Bavaria by gaining control of the lucrative salt trade, which the Catholic Church in Freising had under its control. Bishop Otto von Freising (d. 1158) was a scholar, historian and bishop of a large section of Bavaria that was part of his diocese of Freising. Years earlier (the exact time is unclear, but may have been in the early 10th century),
Benedictine monks The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Benedic ...
helped build a toll bridge and a customs house over the Isar River (most likely in the modern town of Oberföhring) to control the salt trade between Augsburg and Salzburg (which had existed since
Roman times In modern historiography, ancient Rome refers to Roman people, Roman civilisation from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. It encompasses the Roman Kingdom ...
). Henry wanted to control the toll bridge and its income for himself, so he destroyed the bridge and customs house in 1156. He then built a new toll bridge, customs house and a coin market closer to his home somewhat upstream (at a settlement around the area of modern oldtown Munich: Marienplatz, Marienhof and the St. Peter's Church). This new toll bridge most likely crossed the Isar where the Museuminsel and the modern Ludwigsbrücke is now located. Bishop Otto protested to his nephew, Emperor Frederick Barbarosa (d. 1190). However, on 14 June 1158, in Augsburg, the conflict was settled in favor of Duke Henry. The Augsburg Arbitration mentions the name of the location in dispute as ''forum apud Munichen''. Although Bishop Otto had lost his bridge, the arbiters ordered Duke Henry to pay a third of his income to the Bishop in Freising as compensation. 14 June 1158, is considered the official 'founding day' of the city of Munich, not the date when it was first settled. Archaeological excavations at Marienhof Square (near
Marienplatz Marienplatz (English language, English: Mary's Square, i.e. St. Mary, Blessed Virgin Mary, Our Lady's Square) is a town square, central square in the city centre of Munich, Germany. It has been the city's main square since 1158. History During ...
) in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn (subway) in 2012 discovered shards of vessels from the 11th century, which prove again that the settlement of Munich must be older than the Augsburg Arbitration of 1158. The old St. Peter's Church near Marienplatz is also believed to predate the founding date of the town. In 1175, Munich received city status and fortification. In 1180, after Henry the Lion's fall from grace with Emperor Frederick Barbarosa, including his trial and exile, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, and Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the
Duchy of Bavaria The Duchy of Bavaria (German language, German: ''Herzogtum Bayern'') was a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian kingdom from the sixth through the eighth century. It was settled by Bavarians, Bavarian tribes and ruled by ...
was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of
Upper Bavaria Upper Bavaria (german: Oberbayern, ; ) is one of the seven Regierungsbezirk, administrative districts of Bavaria, Germany. Geography Upper Bavaria is located in the southern portion of Bavaria, and is centered on the city of Munich, both state ...
. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanorum, german: Kaiser der Römer) during the Middle Ages, and also known as the Roman-German Emperor since the early modern period ( la, Imperator ...
in 1328. He strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. On 13 February 1327, a large fire broke out in Munich that lasted two days and destroyed about a third of the town. In 1349, the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague pandemic occurring in Western Eurasia and North Africa North Africa, or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portio ...
ravaged Munich and Bavaria. In the 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of
Gothic art Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture. It spread to all of Western Europe, and much of Northern Europe, North ...
s: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, and Munich's largest Gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468.


Capital of reunited Bavaria

When Bavaria was reunited in 1506 after a brief
war War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violenc ...
against the Duchy of
Landshut Landshut (; bar, Landshuad) is a town in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany. Situated on the banks of the Isar, River Isar, Landshut is the capital of Lower Bavaria, one of the seven administrative regions of the Free state (government), Free ...
, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became increasingly influenced by the court (see Orlando di Lasso and Heinrich Schütz). During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German
counter reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. It began with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) a ...
, and also of
renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a Periodization, period in History of Europe, European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an e ...
arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reformation, and also installed the Hofbräuhaus for brewing brown beer in 1589. The Catholic League was founded in Munich in 1609. In 1623, during the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was one of the longest and List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, most destructive conflicts in History of Europe, European history, lasting from 1618 to 1648. Fought primarily in Central Europe, an es ...
, Munich became an electoral residence when Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria was invested with the electoral dignity, but in 1632 the city was occupied by Gustav II Adolph of Sweden. When the
bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of Plague (disease), plague caused by the plague Bacteria, bacterium (''Yersinia pestis''). One to seven days after exposure to the bacteria, flu-like symptoms develop. These symptoms include fever, headac ...
broke out in 1634 and 1635, about one-third of the population died. Under the regency of the Bavarian electors, Munich was an important centre of
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a Style (visual arts), style of Baroque architecture, architecture, Baroque music, music, Baroque dance, dance, Baroque painting, painting, Baroque sculpture, sculpture, poetry, and other arts that flourished in Europe from ...
life, but also had to suffer under
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in Englishgerman: Haus Habsburg, ; es, Casa de Habsburgo; hu, Habsburg család, it, Casa di Asburgo, nl, Huis van Habsburg, pl, dom Habsburgów, pt, Casa de Habsburgo, la, Domus Hab ...
occupations in 1704 and 1742. After making an alliance with Napoleonic France, the city became the capital of the new
Kingdom of Bavaria The Kingdom of Bavaria (german: Königreich Bayern; ; spelled ''Baiern'' until 1825) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. With the unification of Germany into the German E ...
in 1806 with Elector Maximillian Joseph becoming its first King. The state parliament (the ''
Landtag A Landtag (State Diet) is generally the legislative assembly or parliament of a federated state or other subnational self-governing entity in German-speaking nations. It is usually a unicameral assembly exercising legislative competence in ...
'') and the new archdiocese of Munich and Freising were also located in the city. During the early to mid-19th century, the old fortified city walls of Munich were largely demolished due to population expansion. Munich's annual Beer Festival,
Oktoberfest The Oktoberfest (; bar, Wiesn, Oktobafest) is the world's largest Volksfest, featuring a beer festival and a travelling carnival. It is held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. It is a 16- to 18-day folk festival running from mid- or lat ...
, has its origins from a royal wedding in October 1810. The fields are now part of the 'Theresienwiese' near downtown. In 1826, Landshut University was moved to Munich. Many of the city's finest buildings belong to this period and were built under the first three Bavarian kings. Especially Ludwig I rendered outstanding services to Munich's status as a centre of the arts, attracting numerous artists and enhancing the city's architectural substance with grand boulevards and buildings. The first Munich railway station was built in 1839, with a line going to Augsburg in the west. By 1849 a newer Munich Central Train Station ( München Hauptbahnhof) was completed, with a line going to Landshut and Regensburg in the north. By the time
Ludwig II Ludwig II (Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm; 25 August 1845 – 13 June 1886) was King of Bavaria from 1864 until his death in 1886. He is sometimes called the Swan King or ('the Fairy Tale King'). He also held the titles of Count Palatine of the ...
became king in 1864, he remained mostly aloof from his capital and focused more on his fanciful castles in the Bavarian countryside, which is why he is known the world over as the 'fairytale king'. Nevertheless, his patronage of
Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his mature works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most o ...
secured his posthumous reputation, as do his castles, which still generate significant tourist income for Bavaria. Later, Prince Regent Luitpold's years as regent were marked by tremendous artistic and cultural activity in Munich, enhancing its status as a cultural force of global importance (see
Franz von Stuck Franz von Stuck (February 23, 1863 – August 30, 1928), born Franz Stuck, was a German painter, sculptor, printmaker, and architect. Stuck was best known for his paintings of ancient mythology, receiving substantial critical acclaim with ''The ...
and Der Blaue Reiter).


World War I to World War II

Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, life in Munich became very difficult, as the Allied blockade of Germany led to food and fuel shortages. During French air raids in 1916, three bombs fell on Munich. In March 1916, three separate aircraft-engine and automobile companies joined to form 'Bayerische Motoren Werke' ( BMW) in Munich. After World War I, the city was at the centre of substantial political unrest. In November 1918, on the eve of the German revolution, Ludwig III and his family fled the city. After the murder of the first republican premier of Bavaria
Kurt Eisner Kurt Eisner (; 14 May 1867 21 February 1919)"Kurt Eisner – Encyclopædia Britannica" (biography), ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 2006, Britannica.com webpageBritannica-KurtEisner. was a German politician, revolutionary, journalist A journali ...
in February 1919 by Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley, the Bavarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed. When Communists took power,
Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known as Vladimir Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of t ...
, who had lived in Munich some years before, sent a congratulatory telegram, but the Soviet Republic was ended on 3 May 1919 by the
Freikorps (, "Free Corps" or "Volunteer Corps") were Irregular military, irregular German and other European military volunteer units, or paramilitary, that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries. They effectively fought as mercenary or pri ...
. While the republican government had been restored, Munich became a hotbed of extremist politics, among which
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was dictator of Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populo ...
and the
National Socialists Nazism ( ; german: Nazismus), the common name in English for National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the far-right politics, far-right Totalitarianism, totalitarian political ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hit ...
soon rose to prominence. Munich's first film studio ( Bavaria Film) was founded in 1919. In 1923, Adolf Hitler and his supporters, who were concentrated in Munich, staged the
Beer Hall Putsch The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch,Dan Moorhouse, ed schoolshistory.org.uk, accessed 2008-05-31.Known in German language, German as the or was a failed coup d'état by Nazi Party ( or NSDAP) leader Adolf Hitler, Erich Lu ...
, an attempt to overthrow the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: link=no, Weimarer Republik ), officially named the German Reich, was the government of Germany from 1918 to 1933, during which it was a Constitutional republic, constitutional federal republic for the first time in ...
and seize power. The revolt failed, resulting in Hitler's arrest and the temporary crippling of the
Nazi Party The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was a far-right politics, far-right political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945 that crea ...
(NSDAP). The city again became important to the Nazis when they took power in Germany in 1933. The party created its first
concentration camp Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without Criminal charge, charges or Indictment, intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in wartime or of terrorism suspects ...
at Dachau, north-west of the city. Because of its importance to the rise of National Socialism, Munich was referred to as the ''Hauptstadt der Bewegung'' ("Capital of the Movement"). The NSDAP headquarters were in Munich and many ''Führerbauten'' ("''Führer'' buildings") were built around the Königsplatz, some of which still survive. In March 1924, Munich broadcast its first radio program. The station became '
Bayerischer Rundfunk Bayerischer Rundfunk (BR; "Bavarian Broadcasting") is a public broadcasting, public-service radio and television broadcaster, based in Munich, capital city of the Bavaria, Free State of Bavaria in Germany. BR is a member organization of the ARD ( ...
' in 1931. The city was the site where the 1938
Munich Agreement The Munich Agreement ( cs, Mnichovská dohoda; sk, Mníchovská dohoda; german: Münchner Abkommen) was an agreement concluded at Munich on 30 September 1938, by Nazi Germany, Germany, the United Kingdom, French Third Republic, France, and Fa ...
signed between Britain and
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
with
Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated between ...
as part of the Franco-British policy of
appeasement Appeasement in an international context is a diplomacy, diplomatic policy of making political, material, or territorial concessions to an aggressive power (international relations), power in order to avoid conflict. The term is most often appli ...
. The
British Prime Minister The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The prime minister Advice (constitutional law), advises the Monarchy of the United Kingdom, sovereign on the exercise of much of the Royal prerogative ...
Neville Chamberlain Arthur Neville Chamberlain (; 18 March 18699 November 1940) was a British politician of the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940. He is best known for his for ...
assented to the German annexation of
Czechoslovakia , rue, Чеськословеньско, , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 ...
's Sudetenland region in the hopes of satisfying Hitler's territorial expansion. The first airport in Munich was completed in October 1939, in the area of Riem. The airport would remain there until it was moved closer to Freising in 1992. On November 8, 1939, shortly after the Second World War had begun, a bomb was planted in the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich in an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler during a political party speech. Hitler, however, had left the building minutes before the bomb went off. On its site today stands the GEMA Building, the Gasteig Cultural Centre and the Munich City Hilton Hotel. Munich was the base of the
White Rose The White Rose (german: Weiße Rose, ) was a Nonviolence, non-violent, intellectual German resistance to Nazism, resistance group in Nazi Germany which was led by five students (and one professor) at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, ...
, a student
resistance movement A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability. It may seek to achieve its objectives ...
from June 1942 to February 1943. The core members were arrested and executed following a distribution of leaflets in
Munich University The Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (simply University of Munich or LMU; german: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public university, public research university in Munich, Germany. It is Germany's List of universities in Germ ...
by Hans and Sophie Scholl. The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing during World War II, with 71 air raids over five years. US troops liberated Munich on April 30, 1945.


Postwar

After US occupation in 1945, Munich was completely rebuilt following a meticulous plan, which preserved its pre-war street grid, bar a few exceptions owing to then modern traffic concepts. In 1957, Munich's population surpassed one million. The city continued to play a highly significant role in the German economy, politics and culture, giving rise to its nickname ''Heimliche Hauptstadt'' ("secret capital") in the decades after World War II. In Munich, Bayerischer Rundfunk began its first television broadcast in 1954. Since 1963, Munich has been the host city for annual conferences on international security policy. Munich also became known on the political level due to the strong influence of Bavarian politician Franz Josef Strauss from the 1960s to the 1980s. The Munich Airport (built in 1992) was named in his honor. Munich was the site of the
1972 Summer Olympics The 1972 Summer Olympics (), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad () and commonly known as Munich 1972 (german: München 1972), was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ...
, during which 11
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, ; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, ), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated ...
i athletes were murdered by
Palestinian Palestinians ( ar, الفلسطينيون, ; he, פָלַסְטִינִים, ) or Palestinian people ( ar, الشعب الفلسطيني, label=none, ), also referred to as Palestinian Arabs ( ar, الفلسطينيين العرب, label=non ...
terrorists in the
Munich massacre The Munich massacre was a terrorist attack carried out during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, by eight members of the Palestinian people, Palestinian militant organization Black September Organization, Black September, who i ...
, when gunmen from the Palestinian "
Black September Black September ( ar, أيلول الأسود; ''Aylūl aswad (name), Al-Aswad''), also known as the Jordanian Civil War, was a conflict fought in the Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan between the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF), under the leade ...
" group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic team. Mass murders also occurred in Munich in 1980 and 2016. Munich also hosted the FIFA World Cup finals in 1974. Munich is also home of the famous Nockherberg Strong Beer Festival during the Lenten fasting period (usually in March). Its origins go back to the 17th/18th century, but has become popular when the festivities were first televised in the 1980s. The fest includes comical speeches and a mini-musical in which numerous German politicians are parodied by look-alike actors. Munich was one of the host cities for the
2006 FIFA World Cup The 2006 FIFA World Cup, also branded as Germany 2006, was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international Association football, football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which had won ...
. Munich was one of the host cities for the UEFA European 2020 football championship, (which was delayed for a year due to the
COVID-19 pandemic in Germany The COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The n ...
).


Geography


Topography

Munich lies on the elevated plains of
Upper Bavaria Upper Bavaria (german: Oberbayern, ; ) is one of the seven Regierungsbezirk, administrative districts of Bavaria, Germany. Geography Upper Bavaria is located in the southern portion of Bavaria, and is centered on the city of Munich, both state ...
, about north of the northern edge of the
Alps The Alps () ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps ; sl, Alpe . are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across seven Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Swi ...
, at an altitude of about ASL. The local rivers are the
Isar The Isar is a river in Tyrol (state), Tyrol, Austria, and Bavaria, Germany, which is not navigable for watercraft above raft size. Its source is in the Karwendel range of the Alps in Tyrol; it enters Germany near Mittenwald and flows through Ba ...
and the Würm. Munich is situated in the Northern
Alpine Foreland The Alpine Foreland, less commonly called the Bavarian Foreland,Dickinson, Robert E (1964). ''Germany: A regional and economic geography'' (2nd ed.). London: Methuen, pp. 585-586. . Bavarian Plateau or Bavarian Alpine Foreland (german: Bayerisches ...
. The northern part of this sandy plateau includes a highly fertile
flint Flint, occasionally flintstone, is a sedimentary rock, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as the variety of chert that occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Flint was widely used historically to make stone tool ...
area which is no longer affected by the folding processes found in the Alps, while the southern part is covered with morainic hills. Between these are fields of fluvio-glacial out-wash, such as around Munich. Wherever these deposits get thinner, the
ground water Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in rock and Pore space in soil, soil pore spaces and in the fractures of stratum, rock formations. About 30 percent of all readily available freshwater in the world is groundwater. A unit ...
can permeate the gravel surface and flood the area, leading to
marsh A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by Herbaceous plant, herbaceous rather than woody plant species.Keddy, P.A. 2010. Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 497 p Marshes can ...
es as in the north of Munich.


Climate

By Köppen classification templates and updated data the climate is oceanic (''Cfb''), independent of the isotherm but with some
humid continental A humid continental climate is a climate, climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and ...
(''Dfb'') features like warm to hot summers and cold winters, but without permanent snow cover. The proximity to the
Alps The Alps () ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps ; sl, Alpe . are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across seven Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Swi ...
brings higher volumes of rainfall and consequently greater susceptibility to flood problems. Studies of adaptation to climate change and extreme events are carried out, one of them is the Isar Plan of the EU Adaptation Climate. The city centre lies between both climates, while the airport of Munich has a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climate, climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and ...
. The warmest month, on average, is July. The coolest is January. Showers and thunderstorms bring the highest average monthly precipitation in late spring and throughout the summer. The most precipitation occurs in July, on average. Winter tends to have less precipitation, the least in February. The higher elevation and proximity to the Alps cause the city to have more rain and snow than many other parts of Germany. The Alps affect the city's climate in other ways too; for example, the warm downhill wind from the Alps ( föhn wind), which can raise temperatures sharply within a few hours even in the winter. Being at the centre of Europe, Munich is subject to many climatic influences, so that weather conditions there are more variable than in other European cities, especially those further west and south of the Alps. At Munich's official
weather station A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmosphere of Earth, atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasting, weather forecasts and to study the weather and climat ...
s, the highest and lowest temperatures ever measured are , on 27 July 1983 in Trudering-Riem, and , on 12 February 1929 in Botanic Garden of the city.


Climate change

In Munich, the general trend of
global warming In common usage, climate change describes global warming—the ongoing increase in global average temperature—and its effects on Earth's climate system. Climate variability and change, Climate change in a broader sense also includes ...
with a rise of medium yearly temperatures of about 1 °C in Germany over the last 120 years can be observed as well. In November 2016 the city council concluded officially that a further rise in medium temperature, a higher number of heat extremes, a rise in the number of hot days and nights with temperatures higher than 20 °C ( tropical nights), a change in precipitation patterns, as well as a rise in the number of local instances of heavy
rain Rain is water drop (liquid), droplets that have condensation, condensed from Water vapor#In Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric water vapor and then Precipitation, fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsib ...
, is to be expected as part of the ongoing climate change. The city administration decided to support a joint study from its own Referat für Gesundheit und Umwelt (department for health and environmental issues) and the German Meteorological Service that will gather data on local weather. The data is supposed to be used to create a plan for action for adapting the city to better deal with climate change as well as an integrated action program for climate protection in Munich. With the help of those programs issues regarding
spatial planning Spatial planning mediates between the respective claims on space of the state, market, and community. In so doing, three different mechanisms of involving stakeholders, integrating sectoral policies and promoting development projects mark the th ...
and settlement density, the development of buildings and green spaces as well as plans for functioning ventilation in a cityscape can be monitored and managed.


Demographics

From only 24,000 inhabitants in 1700, the city population doubled about every 30 years. It was 100,000 in 1852, 250,000 in 1883 and 500,000 in 1901. Since then, Munich has become Germany's third-largest city. In 1933, 840,901 inhabitants were counted, and in 1957 over 1 million.


Immigration

In July 2017, Munich had 1.42 million inhabitants; 421,832 foreign nationals resided in the city as of 31 December 2017 with 50.7% of these residents being citizens of EU member states, and 25.2% citizens in European states not in the EU (including Russia and Turkey). The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks (39,204),
Croats The Croats (; hr, Hrvati ) are a South Slavs, South Slavic ethnic group who share a common Croatian Cultural heritage, ancestry, Culture of Croatia, culture, History of Croatia, history and Croatian language, language. They are also a recogn ...
(33,177),
Italians , flag = , flag_caption = Flag of Italy, The national flag of Italy , population = , regions = Italy 55,551,000 , region1 = Brazil , pop1 = 25–33 million , ref1 = , ...
(27,340),
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group and nation indigenous to the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea regions, namely Greece, Greek Cypriots, Cyprus, Greeks in Albania, Albania, Greeks in Italy, ...
(27,117),
Poles Poles,, ; singular masculine: ''Polak'', singular feminine: ''Polka'' or Polish people, are a West Slavs, West Slavic nation and ethnic group, who share a common History of Poland, history, Culture of Poland, culture, the Polish language and ...
(27,945),
Austrians , pop = 8–8.5 million , regions = 7,427,759 , region1 = , pop1 = 684,184 , ref1 = , region2 = , pop2 = 345,620 , ref2 = , region3 = , pop3 = 197,990 , ref3 ...
(21,944), and
Romanians The Romanians ( ro, români, ; dated exonym ''Vlachs'') are a Romance languages, Romance-speaking ethnic group. Sharing a common Culture of Romania, Romanian culture and Cultural heritage, ancestry, and speaking the Romanian language, they l ...
(18,085).


Religion

About 45% of Munich's residents are not affiliated with any religious group; this ratio represents the fastest growing segment of the population. As in the rest of Germany, the Catholic and Protestant churches have experienced a continuous decline in membership. As of 31 December 2017, 31.8% of the city's inhabitants were
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide . It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a ...
, 11.4%
Protestant Protestantism is a branch of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Na ...
, 0.3%
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים, , ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a combination of shared features such as language, history, ethnicity, culture and/or ...
, and 3.6% were members of an Orthodox Church (
Eastern Orthodox Eastern Orthodoxy, also known as Eastern Orthodox Christianity, is one of the three main branches of Chalcedonian Christianity, alongside Catholicism and Protestantism. Like the Pentarchy of the first millennium, the mainstream (or " canonica ...
or
Oriental Orthodox The Oriental Orthodox Churches are Eastern Christianity, Eastern Christian churches adhering to Miaphysitism, Miaphysite Christology, with approximately 60 million members worldwide. The Oriental Orthodox Churches are part of the Nicene C ...
). About 1% adhere to other Christian denominations. There is also a small
Old Catholic The terms Old Catholic Church, Old Catholics, Old-Catholic churches or Old Catholic movement designate "any of the groups of Western Christians who believe themselves to maintain in complete loyalty the doctrine and traditions of the undivid ...
parish and an English-speaking parish of the Episcopal Church in the city. According to Munich Statistical Office, in 2013 about 8.6% of Munich's population was
Muslim Muslims ( ar, المسلمون, , ) are people who adhere to Islam Islam (; ar, ۘالِإسلَام, , ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text considered by Muslims to be the ...
.


Government and politics

As the capital of Bavaria, Munich is an important political centre for both the state and country as a whole. It is the seat of the
Landtag of Bavaria The Landtag of Bavaria, officially known in English as the Bavarian State Parliament, is the unicameral legislature of the German states of Germany, state of Bavaria. The parliament meets in the Maximilianeum in Munich. Elections to the Landt ...
, the State Chancellery, and all state departments. Several national and international authorities are located in Munich, including the Federal Finance Court of Germany, the German Patent Office and the European Patent Office.


Mayor

The current mayor of Munich is Dieter Reiter of the centre-left Social Democratic Party (SPD), who was elected in 2014 and re-elected in 2020. Munich has a much stronger left-wing tradition than the rest of the state, which has been dominated by the conservative
Christian Social Union in Bavaria The Christian Social Union in Bavaria (German language, German: , CSU) is a Christian democracy, Christian-democratic and Conservatism in Germany, conservative List of political parties in Germany, political party in Germany. Having a regionalis ...
(CSU) on a federal, state, and local level since the establishment of the Federal Republic in 1949. Munich, by contrast, has been governed by the SPD for all but six years since 1948. As of the 2020 local elections, green and centre-left parties also hold a majority in the city council (''Stadtrat''). The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 March 2020, with a runoff held on 29 March, and the results were as follows: ! rowspan=2 colspan=2, Candidate ! rowspan=2, Party ! colspan=2, First round ! colspan=2, Second round , - ! Votes ! % ! Votes ! % , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Dieter Reiter , align=left, Social Democratic Party , 259,928 , 47.9 , 401,856 , 71.7 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Kristina Frank , align=left, Christian Social Union , 115,795 , 21.3 , 158,773 , 28.3 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Katrin Habenschaden , align=left,
Alliance 90/The Greens Alliance 90/The Greens (german: Bündnis 90/Die Grünen, ), often simply referred to as the Greens ( ), is a Green politics, green List of political parties in Germany, political party in Germany. It was formed in 1993 as the merger of The Greens ...
, 112,121 , 20.7 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Wolfgang Wiehle , align=left,
Alternative for Germany Alternative for Germany (german: link=no, Alternative für Deutschland, AfD; ) is a Right-wing populism, right-wing populist * * * * * * * List of political parties in Germany, political party in Germany. AfD is known for its opposition ...
, 14,988 , 2.8 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Tobias Ruff , align=left,
Ecological Democratic Party The Ecological Democratic Party (german: Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei, ÖDP) is a Conservatism, conservative and Ecology movement, ecologist Minor party, minor party in Germany. The ÖDP was founded in 1982. The strongest level of voting su ...
, 8,464 , 1.6 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Jörg Hoffmann , align=left, Free Democratic Party , 8,201 , 1.5 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Thomas Lechner , align=left, The Left , 7,232 , 1.3 , - , bgcolor=#007E82, , align=left, Hans-Peter Mehling , align=left,
Free Voters of Bavaria The Free Voters of Bavaria (German: ''Freie Wähler Bayern'') is a Conservatism, conservative political party in Bavaria. It has served as part of the governing coalition there since the 2018 Bavarian state election, 2018 state election under th ...
, 5,003 , 0.9 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Moritz Weixler , align=left,
Die PARTEI (''Party for Labour, Rule of Law, Animal Protection, Promotion of Elites and Grassroots Democratic Initiative''), or Die PARTEI (''The PARTY''), is a German political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate ...
, 3,508 , 0.6 , - , , align=left, Dirk Höpner , align=left, Munich List , 1,966 , 0.4 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Richard Progl , align=left, Bavaria Party , 1,958 , 0.4 , - , , align=left, Ender Beyhan-Bilgin , align=left, FAIR , 1,483 , 0.3 , - , , align=left, Stephanie Dilba , align=left, mut , 1,267 , 0.2 , - , , align=left, Cetin Oraner , align=left, Together Bavaria , 819 , 0.2 , - ! colspan=3, Valid votes ! 542,733 ! 99.6 ! 560,629 ! 99.7 , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 1,997 ! 0.4 ! 1,616 ! 0.3 , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 544,730 ! 100.0 ! 562,245 ! 100.0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 1,110,571 ! 49.0 ! 1,109,032 ! 50.7 , - , colspan=7, Source: Wahlen München
1st round


City council

The Munich city council (''Stadtrat'') governs the city alongside the Mayor. The most recent city council election was held on 15 March 2020, and the results were as follows: ! colspan=2, Party ! Lead candidate ! Votes ! % ! +/- ! Seats ! +/- , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Alliance 90/The Greens Alliance 90/The Greens (german: Bündnis 90/Die Grünen, ), often simply referred to as the Greens ( ), is a Green politics, green List of political parties in Germany, political party in Germany. It was formed in 1993 as the merger of The Greens ...
(Grüne) , align=left, Katrin Habenschaden , 11,762,516 , 29.1 , 12.5 , 23 , 10 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Christian Social Union (CSU) , align=left, Kristina Frank , 9,986,014 , 24.7 , 7.8 , 20 , 6 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Social Democratic Party (SPD) , align=left, Dieter Reiter , 8,884,562 , 22.0 , 8.8 , 18 , 7 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Ecological Democratic Party The Ecological Democratic Party (german: Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei, ÖDP) is a Conservatism, conservative and Ecology movement, ecologist Minor party, minor party in Germany. The ÖDP was founded in 1982. The strongest level of voting su ...
(ÖDP) , align=left, Tobias Ruff , 1,598,539 , 4.0 , 1.4 , 3 , 1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Alternative for Germany Alternative for Germany (german: link=no, Alternative für Deutschland, AfD; ) is a Right-wing populism, right-wing populist * * * * * * * List of political parties in Germany, political party in Germany. AfD is known for its opposition ...
(AfD) , align=left, Iris Wassill , 1,559,476 , 3.9 , 1.4 , 3 , 1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Free Democratic Party (FDP) , align=left, Jörg Hoffmann , 1,420,194 , 3.5 , 0.1 , 3 , ±0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, The Left (Die Linke) , align=left, Stefan Jagel , 1,319,464 , 3.3 , 0.8 , 3 , 1 , - , bgcolor=#007E82, , align=left,
Free Voters of Bavaria The Free Voters of Bavaria (German: ''Freie Wähler Bayern'') is a Conservatism, conservative political party in Bavaria. It has served as part of the governing coalition there since the 2018 Bavarian state election, 2018 state election under th ...
(FW) , align=left, Hans-Peter Mehling , 1,008,400 , 2.5 , 0.2 , 2 , ±0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Volt Germany (Volt) , align=left, Felix Sproll , 732,853 , 1.8 , New , 1 , New , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Die PARTEI (''Party for Labour, Rule of Law, Animal Protection, Promotion of Elites and Grassroots Democratic Initiative''), or Die PARTEI (''The PARTY''), is a German political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate ...
(PARTEI) , align=left, Marie Burneleit , 528,949 , 1.3 , New , 1 , New , - , bgcolor=deeppink, , align=left, Pink List (Rosa Liste) , align=left, Thomas Niederbühl , 396,324 , 1.0 , 0.9 , 1 , ±0 , - , , align=left, Munich List , align=left, Dirk Höpner , 339,705 , 0.8 , New , 1 , New , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Bavaria Party (BP) , align=left, Richard Progl , 273,737 , 0.7 , 0.2 , 1 , ±0 , - , , align=left, mut , align=left, Stephanie Dilba , 247,679 , 0.6 , New , 0 , New , - , , align=left, FAIR , align=left, Kemal Orak , 142,455 , 0.4 , New , 0 , New , - , , align=left, Together Bavaria (ZuBa) , align=left, Cetin Oraner , 120,975 , 0.3 , New , 0 , New , - , , align=left, BIA , align=left, Karl Richter , 86,358 , 0.2 , 0.5 , 0 , ±0 , - ! colspan=3, Valid votes ! 531,527 ! 97.6 ! ! ! , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 12,937 ! 2.4 ! ! ! , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 544,464 ! 100.0 ! ! 80 ! ±0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 1,110,571 ! 49.0 ! 7.0 ! ! , - , colspan=8, Source
Wahlen München


State Landtag

In the
Landtag of Bavaria The Landtag of Bavaria, officially known in English as the Bavarian State Parliament, is the unicameral legislature of the German states of Germany, state of Bavaria. The parliament meets in the Maximilianeum in Munich. Elections to the Landt ...
, Munich is divided between nine constituencies. After the 2018 Bavarian state election, the composition and representation of each was as follows:


Federal parliament

In the
Bundestag The Bundestag (, "Federal Diet (assembly), Diet") is the German Federalism, federal parliament. It is the only federal representative body that is directly elected by the German people. It is comparable to the United States House of Representat ...
, Munich is divided between four constituencies. In the 20th Bundestag, the composition and representation of each was as follows:


Sister cities

Munich is twinned with the following cities (date of agreement shown in parentheses):
Edinburgh Edinburgh ( ; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is located in Lothian ...
, Scotland ''(1954)'',
Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ) is a city on the Adige River in Veneto, Northern Italy, Italy, with 258,031 inhabitants. It is one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. It is the largest city Comune, municipality in the region and the ...
, Italy ''(March 17, 1960)'',
Bordeaux Bordeaux ( , ; Gascon language, Gascon oc, Bordèu ; eu, Bordele; it, Bordò; es, Burdeos) is a port city on the river Garonne in the Gironde Departments of France, department, Southwestern France. It is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquita ...
, France ''(1964)'',
Sapporo ( ain, サッ・ポロ・ペッ, Satporopet, lit=Dry, Great River) is a city in Japan. It is the largest city north of Tokyo and the largest city on Hokkaido, the northernmost main island of the country. It ranks as the List of cities in Japan, ...
, Japan ''(1972)'',
Cincinnati Cincinnati ( ) is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Hamilton County, Ohio, Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking River (Kentucky), Licking and Ohio Rive ...
, Ohio, United States ''(1989)'',
Kyiv Kyiv, also spelled Kiev, is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper, Dnieper River. As of 1 January 2021, its population was 2,962,180, making Kyiv the List of European cities by populat ...
, Ukraine ''(1989)'',
Harare Harare (; formerly Salisbury ) is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in Southeast Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered ...
, Zimbabwe ''(1996)'' and
Beersheba Beersheba or Beer Sheva, officially Be'er-Sheva ( he, בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע, ''Bəʾēr Ševaʿ'', ; ar, بئر السبع, Biʾr as-Sabʿ, Well of the Oath or Well of the Seven), is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel. ...
, Israel ''(2022)''.


Subdivisions

Since the administrative reform in 1992, Munich is divided into 25
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, constituent state, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geo ...
s or ''Stadtbezirke'', which themselves consist of smaller quarters. Allach-Untermenzing (23), Altstadt-Lehel (1), Aubing-Lochhausen-Langwied (22),
Au-Haidhausen Au-Haidhausen (Central Bavarian: ''Au-Haidhausn'') is the 5th borough of the Germany, German city of Munich, Bavaria. It is formed by the Au (Munich), Au and Haidhausen (Munich), Haidhausen districts. Location Au lies opposite the Altstadt of t ...
(5), Berg am Laim (14),
Bogenhausen Bogenhausen ( Central Bavarian: ''Bognhausn'') is the 13th borough of Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558 ...
(13), Feldmoching-Hasenbergl (24), Hadern (20), Laim (25),
Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt (Central Bavarian: ''Ludwigsvorstod-Isarvorstod'') is one of the boroughs of Munich, Germany. It consists of the districts Ludwigsvorstadt, located south of Munich Hauptbahnhof and east of the Theresienwiese, and Isa ...
(2),
Maxvorstadt Maxvorstadt (Central Bavarian: ''Maxvorstod'') is a central borough of Munich, Bavaria, Germany and forms the Stadtbezirk (borough) 3 Maxvorstadt. Since 1992, this borough comprises the former boroughs 5, 6 and 7 (Maxvorstadt-Universität, Maxvor ...
(3), Milbertshofen-Am Hart (11), Moosach (10), Neuhausen-Nymphenburg (9), Obergiesing (17), Pasing-Obermenzing (21),
Ramersdorf-Perlach Ramersdorf-Perlach is a borough of Munich. It is located south-east of the city center and is the most populous of Munich's boroughs with a population of about 116,000. It consists of the five districts Ramersdorf, Balanstraße West, Altperlach, N ...
(16),
Schwabing-Freimann Schwabing is a borough in the northern part of Munich, the Capital (political), capital of the Germany, German state of Bavaria. It is part of the city borough 4 (Schwabing-West) and the city borough 12 (Schwabing-Freimann). The population of Sc ...
(12), Schwabing-West (4), Schwanthalerhöhe (8), Sendling (6), Sendling-Westpark (7), Thalkirchen-Obersendling-Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln (19), Trudering-Riem (15) and Untergiesing-Harlaching (18).


Architecture

The city has an eclectic mix of historic and modern architecture because historic buildings destroyed in World War II were reconstructed, and new landmarks were built. A survey by the Society's Centre for Sustainable Destinations for the National Geographic Traveller chose over 100 historic destinations around the world and ranked Munich 30th.


Inner city

At the centre of the city is the
Marienplatz Marienplatz (English language, English: Mary's Square, i.e. St. Mary, Blessed Virgin Mary, Our Lady's Square) is a town square, central square in the city centre of Munich, Germany. It has been the city's main square since 1158. History During ...
– a large open square named after the Mariensäule, a Marian column in its centre – with the Old and the New Town Hall. Its tower contains the Rathaus-Glockenspiel. Three gates of the demolished medieval fortification survive – the Isartor in the east, the Sendlinger Tor in the south and the Karlstor in the west of the inner city. The Karlstor leads up to the Stachus, a square dominated by the Justizpalast (Palace of Justice) and a fountain. The Peterskirche close to Marienplatz is the oldest church of the inner city. It was first built during the Romanesque period, and was the focus of the early monastic settlement in Munich before the city's official foundation in 1158. Nearby St. Peter the Gothic hall-church Heiliggeistkirche (The Church of the Holy Spirit) was converted to baroque style from 1724 onwards and looks down upon the Viktualienmarkt. The Frauenkirche serves as the cathedral for the Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising. The nearby Michaelskirche is the largest
renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a Periodization, period in History of Europe, European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an e ...
church north of the Alps, while the Theatinerkirche is a
basilica In Ancient Roman architecture, a basilica is a large public building with multiple functions, typically built alongside the town's Forum (Roman), forum. The basilica was in the Latin West equivalent to a stoa in the Greek East. The building ...
in Italianate high baroque, which had a major influence on Southern German
baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a Style (visual arts), style of Baroque architecture, architecture, Baroque music, music, Baroque dance, dance, Baroque painting, painting, Baroque sculpture, sculpture, poetry, and other arts that flourished in Europe from ...
architecture. Its dome dominates the
Odeonsplatz The Odeonsplatz is a large square in central Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of ...
. Other baroque churches in the inner city include the Bürgersaalkirche, the Trinity Church and the St. Anna Damenstiftskirche. The Asamkirche was endowed and built by the Brothers Asam, pioneering artists of the rococo period. The large
Residenz Residenz () is a German language, German word for "place of living", now obsolete except in the formal sense of an official residence. A related term, Residenzstadt, denotes a city where a sovereign ruler resided, therefore carrying a similar meani ...
palace complex (begun in 1385) on the edge of Munich's Old Town, Germany's largest urban palace, ranks among Europe's most significant museums of interior decoration. Having undergone several extensions, it contains also the treasury and the splendid rococo Cuvilliés Theatre. Next door to the Residenz the neo-classical opera, the National Theatre was erected. Among the baroque and neoclassical mansions which still exist in Munich are the Palais Porcia, the Palais Preysing, the Palais Holnstein and the
Prinz-Carl-Palais The Prinz Carl Palais in Munich is a mansion built in the style of early Neoclassicism in 1804–1806. It was also known as the Palais Salabert and the Palais Royal, after its former owners. The Prinz-Carl-Palais was planned in 1803 by the young ...
. All mansions are situated close to the Residenz, same as the Alte Hof, a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes in Munich. Lehel, a middle-class quarter east of the Altstadt, is characterised by numerous well-preserved townhouses. The St. Anna im Lehel is the first
rococo Rococo (, also ), less commonly Roccoco or Late Baroque, is an exceptionally ornamental and theatrical style of architecture, art and decoration which combines asymmetry, scrolling curves, gilding, white and pastel colours, sculpted moulding, ...
church in Bavaria. St. Lukas is the largest Protestant Church in Munich.


Royal avenues and squares

Four grand royal avenues of the 19th century with official buildings connect Munich's inner city with its then-suburbs: The neoclassical Brienner Straße, starting at
Odeonsplatz The Odeonsplatz is a large square in central Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of ...
on the northern fringe of the Old Town close to the Residenz, runs from east to west and opens into the Königsplatz, designed with the " Doric" Propyläen, the " Ionic"
Glyptothek The Glyptothek () is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I of Bavaria, Ludwig I to house his collection of Ancient Greek art, Greek and Roman art, Roman sculptures (hence γλυπτο- ''glypto-'' "sculp ...
and the " Corinthian" State Museum of Classical Art, behind it St. Boniface's Abbey was erected. The area around Königsplatz is home to the
Kunstareal The Kunstareal (, "art district") is a museum quarter in the city centre of Munich, Germany. Area of arts It consists of the three "Pinakotheken" galleries (Alte Pinakothek, Neue Pinakothek and Pinakothek der Moderne), the Glyptothek, the Staat ...
, Munich's gallery and museum quarter (as described below). Ludwigstraße also begins at
Odeonsplatz The Odeonsplatz is a large square in central Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of ...
and runs from south to north, skirting the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, the St. Louis church, the
Bavarian State Library The Bavarian State Library (german: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, abbreviated BSB, called ''Bibliotheca Regia Monacensis'' before 1919) in Munich is the central "State libraries of Germany, Landesbibliothek", i. e. the state library of the Free ...
and numerous state ministries and palaces. The southern part of the avenue was constructed in Italian renaissance style, while the north is strongly influenced by Italian Romanesque architecture. The Siegestor (gate of victory) sits at the northern end of Ludwigstraße, where the latter passes over into Leopoldstraße and the district of Schwabing begins. The neo-Gothic Maximilianstraße starts at Max-Joseph-Platz, where the Residenz and the National Theatre are situated, and runs from west to east. The avenue is framed by elaborately structured neo-Gothic buildings which house, among others, the Schauspielhaus, the Building of the district government of Upper Bavaria and the Museum of Ethnology. After crossing the river Isar, the avenue circles the Maximilianeum, which houses the state parliament. The western portion of Maximilianstraße is known for its designer shops, luxury boutiques, jewellery stores, and one of Munich's foremost five-star hotels, the Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten. Prinzregentenstraße runs parallel to Maximilianstraße and begins at
Prinz-Carl-Palais The Prinz Carl Palais in Munich is a mansion built in the style of early Neoclassicism in 1804–1806. It was also known as the Palais Salabert and the Palais Royal, after its former owners. The Prinz-Carl-Palais was planned in 1803 by the young ...
. Many museums are on the avenue, such as the Haus der Kunst, the Bavarian National Museum and the Schackgalerie. The avenue crosses the Isar and circles the Friedensengel monument, then passing the
Villa Stuck The Villa Stuck, built in 1898 and established as a museum in 1992 and located in the Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a po ...
and Hitler's old apartment. The
Prinzregententheater The Prinzregententheater, or, as it was called in its first decades, the Prinz-Regenten-Theater, in English the Prince Regent Theatre, is a concert hall and opera house on Prinzregentenplatz in the Bavarian capital of Munich, Germany. Building ...
is at Prinzregentenplatz further to the east.


Other boroughs

In Schwabing and
Maxvorstadt Maxvorstadt (Central Bavarian: ''Maxvorstod'') is a central borough of Munich, Bavaria, Germany and forms the Stadtbezirk (borough) 3 Maxvorstadt. Since 1992, this borough comprises the former boroughs 5, 6 and 7 (Maxvorstadt-Universität, Maxvor ...
, many beautiful streets with continuous rows of Gründerzeit buildings can be found. Rows of elegant town houses and spectacular urban palais in many colours, often elaborately decorated with ornamental details on their façades, make up large parts of the areas west of Leopoldstraße (Schwabing's main shopping street), while in the eastern areas between Leopoldstraße and
Englischer Garten The ''Englischer Garten'' (, ''English Garden'') is a large public park in the centre of Munich, Bavaria, stretching from the city centre to the northeastern city limits. It was created in 1789 by Benjamin Thompson, Sir Benjamin Thompson (1753– ...
similar buildings alternate with almost rural-looking houses and whimsical mini-castles, often decorated with small towers. Numerous tiny alleys and shady lanes connect the larger streets and little plazas of the area, conveying the legendary artist's quarter's flair and atmosphere convincingly like it was at the turn of the 20th century. The wealthy district of
Bogenhausen Bogenhausen ( Central Bavarian: ''Bognhausn'') is the 13th borough of Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558 ...
in the east of Munich is another little-known area (at least among tourists) rich in extravagant architecture, especially around Prinzregentenstraße. One of Bogenhausen's most beautiful buildings is
Villa Stuck The Villa Stuck, built in 1898 and established as a museum in 1992 and located in the Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a po ...
, famed residence of painter
Franz von Stuck Franz von Stuck (February 23, 1863 – August 30, 1928), born Franz Stuck, was a German painter, sculptor, printmaker, and architect. Stuck was best known for his paintings of ancient mythology, receiving substantial critical acclaim with ''The ...
. Two large Baroque palaces in Nymphenburg and Oberschleissheim are reminders of Bavaria's royal past. Schloss Nymphenburg (
Nymphenburg Palace The Nymphenburg Palace (german: Schloss Nymphenburg, Palace of the Nymphs) is a Baroque palace situated in Munich's western district Neuhausen-Nymphenburg, in Bavaria, southern Germany. Combined with the adjacent Nymphenburg Palace Park it consti ...
), some north west of the city centre, is surrounded by an park and is considered to be one of Europe's most beautiful royal residences. northwest of Nymphenburg Palace is Schloss Blutenburg ( Blutenburg Castle), an old ducal country seat with a late-Gothic palace church. Schloss Fürstenried ( Fürstenried Palace), a baroque palace of similar structure to Nymphenburg but of much smaller size, was erected around the same time in the south west of Munich. The second large Baroque residence is Schloss Schleissheim (
Schleissheim Palace The Schleißheim Palace (german: Schloss Schleißheim) comprises three individual palaces in a grand Baroque park in the village of Oberschleißheim, a suburb of Munich, Bavaria, Germany. The palace was a summer residence of the List of rulers o ...
), located in the suburb of Oberschleissheim, a palace complex encompassing three separate residences: Altes Schloss Schleissheim (the old palace), Neues Schloss Schleissheim (the new palace) and Schloss Lustheim (Lustheim Palace). Most parts of the palace complex serve as museums and art galleries.
Deutsches Museum The Deutsches Museum (''German Museum'', officially (English: ''German Museum of Masterpieces of Science and Technology'')) in Munich, Germany, is the world's largest museum of science museum, science and technology museum, technology, with a ...
's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field. The
Bavaria statue ''Bavaria'' is the name given to a monumental, bronze sand-cast 19th-century statue in Munich, southern Germany. It is a female personification of the Bavarian homeland, and by extension its strength and glory. The statue is part of an ensemb ...
before the neo-classical Ruhmeshalle is a monumental, bronze sand-cast 19th-century statue at
Theresienwiese Theresienwiese is an Public space, open space in the Boroughs of Munich, Munich borough of Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt. It serves as the official ground of the Munich Oktoberfest. A space of , it is bordered in the west by the Ruhmeshalle (Mun ...
. The Grünwald castle is the only medieval castle in the Munich area which still exists. St Michael in Berg am Laim is a church in the suburbs. Another church of Johann Michael Fischer is St George in Bogenhausen. Most of the boroughs have parish churches that originate from the Middle Ages, such as the church of pilgrimage St Mary in Ramersdorf. The oldest church within the city borders is Heilig Kreuz in Fröttmaning next to the Allianz Arena, known for its Romanesque fresco. Moosach features one of the oldest churches, Alt-St. Martin, but a larger one was built in 1925. Especially in its suburbs, Munich features a wide and diverse array of modern architecture, although strict culturally sensitive height limitations for buildings have limited the construction of skyscrapers to avoid a loss of views to the distant Bavarian Alps. Most high-rise buildings are clustered at the northern edge of Munich in the skyline, like the Hypo-Haus, the Arabella High-Rise Building, the Highlight Towers, Uptown Munich, Münchner Tor and the BMW Headquarters next to the
Olympic Park An Olympic Park is a sports campus A campus is traditionally the land on which a college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academi ...
. Several other high-rise buildings are located near the city centre and on the
Siemens Siemens AG ( ) is a German Multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate corporation and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe headquartered in Munich with branch offices abroad. The principal ...
campus in southern Munich. A landmark of modern Munich is also the architecture of the sport stadiums (as described below). In Fasangarten is the former McGraw Kaserne, a former US army base, near
Stadelheim Prison Stadelheim Prison (german: Justizvollzugsanstalt München), in Munich's Giesing district, is one of the largest Prisons in Germany, prisons in Germany. Founded in 1894, it was the site of many executions, particularly by guillotine during the Nazi ...
.


Parks

Munich is a densely-built city but has numerous public parks. In 1789, the
Englischer Garten The ''Englischer Garten'' (, ''English Garden'') is a large public park in the centre of Munich, Bavaria, stretching from the city centre to the northeastern city limits. It was created in 1789 by Benjamin Thompson, Sir Benjamin Thompson (1753– ...
was created just north of Munich's old city center. Covering an area of , it is larger than Central Park in New York City, and it is one of the world's largest urban public parks. It contains a
naturist Naturism is a lifestyle of practising non-sexual social nudity in private and in public; the word also refers to the cultural movement which advocates and defends that lifestyle. Both may alternatively be called nudism. Though the two terms ar ...
(nudist) area, numerous bicycle and jogging tracks as well as bridle-paths. It was designed and laid out by
Benjamin Thompson Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS (german: Reichsgraf von Rumford; March 26, 1753August 21, 1814) was an American-born British physicist and inventor whose challenges to established physical theory were part ...
, Count Rumford, both for pleasure and as a work area for the city's vagrants and homeless. Nowadays it is entirely a park, its southern half being dominated by wide-open areas, hills, monuments and beach-like stretches (along the streams Eisbach and Schwabinger Bach). In contrast, its less-frequented northern part is much quieter, with many old trees and thick undergrowth. Multiple
beer garden A beer garden (German: ''Biergarten'') is an outdoor area in which beer and food are served, typically at shared tables shaded by trees. Beer gardens originated in Bavaria, of which Munich is the capital city, in the 19th century, and remain co ...
s can be found in both parts of the Englischer Garten, the most well-known being located at the
Chinese Pagoda A pagoda is an Asia Asia (, ) is one of the world's most notable geographical regions, which is either considered a continent in its own right or a subcontinent of Eurasia, which shares the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia w ...
. Other large green spaces are the modern Olympiapark, the Westpark, and the parks of
Nymphenburg Palace The Nymphenburg Palace (german: Schloss Nymphenburg, Palace of the Nymphs) is a Baroque palace situated in Munich's western district Neuhausen-Nymphenburg, in Bavaria, southern Germany. Combined with the adjacent Nymphenburg Palace Park it consti ...
(with the Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg to the north), and
Schleissheim Palace The Schleißheim Palace (german: Schloss Schleißheim) comprises three individual palaces in a grand Baroque park in the village of Oberschleißheim, a suburb of Munich, Bavaria, Germany. The palace was a summer residence of the List of rulers o ...
. The city's oldest park is the Hofgarten, near the Residenz, dating back to the 16th century. The site of the largest beer garden in town, the former royal Hirschgarten was founded in 1780 for deer, which still live there. The city's
zoo A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animals are kept within enclosures for public exhibition and often bred for Conservation biology, conservation purposes. The term ''zoological g ...
is the Tierpark Hellabrunn near the Flaucher Island in the Isar in the south of the city. Another notable park is Ostpark located in the
Ramersdorf-Perlach Ramersdorf-Perlach is a borough of Munich. It is located south-east of the city center and is the most populous of Munich's boroughs with a population of about 116,000. It consists of the five districts Ramersdorf, Balanstraße West, Altperlach, N ...
borough which also houses the Michaelibad, the largest water park in Munich.


Sports


Football

Munich is home to several professional
football Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, Kick (football), kicking a Football (ball), ball to score a Goal (sport), goal. Unqualified, Football (word), the word ''football'' normally means the form of football tha ...
teams including
Bayern Munich Fußball-Club Bayern München e. V. (FCB, ), also known as FC Bayern (), Bayern Munich, or simply Bayern, is a German professional sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. It is best known for its professional men's association football, foo ...
, Germany's most successful club and a multiple
UEFA Champions League The UEFA Champions League (abbreviated as UCL, or sometimes, UEFA CL) is an annual club Association football, football competition organised by the UEFA, Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and contested by List of top-division foo ...
winner. Other notable clubs include TSV 1860 Munich, 1860 Munich, who were long time their rivals on a somewhat equal footing, but currently play in the 3rd Division 3. Liga, and former Bundesliga club SpVgg Unterhaching, who currently play in the Regionalliga Bayern, in Germany's 4th division.


Basketball

FC Bayern Munich (basketball), FC Bayern Munich Basketball is currently playing in the Beko Basket Bundesliga. The city hosted the final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1993, where the German national basketball team won the gold medal.


Ice hockey

The city's ice hockey club is EHC Red Bull München who play in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. The team has won three DEL Championships, in 2016, 2017 and 2018.


Olympics

Munich hosted the
1972 Summer Olympics The 1972 Summer Olympics (), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad () and commonly known as Munich 1972 (german: München 1972), was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ...
; the Munich massacre, Munich Massacre took place in the Olympic Village, Munich, Olympic village. It was one of the host cities for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2006 Football World Cup, which was not held in Munich's Olympic Stadium (Munich), Olympic Stadium, but in a new Soccer-specific stadium, football specific stadium, the Allianz Arena. Munich bid to host the 2018 Winter Olympic Games, but lost to Pyeongchang County, Pyeongchang. In September 2011 the DOSB President Thomas Bach confirmed that Munich would bid again for the Winter Olympics in the future. These plans were abandoned some time later.


Road running

Regular annual road running events in Munich are the Munich Marathon in October, the Stadtlauf end of June, the company run B2Run in July, the New Year's Run on 31 December, the Spartan Race Sprint, the Olympia Alm Crosslauf and the Bestzeitenmarathon.


Swimming

Public sporting facilities in Munich include ten indoor swimming pools and eight outdoor swimming pools, which are operated by the Stadtwerke München, Munich City Utilities (SWM) communal company. Popular indoor swimming pools include the Olympia Schwimmhalle of the
1972 Summer Olympics The 1972 Summer Olympics (), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad () and commonly known as Munich 1972 (german: München 1972), was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ...
, the wave pool Cosimawellenbad, as well as the Müllersches Volksbad which was built in 1901. Further, swimming within Munich's city limits is also possible in several artificial lakes such as for example the Riemer See or the Langwieder lake district.


River surfing

Munich has a reputation as a surfing hotspot, offering the world's best known river surfing spot, the Eisbach (Isar), Eisbach wave, which is located at the southern edge of the
Englischer Garten The ''Englischer Garten'' (, ''English Garden'') is a large public park in the centre of Munich, Bavaria, stretching from the city centre to the northeastern city limits. It was created in 1789 by Benjamin Thompson, Sir Benjamin Thompson (1753– ...
park and used by surfers day and night and throughout the year. Half a kilometre down the river, there is a second, easier wave for beginners, the so-called Kleine Eisbachwelle. Two further surf spots within the city are located along the river
Isar The Isar is a river in Tyrol (state), Tyrol, Austria, and Bavaria, Germany, which is not navigable for watercraft above raft size. Its source is in the Karwendel range of the Alps in Tyrol; it enters Germany near Mittenwald and flows through Ba ...
, the wave in the Floßlände channel and a wave downstream of the Wittelsbacherbrücke bridge.


Other Sports

Starting in 2023, Munich will have a team enter into the European League of Football, a professional American football league with teams throughout Europe.


Culture


Language

The Bavarian dialects are spoken in and around Munich, with its variety West Middle Bavarian or Old Bavarian (''Westmittelbairisch'' / ''Altbairisch''). Austro-Bavarian has no official status by the Bavarian authorities or local government, yet is recognised by the SIL International, SIL and has its own ISO-639 code.


Museums

The
Deutsches Museum The Deutsches Museum (''German Museum'', officially (English: ''German Museum of Masterpieces of Science and Technology'')) in Munich, Germany, is the world's largest museum of science museum, science and technology museum, technology, with a ...
or German Museum, located on an island in the River Isar, is the largest and one of the oldest science museums in the world. Three redundant exhibition buildings that are under a protection order were converted to house the Verkehrsmuseum, which houses the land transport collections of the Deutsches Museum. Deutsches Museum's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field. Several non-centralised museums (many of those are public collections at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität) show the expanded state collections of Paläontologisches Museum München, palaeontology, geology, mineralogy, Zoologische Staatssammlung München, zoology, botany and anthropology. The city has several important art museum, art galleries, most of which can be found in the
Kunstareal The Kunstareal (, "art district") is a museum quarter in the city centre of Munich, Germany. Area of arts It consists of the three "Pinakotheken" galleries (Alte Pinakothek, Neue Pinakothek and Pinakothek der Moderne), the Glyptothek, the Staat ...
, including the Alte Pinakothek, the Neue Pinakothek, the Pinakothek der Moderne and the Museum Brandhorst. The Alte Pinakothek contains a treasure trove of the works of European masters between the 14th and 18th centuries. The collection reflects the eclectic tastes of the Wittelsbachs over four centuries and is sorted by schools over two floors. Major displays include Albrecht Dürer's Christ-like Self-Portrait (Dürer, Munich), ''Self-Portrait'' (1500), his ''The Four Apostles, Four Apostles'', Raphael's paintings ''Canigiani Holy Family (Raphael), The Canigiani Holy Family'' and ''Tempi Madonna (Raphael), Madonna Tempi'' as well as Peter Paul Rubens large ''Judgment Day''. The gallery houses one of the world's most comprehensive Rubens collections. The Lenbachhaus houses works by the group of Munich-based modernist artists known as Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider). An important collection of Greek and Roman art is held in the
Glyptothek The Glyptothek () is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I of Bavaria, Ludwig I to house his collection of Ancient Greek art, Greek and Roman art, Roman sculptures (hence γλυπτο- ''glypto-'' "sculp ...
and the Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Staatliche Antikensammlung (State Antiquities Collection). King Ludwig I managed to acquire such pieces as the Medusa Rondanini, the Barberini Faun and figures from the Temple of Aphaea on Aegina for the Glyptothek. Another important museum in the
Kunstareal The Kunstareal (, "art district") is a museum quarter in the city centre of Munich, Germany. Area of arts It consists of the three "Pinakotheken" galleries (Alte Pinakothek, Neue Pinakothek and Pinakothek der Moderne), the Glyptothek, the Staat ...
is the Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst, Egyptian Museum. The gothic Morris dancers of Erasmus Grasser are exhibited in the Munich Stadtmuseum, Munich City Museum in the old gothic arsenal building in the inner city. Another area for the arts next to the Kunstareal is the Altstadt-Lehel, Lehel quarter between the old town and the river Isar: the Museum Five Continents in Maximilianstraße is the second largest collection in Germany of artefacts and objects from outside Europe, while the Bavarian National Museum and the adjoining Bavarian State Archaeological Collection in Prinzregentenstraße rank among Europe's major art and cultural history museums. The nearby Schackgalerie is an important gallery of German 19th-century paintings. The former Dachau concentration camp is outside the city.


Arts and literature

Munich is a major international cultural centre and has played host to many prominent composers including Orlando di Lasso, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, W.A. Mozart, Carl Maria von Weber,
Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his mature works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most o ...
, Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss, Max Reger and Carl Orff. With the Munich Biennale founded by Hans Werner Henze, and the ''A*Devantgarde, A*DEvantgarde'' festival, the city still contributes to modern music theatre. Some of classical music's best-known pieces have been created in and around Munich by composers born in the area, for example, Richard Strauss's tone poem ''Also sprach Zarathustra (Strauss), Also sprach Zarathustra'' or Carl Orff's ''Carmina Burana''. At the National Theatre Munich, Nationaltheater several of
Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his mature works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most o ...
's operas were premiered under the patronage of Ludwig II of Bavaria. It is the home of the Bavarian State Opera and the Bavarian State Orchestra. Next door, the modern Residenz Theatre was erected in the building that had housed the Cuvilliés Theatre before World War II. Many operas were staged there, including the premiere of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Mozart's ''Idomeneo'' in 1781. The Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz, Gärtnerplatz Theatre is a ballet and musical state theatre while another opera house, the
Prinzregententheater The Prinzregententheater, or, as it was called in its first decades, the Prinz-Regenten-Theater, in English the Prince Regent Theatre, is a concert hall and opera house on Prinzregentenplatz in the Bavarian capital of Munich, Germany. Building ...
, has become the home of the Bavarian Theatre Academy and the Munich Chamber Orchestra. The modern Gasteig centre houses the Munich Philharmonic, Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. The third orchestra in Munich with international importance is the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. Its primary concert venue is the Herkulessaal in the former city royal residence, the Munich Residenz. Many important conductors have been attracted by the city's orchestras, including Felix Weingartner, Hans Pfitzner, Hans Rosbaud, Hans Knappertsbusch, Sergiu Celibidache, James Levine, Christian Thielemann, Lorin Maazel, Rafael Kubelík, Eugen Jochum, Sir Colin Davis, Mariss Jansons, Bruno Walter, Georg Solti, Zubin Mehta and Kent Nagano. A stage for shows, big events and musicals is the Deutsches Theater München, Deutsche Theater. It is Germany's largest theatre for guest performances. Munich's contributions to modern popular music are often overlooked in favour of its strong association with classical music, but they are numerous: the city has had a strong music scene in the 1960s and 1970s, with many internationally renowned bands and musicians frequently performing in its clubs. Furthermore, Munich was the centre of Krautrock in southern Germany, with many important bands such as Amon Düül II, Embryo (band), Embryo or Popol Vuh (band), Popol Vuh hailing from the city. In the 1970s, the Musicland Studios developed into one of the most prominent recording studios in the world, with bands such as the Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple and Queen (band), Queen recording albums there. Munich also played a significant role in the development of electronic music, with genre pioneer Giorgio Moroder, who invented synth disco and electronic dance music, and Donna Summer, one of disco music's most important performers, both living and working in the city. In the late 1990s, Electroclash was substantially co-invented if not even invented in Munich, when DJ Hell introduced and assembled international pioneers of this musical genre through his International DeeJay Gigolo Records label here. Other notable musicians and bands from Munich include Konstantin Wecker, :de:Willy Astor, Willy Astor, Spider Murphy Gang, Münchener Freiheit (band), Münchener Freiheit, Lou Bega, Megaherz, FSK (band), FSK, Colour Haze and Sportfreunde Stiller. Music is so important in the Bavarian capital that the city hall gives permissions every day to ten musicians for performing in the streets around Marienplatz. This is how performers such as Olga Kholodnaya and Alex Jacobowitz are entertaining the locals and the tourists every day. Next to the Bavarian Staatsschauspiel in the Residenz Theatre (Residenztheater), the Munich Kammerspiele in the Schauspielhaus is one of the most important German-language theatres in the world. Since Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's premieres in 1775 many important writers have staged their plays in Munich such as Christian Friedrich Hebbel, Henrik Ibsen and Hugo von Hofmannsthal. The city is known as the second-largest publishing centre in the world (around 250 publishing houses have offices in the city), and many national and international publications are published in Munich, such as Arts in Munich, LAXMag and Prinz. At the turn of the 20th century, Munich, and especially its suburb of Schwabing, was the preeminent cultural metropolis of Germany. Its importance as a centre for both literature and the fine arts was second to none in Europe, with numerous German and non-German artists moving there. For example, Wassily Kandinsky chose Munich over Paris to study at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, and, along with many other painters and writers living in Schwabing at that time, had a profound influence on modern art. Prominent literary figures worked in Munich especially during the final decades of the Kingdom of Bavaria, the so-called ''Prinzregentenzeit'' (literally "prince regent's time") under the reign of Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria, a period often described as a cultural Golden Age for both Munich and Bavaria as a whole. Some of the most notable were Thomas Mann, Heinrich Mann, Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse, Paul Heyse, Rainer Maria Rilke, Ludwig Thoma, Fanny zu Reventlow, Oskar Panizza, Gustav Meyrink, Max Halbe, Erich Mühsam and Frank Wedekind. For a short while, Vladimir Lenin lived in Schwabing, where he wrote and published his most important work, ''What Is to Be Done?'' Central to Schwabing's bohemian scene (although they were actually often located in the nearby Maxvorstadt quarter) were ''Künstlerlokale'' (artist's cafés) like Café Stefanie or Kabarett Simpl (Munich), Simpl, whose liberal ways differed fundamentally from Munich's more traditional localities. The Simpl, which survives to this day (although with little relevance to the city's contemporary art scene), was named after Munich's anti-authoritarian satirical magazine ''Simplicissimus'', founded in 1896 by Albert Langen and Thomas Theodor Heine, which quickly became an important organ of the ''Schwabinger Bohème''. Its caricatures and biting satirical attacks on Wilhelminism, Wilhelmine German society were the result of countless of collaborative efforts by many of the best visual artists and writers from Munich and elsewhere. The period immediately before World War I saw continued economic and cultural prominence for the city. Thomas Mann wrote in his novella ''Gladius Dei'' about this period: "München leuchtete" (literally "Munich shone"). Munich remained a centre of cultural life during the Weimar period, with figures such as Lion Feuchtwanger, Bertolt Brecht, Peter Paul Althaus, Stefan George, Ricarda Huch, Joachim Ringelnatz, Oskar Maria Graf, Annette Kolb, Ernst Toller, Hugo Ball and Klaus Mann adding to the already established big names. Karl Valentin was Germany's most important cabaret performer and comedian and is to this day well-remembered and beloved as a cultural icon of his hometown. Between 1910 and 1940, he wrote and performed in many absurdist sketches and short films that were highly influential, earning him the nickname of "Charlie Chaplin of Germany". Many of Valentin's works wouldn't be imaginable without his congenial female partner Liesl Karlstadt, who often played male characters to hilarious effect in their sketches. After World War II, Munich soon again became a focal point of the German literary scene and remains so to this day, with writers as diverse as Wolfgang Koeppen, Erich Kästner, Eugen Roth, Alfred Andersch, Elfriede Jelinek, Hans Magnus Enzensberger, Michael Ende, Franz Xaver Kroetz, Gerhard Polt and Patrick Süskind calling the city their home. From the Gothic to the Baroque era, the fine arts were represented in Munich by artists like Erasmus Grasser, Jan Polack, Johann Baptist Straub, Ignaz Günther, Hans Krumpper, Ludwig Michael Schwanthaler, Ludwig von Schwanthaler, Cosmas Damian Asam, Egid Quirin Asam, Johann Baptist Zimmermann, Johann Michael Fischer and François de Cuvilliés. Munich had already become an important place for painters like Carl Rottmann, Lovis Corinth, Wilhelm von Kaulbach, Carl Spitzweg, Franz von Lenbach,
Franz von Stuck Franz von Stuck (February 23, 1863 – August 30, 1928), born Franz Stuck, was a German painter, sculptor, printmaker, and architect. Stuck was best known for his paintings of ancient mythology, receiving substantial critical acclaim with ''The ...
, Karl Piloty and Wilhelm Leibl when Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), a group of expressionist artists, was established in Munich in 1911. The city was home to the Blue Rider's painters Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Alexej von Jawlensky, Gabriele Münter, Franz Marc, August Macke and Alfred Kubin. Kandinsky's first abstract painting was created in Schwabing. Munich was (and in some cases, still is) home to many of the most important authors of the New German Cinema movement, including Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Werner Herzog, Edgar Reitz and Herbert Achternbusch. In 1971, the Filmverlag der Autoren was founded, cementing the city's role in the movement's history. Munich served as the location for many of Fassbinder's films, among them ''Ali: Fear Eats the Soul''. The Hotel Deutsche Eiche near Gärtnerplatz was somewhat like a centre of operations for Fassbinder and his "clan" of actors. New German Cinema is considered by far the most important artistic movement in German cinema history since the era of German Expressionism in the 1920s. In 1919, the Bavaria Film Studios were founded, which developed into one of Europe's largest film studios. Directors like Alfred Hitchcock, Billy Wilder, Orson Welles, John Huston, Ingmar Bergman, Stanley Kubrick, Claude Chabrol, Fritz Umgelter, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Wolfgang Petersen and Wim Wenders made films there. Among the internationally well-known films produced at the studios are ''The Pleasure Garden (1925 film), The Pleasure Garden'' (1925) by Alfred Hitchcock, ''The Great Escape (film), The Great Escape'' (1963) by John Sturges, ''Paths of Glory'' (1957) by Stanley Kubrick, ''Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory'' (1971) by Mel Stuart and both ''Das Boot'' (1981) and ''The Neverending Story (film), The Neverending Story'' (1984) by Wolfgang Petersen. Munich remains one of the centres of the German film and entertainment industry.


Festivals

Annual "High End Munich" trade show.


Starkbierfest

March and April, city-wide: Starkbierfest is held for three weeks during Lent, between Carnival and Easter, celebrating Munich's “strong beer”. Starkbier was created in 1651 by the local Paulinerkirche, Leipzig, Paulaner monks who drank this 'Flüssiges Brot', or ‘liquid bread’ to survive the fasting of Lent. It became a public festival in 1751 and is now the second largest beer festival in Munich. Starkbierfest is also known as the “fifth season”, and is celebrated in beer halls and restaurants around the city.


Frühlingsfest

April and May,
Theresienwiese Theresienwiese is an Public space, open space in the Boroughs of Munich, Munich borough of Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt. It serves as the official ground of the Munich Oktoberfest. A space of , it is bordered in the west by the Ruhmeshalle (Mun ...
: Held for two weeks from the end of April to the beginning of May, Frühlingsfest celebrates Spring (season), spring and the new local spring beers, and is commonly referred to as the "little sister of Oktoberfest". There are two beer tents, Hippodrom and Festhalle Bayernland, as well as one roofed
beer garden A beer garden (German: ''Biergarten'') is an outdoor area in which beer and food are served, typically at shared tables shaded by trees. Beer gardens originated in Bavaria, of which Munich is the capital city, in the 19th century, and remain co ...
, Münchner Weißbiergarten. There are also roller coasters, Funhouse, fun houses, Playground slide, slides, and a Ferris wheel. Other attractions of the festival include a flea market on the festival's first Saturday, a “Beer Queen” contest, a Vintage (design), vintage Auto show, car show on the first Sunday, fireworks every Friday night, and a "Day of Traditions" on the final day.


Auer Dult

May, August, and October, Mariahilfplatz: Auer Dult is Europe's largest jumble sale, with fairs of its kind dating back to the 14th century. The Auer Dult is a traditional market with 300 stalls selling handmade crafts, household goods, and local foods, and offers carnival List of amusement rides, rides for children. It has taken place over nine days each, three times a year. since 1905.


Kocherlball

July, English Garden (Munich), English Garden: Traditionally a Ballroom dance, ball for Munich's Domestic worker, domestic servants, cooks, Nanny, nannies, and other household staff, Kocherlball, or ‘cook’s ball’ was a chance for the Social class, lower classes to take the morning off and dance together before the families of their households woke up. It now runs between 6 and 10 am the third Sunday in July at the Chinese Tower in Munich's English Garden.


Tollwood

July and December, Olympia Park: For three weeks in July, and then three weeks in December, Tollwood Festival, Tollwood showcases fine and performing arts with live music, List of circus skills, circus acts, and several lanes of booths selling handmade crafts, as well as Organic food, organic Fusion cuisine, international cuisine. According to the festival's website, Tollwood's goal is to promote
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior, institutions, and Social norm, norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the ...
and the Environmentalism, environment, with the main themes of "wikt:tolerance, tolerance, internationality, and openness". To promote these ideals, 70% of all Tollwood events and attractions are free.


Oktoberfest

September and October,
Theresienwiese Theresienwiese is an Public space, open space in the Boroughs of Munich, Munich borough of Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt. It serves as the official ground of the Munich Oktoberfest. A space of , it is bordered in the west by the Ruhmeshalle (Mun ...
: The largest beer festival in the world, Munich's
Oktoberfest The Oktoberfest (; bar, Wiesn, Oktobafest) is the world's largest Volksfest, featuring a beer festival and a travelling carnival. It is held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. It is a 16- to 18-day folk festival running from mid- or lat ...
runs for 16–18 days from the end of September through early October. Oktoberfest is a celebration of the wedding of
Bavaria Bavaria ( ; ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no ), is a state in the south-east of Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the sec ...
n Crown prince, Crown Prince Ludwig I of Bavaria, Ludwig to Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen (district), Hildburghausen which took place on 12 October 1810. In the last 200 years the festival has grown to span 85 acres and now welcomes over 6 million visitors every year. There are 14 beer tents which together can seat 119,000 attendees at a time, and serve beer from the six major Brewery, breweries of Munich: Augustiner-Bräu, Augustiner, Hacker-Pschorr Brewery, Hacker-Pschorr, Löwenbräu Brewery, Löwenbräu, Paulaner Brewery, Paulaner, Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu, Spaten and Staatliches Hofbräuhaus in München, Staatliches Hofbräuhaus. Over 7 million liters of beer are consumed at each Oktoberfest. There are also over 100 rides ranging from bumper cars to full-sized roller coasters, as well as the more traditional Ferris wheels and Swing ride, swings. Food can be bought in each tent, as well as at various stalls throughout the fairgrounds. Oktoberfest hosts 144 Catering, caterers and employees 13,000 people.


Christkindlmarkt

November and December, city-wide: Munich's Christmas Markets, or Christmas market, Christkindlmärkte, are held throughout the city from late November until Christmas Eve, the largest spanning the
Marienplatz Marienplatz (English language, English: Mary's Square, i.e. St. Mary, Blessed Virgin Mary, Our Lady's Square) is a town square, central square in the city centre of Munich, Germany. It has been the city's main square since 1158. History During ...
and surrounding streets. There are hundreds of stalls selling handmade goods, Christmas ornaments and Christmas decoration, decorations, and Bavarian Christmas foods including Pastry, pastries, roasted Peanut, nuts, and Mulled wine, gluwein.


Mini-Munich

Late-July to mid-August, city-wide
Mini-Munich
provides kids ages 7–15 with the opportunity to participate in a ''Spielstadt'', the German term for a miniature city composed almost entirely of children. Funded b
Kultur & Spielraum
this play city is run by young Germans performing the same duties as adults, including voting in city council, paying taxes, and building businesses. The experimental game was invented in Munich in the 1970s and has since spread to other countries like Egypt and China.


Coopers' Dance

The Coopers' Dance (german: Schäfflertanz) is a guild dance of cooper (profession), coopers originally started in Munich. Since early 1800s the custom spread via journeyman, journeymen in it is now a common tradition over the Old Bavaria region. The dance was supposed to be held every 7 years."Gründungsmythos der Schäffler: So wahr wie die offiziellen Abgaswerte der Autoindustrie"
, ''Sueddeutsche Zeitung'' ("Cooper's founding myth: As true as the official emissions values of the automotive industry"), February 19, 2017


Cultural history trails and bicycle routes

Since 2001, historically interesting places in Munich can be explored via the List of cultural history trails in Munich, cultural history trails (''KulturGeschichtsPfade''). Sign-posted cycle routes are the Outer ''Äußere Radlring'' (outer cycle route) and the ''RadlRing München''.


Cuisine and culinary specialities

The Munich cuisine contributes to the Bavarian cuisine. Munich Weisswurst ("white sausage", ''German: Münchner Weißwurst'') was invented here in 1857. It is a Munich speciality. Traditionally eaten only before noon – a tradition dating to a time before refrigerators – these morsels are often served with sweet mustard and freshly baked pretzels. Munich offers 11 restaurants that have been awarded one or more Michelin Guide#Stars, Michelin stars in the Michelin Guide of 2021.


Beers and breweries

Munich is known for its breweries and the ''Weissbier'' (or ''Weißbier'' / ''Weizenbier'', wheat beer) is a speciality from Bavaria. Helles, a pale lager with a translucent gold colour is the most popular Munich beer today, although it's not old (only introduced in 1895) and is the result of a change in beer tastes. Helles has largely replaced Munich's dark beer, Dunkel, Dunkles, which gets its colour from roasted malt. It was the typical beer in Munich in the 19th century, but it is now more of a speciality. Starkbier is the strongest Munich beer, with 6%–9% alcohol content. It is dark amber in colour and has a heavy malty taste. It is available and is sold particularly during the Lenten ''Starkbierzeit'' (strong beer season), which begins on or before St. Joseph's Day (19 March). The beer served at
Oktoberfest The Oktoberfest (; bar, Wiesn, Oktobafest) is the world's largest Volksfest, featuring a beer festival and a travelling carnival. It is held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. It is a 16- to 18-day folk festival running from mid- or lat ...
is a special type of Märzen beer with a higher alcohol content than regular Helles. There are countless ''Wirtshäuser'' (traditional Bavarian ale houses/restaurants) all over the city area, many of which also have small outside areas. ''Biergärten'' (
beer garden A beer garden (German: ''Biergarten'') is an outdoor area in which beer and food are served, typically at shared tables shaded by trees. Beer gardens originated in Bavaria, of which Munich is the capital city, in the 19th century, and remain co ...
s) are popular fixtures of Munich's gastronomic landscape. They are central to the city's culture and serve as a kind of melting pot for members of all walks of life, for locals, expatriates and tourists alike. It is allowed to bring one's own food to a beer garden, however, it is forbidden to bring one's own drinks. There are many smaller beer gardens and around twenty major ones, providing at least a thousand seats, with four of the largest in the
Englischer Garten The ''Englischer Garten'' (, ''English Garden'') is a large public park in the centre of Munich, Bavaria, stretching from the city centre to the northeastern city limits. It was created in 1789 by Benjamin Thompson, Sir Benjamin Thompson (1753– ...
: Chinesischer Turm (Munich's second-largest beer garden with 7,000 seats), Seehaus, Hirschau and Aumeister. Nockherberg, Hofbräukeller (not to be confused with the Hofbräuhaus) and Löwenbräukeller are other beer gardens. Hirschgarten is the largest beer garden in the world, with 8,000 seats. There are six main breweries in Munich: Augustiner-Bräu, Hacker-Pschorr Brewery, Hacker-Pschorr, Hofbräuhaus, Hofbräu, Löwenbräu, Paulaner and Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu (separate brands Spaten and Franziskaner, the latter of which mainly for Weissbier). Also much consumed, though not from Munich and thus without the right to have a tent at the Oktoberfest, are Tegernseer and Schneider Weisse, the latter of which has a major beer hall in Munich. Smaller breweries are becoming more prevalent in Munich, such as Giesinger Bräu. However, these breweries do not have tents at Oktoberfest.


Circus

The Circus Krone based in Munich is one of the largest circuses in Europe. It was the first and still is one of only a few in Western Europe to also occupy a Circus Krone Building, building of its own.


Nightlife

Nightlife in Munich is located mostly in the city centre ( Altstadt-Lehel) and the boroughs
Maxvorstadt Maxvorstadt (Central Bavarian: ''Maxvorstod'') is a central borough of Munich, Bavaria, Germany and forms the Stadtbezirk (borough) 3 Maxvorstadt. Since 1992, this borough comprises the former boroughs 5, 6 and 7 (Maxvorstadt-Universität, Maxvor ...
,
Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt (Central Bavarian: ''Ludwigsvorstod-Isarvorstod'') is one of the boroughs of Munich, Germany. It consists of the districts Ludwigsvorstadt, located south of Munich Hauptbahnhof and east of the Theresienwiese, and Isa ...
,
Au-Haidhausen Au-Haidhausen (Central Bavarian: ''Au-Haidhausn'') is the 5th borough of the Germany, German city of Munich, Bavaria. It is formed by the Au (Munich), Au and Haidhausen (Munich), Haidhausen districts. Location Au lies opposite the Altstadt of t ...
and Schwabing. Between Sendlinger Tor and Maximiliansplatz lies the so-called Feierbanane (party banana), a roughly banana-shaped unofficial party zone spanning along Sonnenstraße, characterised by a high concentration of clubs, bars and restaurants. The Feierbanane has become the mainstream focus of Munich's nightlife and tends to become crowded, especially at weekends. It has also been the subject of some debate among city officials because of alcohol-related security issues and the party zone's general impact on local residents as well as day-time businesses.
Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt (Central Bavarian: ''Ludwigsvorstod-Isarvorstod'') is one of the boroughs of Munich, Germany. It consists of the districts Ludwigsvorstadt, located south of Munich Hauptbahnhof and east of the Theresienwiese, and Isa ...
's two main quarters, Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glockenbachviertel, are both considered decidedly less mainstream than most other nightlife hotspots in the city and are renowned for their many hip and laid back bars and clubs as well as for being Munich's main centres of gay culture. On warm spring or summer nights, hundreds of young people gather at Gärtnerplatz to relax, talk with friends and drink beer.
Maxvorstadt Maxvorstadt (Central Bavarian: ''Maxvorstod'') is a central borough of Munich, Bavaria, Germany and forms the Stadtbezirk (borough) 3 Maxvorstadt. Since 1992, this borough comprises the former boroughs 5, 6 and 7 (Maxvorstadt-Universität, Maxvor ...
has many smaller bars that are especially popular with university students, whereas Schwabing, once Munich's first and foremost party district with legendary clubs such as ''Big Apple'', ''PN hit-house'', ''Domicile'', ''Hot Club'', ''Piper Club'', ''Tiffany'', Germany's first large-scale disco Blow Up (club), Blow Up and the underwater nightclub Yellow Submarine (club), Yellow Submarine, as well as many bars such as Schwabinger 7 or ''Schwabinger Podium'', has lost much of its nightlife activity in the last decades, mainly due to gentrification and the resulting high rents. It has become the city's most coveted and expensive residential district, attracting affluent citizens with little interest in partying. Since the mid-1990s, the ''Kunstpark Ost'' and its successor ''Kultfabrik'', a former industrial complex that was converted to a large party area near München Ostbahnhof in Berg am Laim, hosted more than 30 clubs and was especially popular among younger people from the metropolitan area surrounding Munich and tourists. The Kultfabrik was closed at the end of the year 2015 to convert the area into a residential and office area. Apart from the Kultfarbik and the smaller ''Optimolwerke'', there is a wide variety of establishments in the urban parts of nearby Haidhausen (Munich), Haidhausen. Before the Kunstpark Ost, there had already been an accumulation of internationally known nightclubs in the remains of the abandoned former Munich-Riem Airport#Reuse, Munich-Riem Airport. Munich nightlife tends to change dramatically and quickly. Establishments open and close every year, and due to gentrification and the overheated housing market many survive only a few years, while others last longer. Beyond the already mentioned venues of the 1960s and 1970s, nightclubs with international recognition in recent history included ''Tanzlokal Größenwahn'', ''Atomic Cafe'' and the techno clubs Babalu Club, Ultraschall, , , , ''Die Registratur'' and ''Bob Beaman''. From 1995 to 2001, Munich was also home to the Union Move, one of the largest technoparades in Germany. Munich has two directly connected gay quarters, which basically can be seen as one: Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glockenbachviertel, both part of the
Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt (Central Bavarian: ''Ludwigsvorstod-Isarvorstod'') is one of the boroughs of Munich, Germany. It consists of the districts Ludwigsvorstadt, located south of Munich Hauptbahnhof and east of the Theresienwiese, and Isa ...
district. From 1979 to 1985 Freddie Mercury lived near the Gärtnerplatz and is known for his role in Munich's gay nightlife of the 1980s, including his 39th birthday party at the club ''Old Mrs. Henderson''. Transsexual icon Romy Haag had a club in the city centre for many years. Munich has the highest density of music venues of any German city, followed by Hamburg, Cologne and Berlin. Within the city's limits are more than 100 nightclubs and thousands of bars and restaurants. Some notable nightclubs are: popular techno clubs are Blitz Club, ''Harry Klein'', ''Rote Sonne'', Bahnwärter Thiel (club), Bahnwärter Thiel, ''Pimpernel'', ''Charlie'', ''Palais'' and ''Pathos''. Popular mixed music clubs are ''Call me Drella'', ''Wannda Circus'', ''Tonhalle'', ''Backstage'', ''Muffathalle'', ''Ampere'', ''Pacha'', ''P1'', Zenith (building), Zenith, ''Minna Thiel'' and the party ship Alte Utting. Some notable bars (pubs are located all over the city) are ''Schumann's Bar'', ''Havana Club'', ''Sehnsucht'', ''Bar Centrale'', ''Holy Home'', ''Negroni'', ''Die Goldene Bar'' and ''Bei Otto''.


Education


Colleges and universities

Munich is a leading location for science and research with a long list of Nobel Prize laureates from Wilhelm Röntgen, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1901 to Theodor W. Hänsch, Theodor Hänsch in 2005. Munich has become a spiritual centre already since the times of Emperor Louis IV when philosophers like Michael of Cesena, Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham were protected at the emperor's court. The Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU) and the Technische Universität München (TUM), were two of the first three German universities to be awarded the title ''elite university'' by a selection committee composed of academics and members of the Ministries of Education and Research of the Federation and the German states (Länder). Only the two Munich universities and the Technical University of Karlsruhe (now part of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) have held this honour, and the implied greater chances of attracting research funds, since the first evaluation round in 2006. * Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU), founded in 1472 in Ingolstadt, moved to Munich in 1826 * Technical University of Munich (TUM), founded in 1868 * Academy of Fine Arts Munich, Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, founded in 1808 * Bundeswehr University Munich, founded in 1973 (located in Neubiberg) * German School of Journalism, Deutsche Journalistenschule, founded in 1959 * Bayerische Akademie für Außenwirtschaft, founded in 1989 * Hochschule für Musik und Theater München, founded in 1830 * International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences, founded in 2005 * International School of Management, Germany, International School of Management, founded in 1990 * Katholische Stiftungsfachhochschule München, founded in 1971 * Munich Business School (MBS), founded in 1991 * Munich Intellectual Property Law Center (MIPLC), founded in 2003 * Munich School of Philosophy, founded in 1925 in Pullach, moved to Munich in 1971 * Munich School of Political Science, founded in 1950 * Munich University of Applied Sciences (HM), founded in 1971 * New European College, founded in 2014 * Ukrainian Free University, founded in 1921 (from 1945 – in Munich) * University of Television and Film Munich (''Hochschule für Fernsehen und Film''), founded in 1966


Primary and secondary schools

Grundschulen in Munich: * Grundschule an der Gebelestraße * Grund- und Mittelschule an der Hochstraße * Grundschule an der Kirchenstraße * Grundschule Flurstraße * Grundschule an der Stuntzstraße * Ernst-Reuter-Grundschule * Grundschule Gertrud Bäumer Straße * Grundschule an der Südlichen Auffahrtsallee Gymnasien in Munich: * Pestalozzi-Gymnasium München, Pestalozzi-Gymnasium * Maria-Theresia-Gymnasium * Gymnasium Max-Josef-Stift * Luitpold Gymnasium * Edith-Stein-Gymnasium der Erzdiözese München und Freising * Maximiliansgymnasium * Oskar-von-Miller-Gymnasium * Städtisches St.-Anna-Gymnasium * Wilhelmsgymnasium (Munich), Wilhelmsgymnasium * Städtisches Luisengymnasium * Wittelsbacher-Gymnasium München, Wittelsbacher Gymnasium * Albert-Einstein-Gymnasium Realschulen in Munich: * Städt. Fridtjof-Nansen-Realschule * Städtische Adalbert-Stifter-Realschule * Maria Ward Mädchenrealschule * Städtische Ricarda-Huch-Realschule * Isar Realschule München * Städtische Hermann-Frieb Realschule International schools in Munich: * Lycée Jean Renoir (Munich), Lycée Jean Renoir (French school) * Japanische Internationale Schule München * Bavarian International School * Munich International School * European School, Munich


Scientific research institutions


Max Planck Society

The Max Planck Society, an independent German non-profit research organisation, has its administrative headquarters in Munich. The following institutes are located in the Munich area: * Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching bei München, Garching * Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried * Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching bei München, Garching * Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law, München * Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition, München * Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried * Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Andechs-Erling, Germany, Erling (Biological Rhythms and Behaviour), Radolfzell, Seewiesen (Reproductive Biology and Behaviour) * Max Planck Institute for Physics (Max Planck Institute for Physics, Werner Heisenberg Institute), München * Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching bei München, Garching (also in Greifswald) * Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, München * Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research, München (closed) * Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching bei München, Garching


Fraunhofer Society

The Fraunhofer Society, the German non-profit research organization for applied research, has its headquarters in Munich. The following institutes are located in the Munich area: * Applied and Integrated Security
AISEC
* Embedded Systems and Communication

* Modular Solid-State Technologies

* Building Physics

* Process Engineering and Packaging


Other research institutes

* Botanische Staatssammlung München, a notable herbarium * Ifo Institute for Economic Research, theoretical and applied research in economics and finance * Doerner Institute * European Southern Observatory * Helmholtz Zentrum München * Zoologische Staatssammlung München * German Aerospace Center (GSOC), Oberpfaffenhofen, Oberpfaffenhofen bei München


Economy

Munich has the strongest economy of any German city according to a study and the lowest unemployment rate (5.4% in July 2020) of any German city of more than a million people (the others being
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and Cologne). Munich List of German cities by GDP, ranks third on the list of German cities by gross domestic product (GDP). In addition, it is one of the most attractive business locations in Germany. The city is also the economic centre of southern Germany. Munich topped the ranking of the magazine ''Capital'' in February 2005 for the economic prospects between 2002 and 2011 in 60 German cities. Munich is a financial center and global city that holds the headquarters of many companies. This includes more companies listed by the DAX than any other German city, as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as McDonald's and Microsoft. One of the best-known newly established Munich companies is Flixbus.


Manufacturing

Munich holds the headquarters of Siemens, Siemens AG (electronics), BMW (car), MAN SE, MAN AG (truck manufacturer, engineering), MTU Aero Engines (aircraft engine manufacturer), The Linde Group, Linde (gases) and Rohde & Schwarz (
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). Among German cities with more than 500,000 inhabitants, purchasing power is highest in Munich (€26,648 per inhabitant) . In 2006, Munich blue-collar workers enjoyed an average hourly wage of €18.62 (ca. $20). The breakdown by cities proper (not metropolitan areas) of Global 500 cities listed Munich in 8th position in 2009. Munich is also a centre for
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, software and other Tertiary sector of the economy, service industries. Furthermore, Munich is the home of the headquarters of many other large companies such as the injection moulding machine manufacturer Krauss-Maffei, the camera and lighting manufacturer Arri, the semiconductor firm Infineon Technologies (headquartered in the suburban town of Neubiberg), lighting giant Osram, as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as Microsoft.


Finance

Munich has significance as a Munich's financial community, financial centre (second only to Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt), being home of HypoVereinsbank and the Bayerische Landesbank. It outranks Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt though as home of insurance companies such as Allianz (insurance) and Munich Re (Reinsurance, re-insurance).


Media

Munich is the largest publishing city in Europe and home to the ''Süddeutsche Zeitung'', one of Germany's biggest daily newspapers. The city is also the location of the programming headquarters of Germany's largest public broadcasting network, ARD (broadcaster), ARD, while the largest commercial network, ProSieben, Pro7-Sat1 Media AG, is headquartered in the suburb of Unterföhring. The headquarters of the German branch of Random House, the world's largest publishing house, and of Hubert Burda Media, Burda publishing group are also in Munich. The Bavaria Film Studios are located in the suburb of Grünwald, Bavaria, Grünwald. They are one of Europe's biggest film production studios.


Quality of life

Most Munich residents enjoy a high quality of life. Mercer HR Consulting consistently rates the city among the top 10 cities with the highest quality of life worldwide – a 2011 survey ranked Munich as 4th. In 2007 the same company also ranked Munich as the 39th most expensive in the world and most expensive major city in Germany. Munich enjoys a thriving economy, driven by the information technology, biotechnology, and publishing sectors. Environmental pollution is low, although the city council is concerned about levels of particulate matter (PM), especially along the city's major thoroughfares. Since the enactment of particulate#EU legislation, EU legislation concerning the concentration of particulate in the air, environmental groups such as Greenpeace have staged large protest rallies to urge the city council and the State government to take a harder stance on pollution. Due to the high standard of living in and the thriving economy of the city and the region, there was an influx of people and Munich's population surpassed 1.5 million by June 2015, an increase of more than 20% in 10 years.


Transport

Munich has an extensive public transport system consisting of an underground metro, trams, buses and high-speed rail. In 2015, the transport modal share in Munich was 38 percent public transport, 25 percent car, 23 percent walking, and 15 percent bicycle. Its public transport system delivered 566 million passenger trips that year. Munich is the hub of a well-developed regional transportation system, including the second-largest airport in Germany and the Berlin–Munich high-speed railway, which connects Munich to the German capital city with a journey time of about 4 hours. The trade fair Transport Logistic, transport logistic is held every two years at the ''Neue Messe München'' (Messe München International). Flixmobility which offers intercity coach service is headquartered in Munich.


Public transport

For its urban population of 2.6 million people, Munich and its closest suburbs have a comprehensive network of public transport incorporating the Munich U-Bahn, Munich U-Bahn (underground railway), the Munich S-Bahn, Munich S-Bahn (suburban trains), trams and buses. The system is supervised by the Munich Transport and Tariff Association (''Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung, GmbH''). The Munich tramway is the oldest existing public transportation system in the city, which has been in operation since 1876. Munich also has an extensive network of bus lines. The extensive network of subway and tram lines assists and complement pedestrian movement in the city centre. The 700m-long Kaufinger Straße, which starts near the Main train station, forms a pedestrian east–west spine that traverses almost the entire centre. Similarly, Weinstraße leads off northwards to the Hofgarten. These major spines and many smaller streets cover an extensive area of the centre that can be enjoyed on foot and bike. The transformation of the historic area into a pedestrian priority zone enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and enjoyable. These attributes result from applying the principle of Permeability (spatial and transport planning), "filtered permeability", which selectively restricts the number of roads that run through the centre. While certain streets are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths, which permeate the entire centre. In addition, these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip (see image). The logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts – the Fused Grid.


Statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting to and from work with public transit in Munich on a weekday is 56 min. 11% of public transit users, spend more than two hours travelling each day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is ten minutes, whilst 6% of passengers wait for over twenty minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 9.2 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.


Cycling

Cycling has a strong presence in the city and is recognised as a good alternative to motorised transport. The growing number of Segregated cycle facilities, bicycle lanes are widely used throughout the year. Cycle paths can be found alongside the majority of sidewalks and streets, although the newer and/or renovated ones are much easier to tell apart from pavements than older ones. The cycle paths usually involve a longer route than by the road, as they are diverted around objects, and the presence of pedestrians can make them quite slow. A modern Call a Bike, bike hire system is available within the area bounded by the ''Mittlerer Ring''.


München Hauptbahnhof

München Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station located in the city centre and is one of three long-distance stations in Munich, the others being München Ost railway station, München Ost (to the east) and München-Pasing railway station, München-Pasing (to the west). All stations are connected to the public transport system and serve as transportation hubs. München Hauptbahnhof serves about 450,000 passengers a day, which puts it on par with other large stations in Germany, such as Hamburg Hauptbahnhof and Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof. It and München Ost are two of the 21 stations in Germany classified by Deutsche Bahn as a German railway station categories, category 1 station. The mainline station is a terminal station with 32 platforms. The subterranean Munich S-Bahn, S-Bahn with 2 platforms and Munich U-Bahn, U-Bahn stations with 6 platforms are through stations. Intercity-Express, ICE highspeed trains stop at Munich-Pasing and Munich-Hauptbahnhof only. InterCity and EuroCity trains to destinations east of Munich also stop at Munich East. Since 28 May 2006 Munich has been connected to Nuremberg via Ingolstadt by the Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway line. In 2017, the Berlin–Munich high-speed railway opened, providing a journey time of less than 4 hours between the two German cities.


Autobahns

Munich is an integral part of the Autobahn, motorway network of southern Germany. Motorways from Stuttgart (W), Nuremberg, Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt and Berlin (N), Deggendorf and Passau (E), Salzburg and Innsbruck (SE), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Garmisch Partenkirchen (S) and Lindau (SW) terminate at Munich, allowing direct access to the different parts of Germany, Austria and Italy. Traffic, however, is often very heavy in and around Munich. Traffic jams are commonplace during rush hour as well as at the beginning and end of major holidays in Germany. There are few "green waves" or roundabouts, and the city's prosperity often causes an abundance of obstructive construction sites. Other contributing factors are the extraordinarily high rates of car ownership per capita (multiple times that of Berlin), the city's historically grown and largely preserved centralised urban structure, which leads to a very high concentration of traffic in specific areas, and sometimes poor planning (for example bad traffic light synchronisation and a less than ideal ring road).


Munich International Airport

Munich Airport, Franz Josef Strauss International Airport (International Air Transport Association, IATA: MUC, International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO: EDDM) is the second-largest airport in Germany and seventh-largest in Europe after London Heathrow Airport, London Heathrow, Charles de Gaulle Airport, Paris Charles de Gaulle, Frankfurt International Airport, Frankfurt, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Amsterdam, Barajas Airport, Madrid and Atatürk International Airport, Istanbul Atatürk. It is used by about 46 million passengers a year, and lies some north east of the city centre. It replaced the smaller Munich-Riem Airport, Munich-Riem airport in 1992. The airport can be reached by suburban train lines from the city. From the München Hauptbahnhof, main railway station the journey takes 40–45 minutes. An express train will be added that will cut down travel time to 20–25 minutes with limited stops on dedicated tracks. A maglev (transport), magnetic levitation train (called Transrapid), which was to have run at speeds of up to from the central station to the airport in a travel time of 10 minutes, had been approved, but was cancelled in March 2008 because of cost escalation and after heavy protests. Lufthansa opened its second hub at the airport when Terminal 2 was opened in 2003.


Other airports

In 2008, the Bavarian state government granted a licence to expand Oberpfaffenhofen Air Station located west of Munich, for commercial use. These plans were opposed by many residents in the Oberpfaffenhofen area as well as other branches of local Government, including the city of Munich, which took the case to court. However, in October 2009, the permit allowing up to 9725 business flights per year to depart from or land at Oberpfaffenhofen was confirmed by a regional judge. Despite being from Munich, Memmingen Airport has been advertised as Airport Munich West. After 2005, passenger traffic of nearby Augsburg Airport was relocated to Munich Airport, leaving the Augsburg region of Bavaria without an air passenger airport within close reach.


Around Munich


Nearby towns

The Munich agglomeration sprawls across the plain of the Foothills, Alpine foothills comprising about 2.6 million inhabitants. Several smaller traditional Bavarian towns and cities like Dachau, Bavaria, Dachau, Freising, Erding, Starnberg, Landshut and Moosburg are today part of the Greater Munich Region, formed by Munich and the surrounding districts, making up the Munich Metropolitan Region, which has a population of about 6 million people. File:Dachau Altstadt Konrad Adenauer Straße.JPG, Dachau, Bavaria, Dachau File:Erding Schoener Turm.jpg, Erding File:Freising Dom St. Maria & Korbinian Fassade 1.JPG, Freising File:Klosterkirche Mariae Himmelfahrt Fuerstenfeld Fuerstenfeldbruck-13.jpg, Fürstenfeldbruck File:Landsberg Burgberg 2.JPG, Landsberg am Lech, Landsberg File:Ensemble Altstadt Landshut.JPG, Landshut File:Moosburg Stadtplatz mit St. Johannes.jpg, Moosburg File:Starnberg, HB-08.jpg, Starnberg File:Wasserburg am Inn Kellerbergweg.jpg, Wasserburg am Inn


Recreation

South of Munich, there are numerous nearby freshwater lakes such as Lake Starnberg, Ammersee, Chiemsee, Walchensee, Kochelsee, Tegernsee (lake), Tegernsee, Schliersee (lake), Schliersee, Simssee, Staffelsee, Wörthsee, Kirchsee (Bavaria), Kirchsee and the Osterseen (Easter Lakes), which are popular among Munich residents for recreation, swimming and watersports and can be quickly reached by car and a few also by Munich's Munich S-Bahn, S-Bahn. File:Starnberger See, HB-03.jpg, Lake Starnberg File:Ammersee.JPG, Ammersee File:Chiemsee010.jpg, Chiemsee File:Walchensee-Teilausschnitt.jpg, Walchensee File:Gmund Kaltenbrunn Südausblick.JPG, Tegernsee (lake), Tegernsee File:Osterseen Gewitterabend Grosser Ostersee 02.jpg, Osterseen, Großer Ostersee File:Kirchsee in der Abendsonne.jpg, Kirchsee (Bavaria), Kirchsee File:Simssee Suedufer Wendelstein Beuerberg Riedering-1.jpg, Simssee File:Wörthsee +.jpg, Wörthsee


Notable people


Born in Munich


Notable residents


Twin towns and sister cities

Munich is Sister city, twinned with: *
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See also

* Outline of Munich


Notes


References


External links


Official website for the City of Munich

München Wiki
– open city wiki for Munich with more than 15,000 articles


Munichfound
– magazine for English speaking Münchners
Destination Munich
– online guide
Historical Atlas of Munich


Photos


Europe Pictures – Munich

Geocoded Pictures of Munich


– panoramic views and virtual tpurs

– travel tips
Tales from Toytown
– photos of Munich
Munich photo gallery
{{Authority control Munich, Munich