HOME
The Info List - Munich


--- Advertisement ---



Munich
Munich
(/ˈmjuːnɪk/; German: München, pronounced [ˈmʏnçn̩] ( listen),[2] Austro-Bavarian: Minga [ˈmɪŋ(ː)ɐ]) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar
Isar
north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich
Munich
is also the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin
Berlin
and Hamburg, and the 12th largest city in the European Union, with a population of around 1.5 million.[3] The Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 6 million people.[4] The city is a major centre of art, technology, finance, publishing, culture, innovation, education, business, and tourism in Germany
Germany
and Europe and enjoys a very high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany
Germany
and fourth worldwide according to the 2015 Mercer survey.[5] According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich
Munich
is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015[update].[6] The name of the city is derived from the Old/ Middle High German
Middle High German
term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine
Benedictine
order, who ran a monastery at the place that was later to become the Old Town of Munich; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat of arms. Munich
Munich
was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich
Munich
was a cultural stronghold of the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
and a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes.[7][citation needed] Once Bavaria
Bavaria
was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture, culture and science. In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich
Munich
and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich
Munich
became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP. The first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich
Munich
with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich
Munich
was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich
Munich
was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were heavily bombed and destroyed, Munich
Munich
restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics. The 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, and population growth. The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde, Allianz
Allianz
and MunichRE. Munich
Munich
is home to many universities, museums and theatres. Its numerous architectural attractions, sports events, exhibitions and its annual Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
attract considerable tourism.[8] Munich
Munich
is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany. It is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location, despite being the municipality with the highest population density in Germany (4,500 people per km²) . Munich
Munich
hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background, making up 37.7% of its population.[9]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origin as medieval town 1.2 Capital of reunited Bavaria 1.3 World War I
World War I
to World War II 1.4 Postwar

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 Immigration 3.2 Religion

4 Politics 5 Subdivisions 6 Architecture

6.1 Inner city 6.2 Royal avenues and squares 6.3 Other boroughs 6.4 Parks

7 Sports

7.1 Football 7.2 Basketball 7.3 Ice hockey 7.4 Olympics 7.5 Marathon 7.6 Swimming 7.7 River surfing

8 Culture

8.1 Language 8.2 Museums 8.3 Arts and literature 8.4 Hofbräuhaus
Hofbräuhaus
and Oktoberfest 8.5 Culinary specialities 8.6 Beers and breweries 8.7 Markets 8.8 Nightlife 8.9 Circus

9 Education

9.1 Colleges and universities 9.2 Primary and secondary schools

10 Scientific research institutions

10.1 Max Planck
Max Planck
Society 10.2 Fraunhofer Society 10.3 Other research institutes

11 Economy

11.1 Top 10 largest companies in Munich
Munich
(2016)

12 Transport

12.1 Munich
Munich
International Airport 12.2 Other airports 12.3 München Hauptbahnhof 12.4 Public transportation

12.4.1 Munich
Munich
Public Transportation Statistics

12.5 Individual transportation 12.6 Cycling

13 Around Munich

13.1 Nearby towns 13.2 Recreation

14 International relations 15 Famous people

15.1 Born in Munich 15.2 Notable residents

16 See also 17 References 18 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Munich
History of Munich
and Timeline of Munich

Munich
Munich
city coat of arms

Origin as medieval town[edit]

Munich
Munich
in the 16th century

The first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine
Benedictine
monks on the Old Salt Route. The foundation date is considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document. The document was signed in Augsburg.[10] By then, the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony
Saxony
and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar
Isar
next to the monk settlement and on the salt route. In 1175, Munich
Munich
received city status and fortification. In 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, and Munich
Munich
was handed to the Bishop of Freising. (Wittelsbach's heirs, the Wittelsbach dynasty, ruled Bavaria
Bavaria
until 1918.) In 1240, Munich
Munich
was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria
Bavaria
was split in two, Munich
Munich
became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
in 1328. He strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich
Munich
underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, and Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468. Capital of reunited Bavaria[edit]

Marienplatz, Munich
Munich
about 1650

Banners with the colours of Munich
Munich
(left) and Bavaria
Bavaria
(right) with the Frauenkirche in the background

When Bavaria
Bavaria
was reunited in 1506, Munich
Munich
became its capital. The arts and politics became increasingly influenced by the court (see Orlando di Lasso, Heinrich Schütz
Heinrich Schütz
and later Mozart and Richard Wagner). During the 16th century, Munich
Munich
was a centre of the German counter reformation, and also of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reformation, and also built the Hofbräuhaus
Hofbräuhaus
for brewing brown beer in 1589. The Catholic League was founded in Munich
Munich
in 1609. In 1623, during the Thirty Years' War, Munich
Munich
became electoral residence when Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria
Bavaria
was invested with the electoral dignity, but in 1632 the city was occupied by Gustav II Adolph of Sweden. When the bubonic plague broke out in 1634 and 1635, about one third of the population died. Under the regency of the Bavarian electors, Munich
Munich
was an important centre of baroque life, but also had to suffer under Habsburg occupations in 1704 and 1742. In 1806, the city became the capital of the new Kingdom of Bavaria, with the state's parliament (the Landtag) and the new archdiocese of Munich
Munich
and Freising
Freising
being located in the city. Twenty years later, Landshut
Landshut
University was moved to Munich. Many of the city's finest buildings belong to this period and were built under the first three Bavarian kings. Especially Ludwig I rendered outstanding services to Munich's status as a centre of the arts, attracting numerous artists and enhancing the city's architectural substance with grand boulevards and buildings. On the other hand, Ludwig II, famous the world over as the fairytale king, was mostly aloof from his capital and focused more on his fanciful castles in the Bavarian countryside. Nevertheless, his patronage of Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
secured his posthumous reputation, as do his castles, which generate significant tourist income for Bavaria
Bavaria
to this day. Later, Prince Regent Luitpold's years as regent were marked by tremendous artistic and cultural activity in Munich, enhancing its status as a cultural force of global importance (see Franz von Stuck and Der Blaue Reiter). World War I
World War I
to World War II[edit]

Unrest during the Beer Hall Putsch

Following the outbreak of World War I
World War I
in 1914, life in Munich
Munich
became very difficult, as the Allied blockade of Germany
Germany
led to food and fuel shortages. During French air raids in 1916, three bombs fell on Munich. After World War I, the city was at the centre of much political unrest. In November 1918 on the eve of German revolution, Ludwig III and his family fled the city. After the murder of the first republican premier of Bavaria
Bavaria
Kurt Eisner
Kurt Eisner
in February 1919 by Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley, the Bavarian Soviet Republic
Bavarian Soviet Republic
was proclaimed. When Communists took power, Lenin, who had lived in Munich
Munich
some years before, sent a congratulatory telegram, but the Soviet Republic was put down on 3 May 1919 by the Freikorps. While the republican government had been restored, Munich
Munich
became a hotbed of extremist politics, among which Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and the National Socialists rose to prominence.

Bombing damage to the Altstadt. Note the roofless and pockmarked Altes Rathaus looking up the Tal. The roofless Heilig-Geist-Kirche is on the right of the photo. Its spire, without the copper top, is behind the church. The Talbruck gate tower is missing completely.

In 1923, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and his supporters, who were concentrated in Munich, staged the Beer Hall Putsch, an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
and seize power. The revolt failed, resulting in Hitler's arrest and the temporary crippling of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP), which was virtually unknown outside Munich. The city again became a Nazi stronghold when the party took power in Germany
Germany
in 1933. The party created its first concentration camp at Dachau, 16 kilometres (9.9 miles) north-west of the city. Because of its importance to the rise of National Socialism, Munich
Munich
was referred to as the Hauptstadt der Bewegung ("Capital of the Movement"). The NSDAP
NSDAP
headquarters were in Munich
Munich
and many Führerbauten ("Führer-buildings") were built around the Königsplatz, some of which still survive. The city is known as the site of the culmination of the policy of appeasement by Britain and France
France
leading up to World War II. It was in Munich
Munich
that British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
assented to the annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland region into Greater Germany
Germany
in the hopes of sating the desires of Hitler's Third Reich. Munich
Munich
was the base of the White Rose, a student resistance movement from June 1942 to February 1943. The core members were arrested and executed following a distribution of leaflets in Munich
Munich
University by Hans and Sophie Scholl. The city was heavily damaged by allied bombing during World War II
World War II
– it was hit by 71 air raids during five years. Postwar[edit]

BMW
BMW
Welt

After US occupation in 1945, Munich
Munich
was completely rebuilt following a meticulous and – by comparison to other war-ravaged West German cities[citation needed] – rather conservative plan which preserved its pre-war street grid. In 1957, Munich's population surpassed 1 million. The city continued to play a highly significant role in the German economy, politics and culture, giving rise to its nickname Heimliche Hauptstadt ("secret capital") in the decades after World War II. Munich
Munich
was the site of the 1972 Summer Olympics, during which Israeli athletes were assassinated by Palestinian fedayeen in the Munich massacre, when gunmen from the Palestinian "Black September" group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic team. Most Munich
Munich
residents enjoy a high quality of life. Mercer HR Consulting consistently rates the city among the top 10 cities with the highest quality of life worldwide – a 2011 survey ranked Munich as 4th.[11] The same company also ranks Munich
Munich
as the 39th most expensive in the world and most expensive major city in Germany.[12] Munich
Munich
enjoys a thriving economy, driven by the information technology, biotechnology, and publishing sectors. Environmental pollution is low, although as of 2006[update] the city council is concerned about levels of particulate matter (PM), especially along the city's major thoroughfares. Since the enactment of EU legislation concerning the concentration of particulate in the air, environmental groups such as Greenpeace
Greenpeace
have staged large protest rallies to urge the city council and the State government to take a harder stance on pollution.[13] Today, the crime rate is low compared with other large German cities, such as Hamburg
Hamburg
or Berlin. For its high quality of life and safety, the city has been nicknamed "Toytown"[14] among the English-speaking residents. German inhabitants call it "Millionendorf", an expression which means "village of a million people". Due to the high standard of living in and the thriving economy of the city and the region, there was an influx of people and Munich's population surpassed 1.5 million by June 2015, an increase of more than 20% in 10 years. Geography[edit]

The inner city (2013).

Munich: View from the Englischer Garten

Munich
Munich
lies on the elevated plains of Upper Bavaria, about 50 km (31.07 mi) north of the northern edge of the Alps, at an altitude of about 520 m (1,706.04 ft) ASL. The local rivers are the Isar
Isar
and the Würm. Munich
Munich
is situated in the Northern Alpine Foreland. The northern part of this sandy plateau includes a highly fertile flint area which is no longer affected by the folding processes found in the Alps, while the southern part is covered with morainic hills. Between these are fields of fluvio-glacial out-wash, such as around Munich. Wherever these deposits get thinner, the ground water can permeate the gravel surface and flood the area, leading to marshes as in the north of Munich. Climate[edit] Munich's city climate lies between the humid continental climate (Köppen classification: Dfb) and the oceanic climate (Köppen classification: Cfb). The city centre lies between both climates, while the airport of Munich
Munich
has a humid continental climate. The warmest month, on average, is July. The coolest is January. Showers and thunderstorms bring the highest average monthly precipitation in late spring and throughout the summer. The most precipitation occurs in June, on average. Winter tends to have less precipitation, the least in February. The higher elevation and proximity to the Alps
Alps
cause the city to have more rain and snow than many other parts of Germany. The Alps
Alps
affect the city's climate in other ways too; for example, the warm downhill wind from the Alps
Alps
(föhn wind), which can raise temperatures sharply within a few hours even in the winter. Being at the centre of Europe, Munich
Munich
is subject to many climatic influences, so that weather conditions there are more variable than in other European cities, especially those further west and south of the Alps. At Munich's official weather station, the highest and lowest temperatures ever measured are 37 °C (99 °F), on 13 August 2003, and −31.6 °C (−24.9 °F), on 12 February 1929.

Climate data for Munich
Munich
City 1981–2010 (extremes 1954–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 18.9 (66) 21.4 (70.5) 24.0 (75.2) 32.2 (90) 31.8 (89.2) 35.2 (95.4) 37.5 (99.5) 37.0 (98.6) 31.8 (89.2) 28.2 (82.8) 24.2 (75.6) 21.7 (71.1) 37.5 (99.5)

Average high °C (°F) 3.5 (38.3) 5.0 (41) 9.5 (49.1) 14.2 (57.6) 19.1 (66.4) 21.9 (71.4) 24.4 (75.9) 23.9 (75) 19.4 (66.9) 14.3 (57.7) 7.7 (45.9) 4.2 (39.6) 13.9 (57)

Daily mean °C (°F) 0.3 (32.5) 1.4 (34.5) 5.3 (41.5) 9.4 (48.9) 14.3 (57.7) 17.2 (63) 19.4 (66.9) 18.9 (66) 14.7 (58.5) 10.1 (50.2) 4.4 (39.9) 1.3 (34.3) 9.7 (49.5)

Average low °C (°F) −2.5 (27.5) −1.9 (28.6) 1.6 (34.9) 4.9 (40.8) 9.4 (48.9) 12.5 (54.5) 14.5 (58.1) 14.2 (57.6) 10.5 (50.9) 6.6 (43.9) 1.7 (35.1) −1.2 (29.8) 5.9 (42.6)

Record low °C (°F) −22.2 (−8) −25.4 (−13.7) −16.0 (3.2) −6.0 (21.2) −2.3 (27.9) 1.0 (33.8) 6.5 (43.7) 4.8 (40.6) 0.6 (33.1) −4.5 (23.9) −11.0 (12.2) −20.7 (−5.3) −25.4 (−13.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 48 (1.89) 46 (1.81) 65 (2.56) 65 (2.56) 101 (3.98) 118 (4.65) 122 (4.8) 115 (4.53) 75 (2.95) 65 (2.56) 61 (2.4) 65 (2.56) 944 (37.17)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 79 96 133 170 209 210 238 220 163 125 75 59 1,777

Source #1: Data derived from "CDC (Climate Data Center)". Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 2 May 2016. 

Source #2: Extremes: "Monatsauswertung". sklima.de (in German). SKlima. Retrieved 2 May 2016. 

Climate data for Munich Airport
Munich Airport
(1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.2 (63) 21.1 (70) 23.3 (73.9) 32.2 (90) 31.2 (88.2) 35.2 (95.4) 36.2 (97.2) 37.1 (98.8) 31.7 (89.1) 27.0 (80.6) 22.9 (73.2) 20.5 (68.9) 37.1 (98.8)

Average high °C (°F) 2.7 (36.9) 4.3 (39.7) 9.0 (48.2) 12.5 (54.5) 18.0 (64.4) 20.5 (68.9) 23.1 (73.6) 23.0 (73.4) 18.8 (65.8) 13.2 (55.8) 6.9 (44.4) 3.7 (38.7) 12.98 (55.36)

Average low °C (°F) −3.7 (25.3) −3.2 (26.2) 0.1 (32.2) 2.8 (37) 7.2 (45) 10.4 (50.7) 12.6 (54.7) 12.3 (54.1) 8.9 (48) 4.7 (40.5) 0.2 (32.4) −2.3 (27.9) 4.17 (39.5)

Record low °C (°F) −30.5 (−22.9) −31.6 (−24.9) −15.5 (4.1) −6.1 (21) −2.7 (27.1) −2.7 (27.1) 3.8 (38.8) 3.8 (38.8) 0.0 (32) −6.1 (21) −14.4 (6.1) −21.1 (−6) −31.6 (−24.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 48 (1.89) 45 (1.77) 58 (2.28) 70 (2.76) 93 (3.66) 128 (5.04) 132 (5.2) 111 (4.37) 86 (3.39) 65 (2.56) 71 (2.8) 61 (2.4) 968 (38.12)

Average rainy days 10.0 8.6 10.5 10.9 11.6 13.8 12.0 11.4 9.6 9.1 10.7 11.2 129.4

Average relative humidity (%) 80 74 62 57 55 58 55 55 61 71 80 81 65.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 61 84 128 157 199 209 237 213 173 129 69 49 1,708

Source #1: "Munich". World Weather Information Service. World Meteorological Organisation. June 2011. 

Source #2: "Climate Munich
Munich
– Germany". climatedata.eu. Climate Data.  "Muenchen-Flughafen, Germany". Climate-Charts.com. 

Demographics[edit] Main article: Population growth of Munich

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1500 13,447 —    

1600 21,943 +63.2%

1750 32,000 +45.8%

1880 230,023 +618.8%

1890 349,024 +51.7%

1900 499,932 +43.2%

1910 596,467 +19.3%

1920 666,000 +11.7%

1930 728,900 +9.4%

1940 834,500 +14.5%

1950 823,892 −1.3%

1960 1,055,457 +28.1%

1970 1,311,978 +24.3%

1980 1,298,941 −1.0%

1990 1,229,026 −5.4%

2000 1,210,223 −1.5%

2005 1,259,584 +4.1%

2010 1,353,186 +7.4%

2011 1,364,920 +0.9%

2012 1,388,308 +1.7%

2013 1,402,455 +1.0%

2015 1,450,381 +3.4%

From only 24,000 inhabitants in 1700, the city population doubled about every 30 years. It was 100,000 in 1852, 250,000 in 1883 and 500,000 in 1901. Since then, Munich
Munich
has become Germany's third largest city. In 1933, 840,901 inhabitants were counted, and in 1957 over 1 million. Immigration[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2017)

In July 2017, Munich
Munich
had 1.42 million inhabitants; 300,129 of those did not have German citizenship. The city has strong Turkish and Balkan communities. The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks (39,204), Croats
Croats
(33,177), Italians (27,340), Greeks
Greeks
(27,117), Polish (27,945), Austrians
Austrians
(21,944), and Romanians
Romanians
(18,085). 37% of foreign nationals come from the European Union.

 Turkey 39,011

 Croatia 35,573

 Italy 28,276

 Greece 27,468

 Austria 22,163

 Poland 21,561

 Romania 18,776

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 18,362

 Serbia 13,655

 Bulgaria 12,897

 Iraq 11,990

 France 11,003

 Kosovo 10,850

 Hungary 10,550

 Spain 9,271

 Russia 8,910

 Afghanistan 7,387

 China 7,332

 USA 6,929

 Ukraine 6,596

 India 6,585

 UK 6,029

Religion[edit] An absolute majority of 55.5% of Munich's residents are not affiliated with any religious group, and this ratio represents the fastest growing segment of the population. As in the rest of Germany, the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Protestant churches have experienced a continuous decline in membership. As of 31 December 2017, 31.8% of the city's inhabitants were Roman Catholic, 11.4% Protestant and 0.3% Jewish.[15] In 2011, 7.5% were Muslim migrants from 21 countries of origin.[16] About 1% adhere to other Christian denominations. There is also a small Old Catholic parish and an English-speaking parish of the Episcopal Church in the city. Politics[edit]

Bavarian State Chancellery

Munich's current mayor is Dieter Reiter
Dieter Reiter
of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Munich
Munich
has been governed by the SPD for all but six years since 1948. This is remarkable because Bavaria
Bavaria
– and particularly southern Bavaria
Bavaria
– has long been a conservative stronghold, with the Christian Social Union winning absolute majorities among the Bavarian electorate in many elections at the communal, state, and federal levels, and leading the Bavarian state government for all but three years since 1946. Bavaria's second most populous city, Nuremberg, is also one of the very few Bavarian cities governed by an SPD-led coalition. As the capital of the Free State of Bavaria, Munich
Munich
is an important political centre in Germany
Germany
and the seat of the Bavarian State Parliament, the Staatskanzlei (the State Chancellery) and of all state departments. Several national and international authorities are located in Munich, including the Federal Finance Court of Germany
Germany
and the European Patent Office. Subdivisions[edit] Main article: Boroughs of Munich Since the administrative reform in 1992, Munich
Munich
is divided into 25 boroughs or Stadtbezirke, which themselves consist of sometimes quite distinct smaller quarters.

Munich's Boroughs

Allach-Untermenzing
Allach-Untermenzing
(23), Altstadt-Lehel
Altstadt-Lehel
(1), Aubing-Lochhausen-Langwied
Aubing-Lochhausen-Langwied
(22), Au-Haidhausen
Au-Haidhausen
(5), Berg am Laim
Berg am Laim
(14), Bogenhausen
Bogenhausen
(13), Feldmoching-Hasenbergl
Feldmoching-Hasenbergl
(24), Hadern
Hadern
(20), Laim
Laim
(25), Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt
Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt
(2), Maxvorstadt
Maxvorstadt
(3), Milbertshofen-Am Hart (11), Moosach (10), Neuhausen-Nymphenburg
Neuhausen-Nymphenburg
(9), Obergiesing
Obergiesing
(17), Pasing-Obermenzing
Pasing-Obermenzing
(21), Ramersdorf-Perlach
Ramersdorf-Perlach
(16), Schwabing-Freimann (12), Schwabing-West
Schwabing-West
(4), Schwanthalerhöhe
Schwanthalerhöhe
(8), Sendling
Sendling
(6), Sendling-Westpark
Sendling-Westpark
(7), Thalkirchen-Obersendling-Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln
Thalkirchen-Obersendling-Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln
(19), Trudering-Riem
Trudering-Riem
(15) and Untergiesing-Harlaching
Untergiesing-Harlaching
(18).

Architecture[edit] Main article: Architecture of Munich

The New Town Hall and Marienplatz

Frauenkirche

Viktualienmarkt
Viktualienmarkt
with the Altes Rathaus

The city has an eclectic mix of historic and modern architecture, because historic buildings destroyed in World War II
World War II
were reconstructed, and new landmarks were constructed. A survey by the Society's Centre for Sustainable Destinations for the National Geographic Traveller chose over 100 historic destinations around the world and ranked Munich
Munich
30th.[17] Inner city[edit] At the centre of the city is the Marienplatz
Marienplatz
– a large open square named after the Mariensäule, a Marian column in its centre – with the Old and the New Town Hall. Its tower contains the Rathaus-Glockenspiel. Three gates of the demolished medieval fortification survive – the Isartor
Isartor
in the east, the Sendlinger Tor in the south and the Karlstor
Karlstor
in the west of the inner city. The Karlstor
Karlstor
leads up to the Stachus, a grand square dominated by the Justizpalast (Palace of Justice) and a fountain. The Peterskirche close to Marienplatz
Marienplatz
is the oldest church of the inner city. It was first built during the Romanesque period, and was the focus of the early monastic settlement in Munich
Munich
before the city's official foundation in 1158. Nearby St. Peter the Gothic hall-church Heiliggeistkirche (The Church of the Holy Spirit) was converted to baroque style from 1724 onwards and looks down upon the Viktualienmarkt, the most popular market of Munich. The Frauenkirche is the most famous building in the city centre and serves as the cathedral for the Archdiocese of Munich
Munich
and Freising. The nearby Michaelskirche is the largest renaissance church north of the Alps, while the Theatinerkirche is a basilica in Italianate high baroque, which had a major influence on Southern German baroque architecture. Its dome dominates the Odeonsplatz. Other baroque churches in the inner city which are worth a detour are the Bürgersaalkirche, the Dreifaltigkeitskirche, the St. Anna Damenstiftskirche and St. Anna im Lehel, the first rococo church in Bavaria. The Asamkirche was endowed and built by the Brothers Asam, pioneering artists of the rococo period. The large Residenz palace complex (begun in 1385) on the edge of Munich's Old Town, Germany's largest urban palace, ranks among Europe's most significant museums of interior decoration. Having undergone several extensions, it contains also the treasury and the splendid rococo Cuvilliés Theatre. Next door to the Residenz the neo-classical opera, the National Theatre was erected. Among the baroque and neoclassical mansions which still exist in Munich
Munich
are the Palais Porcia, the Palais Preysing, the Palais Holnstein
Palais Holnstein
and the Prinz-Carl-Palais. All mansions are situated close to the Residenz, same as the Alte Hof, a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes in Munich. Lehel, a bourgeoise quarter east of the Altstadt, is characterised by countless well-preserved (and in parts excellently reconstructed) town houses, giving a thorough impression of the "old Munich" outside of the main tourist routes. St. Lukas is the largest Protestant Church in Munich. The inner city has been recreated[18] in the virtual world of Second Life and can be visited for a virtual sight seeing tour. Royal avenues and squares[edit]

Ludwigstrasse from above, Highlight Towers
Highlight Towers
in the background

Four grand royal avenues of the 19th century with magnificent official buildings connect Munich's inner city with its then-suburbs: The neoclassical Briennerstrasse, starting at Odeonsplatz
Odeonsplatz
on the northern fringe of the Old Town close to the Residenz, runs from east to west and opens into the impressive Königsplatz, designed with the "Doric" Propyläen, the "Ionic" Glyptothek
Glyptothek
and the "Corinthian" State Museum of Classical Art, on its back side St. Boniface's Abbey was erected. The area around Königsplatz is home to the Kunstareal, Munich's gallery and museum quarter (as described below). Ludwigstrasse also begins at Odeonsplatz
Odeonsplatz
and runs from south to north, skirting the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, the St. Louis
St. Louis
church, the Bavarian State Library
Bavarian State Library
and numerous state ministries and palaces. The southern part of the avenue was constructed in Italian renaissance style, while the north is strongly influenced by Italian Romanesque architecture. The Siegestor
Siegestor
(gate of victory) sits at the northern end of Ludwigstraße, where the latter passes over into Leopoldstraße
Leopoldstraße
and the district of Schwabing
Schwabing
begins.

Maximilianeum

The neo-Gothic Maximilianstraße starts at Max-Joseph-Platz, where the Residenz and the National Theatre are situated, and runs from west to east. The avenue is framed by elaborately structured neo-Gothic buildings which house, among others, the Schauspielhaus, the Building of the district government of Upper Bavaria
Bavaria
and the Museum of Ethnology. After crossing the river Isar, the avenue circles the Maximilianeum, home of the state parliament. The western portion of Maximilianstraße is known for its designer shops, luxury boutiques, jewellery stores, and one of Munich's foremost five-star hotels, the Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten. Prinzregentenstrasse
Prinzregentenstrasse
runs parallel to Maximilianstraße and begins at Prinz-Carl-Palais. Many museums can be found along the avenue, such as the Haus der Kunst, the Bavarian National Museum
Bavarian National Museum
and the Schackgalerie. The avenue crosses the Isar
Isar
and circles the Friedensengel monument, then passing the Villa Stuck
Villa Stuck
and Hitler's old apartment. The Prinzregententheater
Prinzregententheater
is at Prinzregentenplatz further to the east. Other boroughs[edit] In Schwabing
Schwabing
and Maxvorstadt, many beautiful streets with continuous rows of Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
buildings can be found. Rows of elegant town houses and spectacular urban palais in many colours, often elaborately decorated with ornamental details on their façades, make up large parts of the areas west of Leopoldstraße
Leopoldstraße
(Schwabing's main shopping street), while in the eastern areas between Leopoldstraße
Leopoldstraße
and Englischer Garten
Englischer Garten
similar buildings alternate with almost rural-looking houses and whimsical mini-castles, often decorated with small towers. Numerous tiny alleys and shady lanes connect the larger streets and little plazas of the area, conveying the legendary artist's quarter's flair and atmosphere convincingly like it was at the turn of the 20th century. The wealthy district of Bogenhausen
Bogenhausen
in the east of Munich
Munich
is another little-known area (at least among tourists) rich in extravagant architecture, especially around Prinzregentenstraße. One of Bogenhausen's most beautiful buildings is Villa Stuck, famed residence of painter Franz von Stuck.

Nymphenburg
Nymphenburg
Palace

Two large baroque palaces in Nymphenburg
Nymphenburg
and Oberschleissheim
Oberschleissheim
are reminders of Bavaria's royal past. Schloss Nymphenburg
Nymphenburg
(Nymphenburg Palace), some 6 km (4 mi) north west of the city centre, is surrounded by an impressive park and is considered to be one of Europe's most beautiful royal residences. 2 km (1 mi) northwest of Nymphenburg Palace
Nymphenburg Palace
is Schloss Blutenburg (Blutenburg Castle), an old ducal country seat with a late-Gothic palace church. Schloss Fürstenried (Fürstenried Palace), a baroque palace of similar structure to Nymphenburg
Nymphenburg
but of much smaller size, was erected around the same time in the south west of Munich. The second large baroque residence is Schloss Schleissheim (Schleissheim Palace), located in the suburb of Oberschleissheim, a palace complex encompassing three separate residences: Altes Schloss Schleissheim (the old palace), Neues Schloss Schleissheim (the new palace) and Schloss Lustheim (Lustheim Palace). Most parts of the palace complex serve as museums and art galleries. Deutsches Museum's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special
Special
Landing Field. The Bavaria
Bavaria
statue before the neo-classical Ruhmeshalle is a monumental, bronze sand-cast 19th-century statue at Theresienwiese. The Grünwald castle
Grünwald castle
is the only medieval castle in the Munich
Munich
area which still exists.

BMW
BMW
Headquarters

St Michael in Berg am Laim
Berg am Laim
might be the most remarkable church in the suburbs. Another church of Johann Michael Fischer
Johann Michael Fischer
is St George in Bogenhausen. Most of the boroughs have parish churches which originate from the Middle Ages like the most famous church of pilgrimage in Munich
Munich
St Mary in Ramersdorf. The oldest church within the city borders is Heilig Kreuz in Fröttmaning next to the Allianz-Arena, known for its Romanesque fresco. Especially in its suburbs, Munich features a wide and diverse array of modern architecture, although strict culturally sensitive height limitations for buildings have limited the construction of skyscrapers to avoid a loss of views to the distant Bavarian Alps. Most high-rise buildings are clustered at the northern edge of Munich
Munich
in the skyline, like the Hypo-Haus, the Arabella High-Rise Building, the Highlight Towers, Uptown Munich, Münchner Tor and the BMW Headquarters
BMW Headquarters
next to the Olympic Park. Several other high-rise buildings are located near the city centre and on the Siemens
Siemens
campus in southern Munich. A landmark of modern Munich is also the architecture of the sport stadiums (as described below). In Fasangarten is the former McGraw Kaserne, a former US army base, near Stadelheim Prison. Parks[edit]

Hofgarten with the dome of the state chancellery near the Residenz

Munich
Munich
is a densely-built city but still offers numerous public parks. The Englischer Garten, close to the city centre and covering an area of 3.7 km2 (1.4 sq mi) (larger than Central Park in New York), is one of the world's largest urban public parks. It contains a famous nudist area, numerous bicycle and jogging tracks as well as bridle-paths. It is considered the "green lung" of Munich
Munich
and one of the city's best-loved features. It was designed and laid out by Benjamin Thompson, Count of Rumford, for both pleasure and as a work area for the city's vagrants and homeless. Nowadays it is entirely a park, its southern half being dominated by wide and extremely well-kept open areas, hills, monuments and beach-like stretches (along the streams Eisbach and Schwabinger Bach), which get crowded in summer. In contrast, its less-frequented northern part is much more quiet, idyllic and natural-seeming, at times resembling a natural preserve more than an urban public park: it has lots of old trees, thick undergrowth, winding streams, hidden meadows and is pervaded by numerous romantic pathways. Multiple Biergartens can be found in both parts of the Englischer Garten, the most well known being located at the Chinese Pagoda. Other large green spaces are the modern Olympiapark, Westpark, and the parks of Nymphenburg Palace
Nymphenburg Palace
(with the Botanischer Garten München- Nymphenburg
Nymphenburg
to the north), and Schleissheim Palace. The city's oldest park is the Hofgarten, near the Residenz, dating back to the 16th century. Best known for the largest beergarden in town is the former royal Hirschgarten, founded in 1780 for deer, which still live there. The city's zoo is the Tierpark Hellabrunn
Tierpark Hellabrunn
near the Flaucher Island in the Isar
Isar
in the south of the city. Another notable park is Ostpark located in the Ramersdorf-Perlach
Ramersdorf-Perlach
borough which also houses the Michaelibad, the largest waterpark in Munich. Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Munich

Allianz
Allianz
Arena, the home stadium of Bayern Munich

Olympiasee in Olympiapark, Munich

Surfer on the Eisbach river wave.

Football[edit] Main article: Football in Munich Munich
Munich
is home to several professional football teams including Bayern Munich, Germany's most successful club and a multiple UEFA Champions League winner. Other notable clubs include 1860 Munich, who were long time their rivals on a somewhat equal footing, but at the moment play in the Regionalliga Bayern
Regionalliga Bayern
(4th tier) due to a relegation on financial grounds; and former Bundesliga club SpVgg Unterhaching
SpVgg Unterhaching
now playing in the 3. Liga. Basketball[edit] FC Bayern Munich
FC Bayern Munich
Basketball currently playing in Beko Basket Bundesliga. The city hosted the final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1993, where the German national basketball team
German national basketball team
won the gold medal. Ice hockey[edit] The city's ice hockey club is EHC Munich. Olympics[edit] Munich
Munich
hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics, where the Munich
Munich
Massacre took place. It was one of the host cities for the 2006 Football World Cup, which was not held in Munich's Olympic Stadium, but in a new football specific stadium, the Allianz
Allianz
Arena. Munich
Munich
bid to host the 2018 Winter Olympic Games, but lost to Pyeongchang.[19] In September 2011 the DOSB
DOSB
President Thomas Bach
Thomas Bach
confirmed that Munich
Munich
would bid again for the Winter Olympics in the future.[20] Marathon[edit] There are three annual road running events in Munich, the Munich Marathon in October, the company run B2Run in July and the New Year's Run on 31 December. Swimming[edit] Public sporting facilities in Munich
Munich
include ten indoor swimming pools[21] and eight outdoor swimming pools,[22] which are operated by the Munich
Munich
City Utilities (SWM) communal company,[23] while swimming within Munich's city limits is also possible in several artificial lakes such as for example the Riemer See
Riemer See
or the Langwieder lake district.[24] River surfing[edit] Munich
Munich
has a reputation as a surfing hotspot, offering the world's best known river surfing spot, the Eisbach wave, which is located at the southern edge of the Englischer Garten
Englischer Garten
park and used by surfers day and night and throughout the year.[25] Half a kilometre down the river, there is a second, easier wave for beginners, the so-called Kleine Eisbachwelle. Two further surf spots within the city are located along the river Isar, the wave in the Floßlände channel and a wave downstream of the Wittelsbacherbrücke bridge.[26] Culture[edit] Language[edit] Main article: Bavarian dialects The Bavarian dialects
Bavarian dialects
are spoken in and around Munich, with its variety Upper Bavarian (Oberbayrisch). Austro-Bavarian has no official status by the Bavarian authorities or local government, yet is recognised by the SIL and has its own ISO-639 code. Museums[edit]

The Glyptothek

Bavarian National Museum

The Deutsches Museum
Deutsches Museum
or German Museum, located on an island in the River Isar, is the largest and one of the oldest science museums in the world. Three redundant exhibition buildings that are under a protection order were converted to house the Verkehrsmuseum, which houses the land transport collections of the Deutsches Museum. Deutsches Museum's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special
Special
Landing Field. Several non-centralised museums (many of those are public collections at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität) show the expanded state collections of palaeontology, geology, mineralogy,[27] zoology, botany and anthropology. The city has several important art galleries, most of which can be found in the Kunstareal, including the Alte Pinakothek, the Neue Pinakothek, the Pinakothek der Moderne
Pinakothek der Moderne
and the Museum Brandhorst. Alte Pinakothek's monolithic structure contains a treasure trove of the works of European masters between the 14th and 18th centuries. The collection reflects the eclectic tastes of the Wittelsbachs over four centuries, and is sorted by schools over two sprawling floors. Major displays include Albrecht Dürer's Christ-like Self-Portrait, his Four Apostles, Raphael's paintings The Canigiani Holy Family and Madonna Tempi as well as Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
two-story-high Judgment Day. The gallery houses one of the world's most comprehensive Rubens collections. Before World War I, the Blaue Reiter group of artists worked in Munich. Many of their works can now be seen at the Lenbachhaus.

BMW
BMW
Welt

An important collection of Greek and Roman art is held in the Glyptothek
Glyptothek
and the Staatliche Antikensammlung (State Antiquities Collection). King Ludwig I managed to acquire such famous pieces as the Medusa Rondanini, the Barberini Faun
Barberini Faun
and figures from the Temple of Aphaea on Aegina
Aegina
for the Glyptothek. Another important museum in the Kunstareal
Kunstareal
is the Egyptian Museum. The famous gothic Morris dancers of Erasmus Grasser
Erasmus Grasser
are exhibited in the Munich
Munich
City Museum in the old gothic arsenal building in the inner city. Another area for the arts next to the Kunstareal
Kunstareal
is the Lehel quarter between the old town and the river Isar: the Museum Five Continents
Museum Five Continents
in Maximilianstraße is the second largest collection in Germany
Germany
of artefacts and objects from outside Europe, while the Bavarian National Museum and the adjoining Bavarian State Archaeological Collection
Bavarian State Archaeological Collection
in Prinzregentenstrasse
Prinzregentenstrasse
rank among Europe's major art and cultural history museums. The nearby Schackgalerie
Schackgalerie
is an important gallery of German 19th-century paintings. The former Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp
is 16 km (10 mi) outside the city. Arts and literature[edit] Munich
Munich
is a major European cultural centre and has played host to many prominent composers including Orlando di Lasso, W.A. Mozart, Carl Maria von Weber, Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss, Max Reger and Carl Orff. With the Munich Biennale founded by Hans Werner Henze, and the A*DEvantgarde festival, the city still contributes to modern music theatre. Some of classical music's best-known pieces have been created in and around Munich
Munich
by native composers, for example Richard Strauss's famous tone poem Also sprach Zarathustra or Carl Orff's Carmina Burana.

National Theatre

The Nationaltheater, where several of Richard Wagner's operas had their premieres under the patronage of Ludwig II of Bavaria, is the home of the Bavarian State Opera
Bavarian State Opera
and the Bavarian State Orchestra. Next door, the modern Residenz Theatre
Residenz Theatre
was erected in the building that had housed the Cuvilliés Theatre
Cuvilliés Theatre
before World War II. Many operas were staged there, including the premiere of Mozart's Idomeneo in 1781. The Gärtnerplatz Theatre is a ballet and musical state theatre while another opera house, the Prinzregententheater, has become the home of the Bavarian Theatre Academy. The modern Gasteig
Gasteig
centre houses the Munich Philharmonic
Munich Philharmonic
Orchestra. The third orchestra in Munich
Munich
with international importance is the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. Its primary concert venue is the Herkulessaal in the former city royal residence, the Munich
Munich
Residenz. Many important conductors have been attracted by the city's orchestras, including Felix Weingartner, Hans Pfitzner, Hans Rosbaud, Hans Knappertsbusch, Sergiu Celibidache, James Levine, Christian Thielemann, Lorin Maazel, Rafael Kubelík, Eugen Jochum, Sir Colin Davis, Mariss Jansons, Bruno Walter, Georg Solti, Zubin Mehta
Zubin Mehta
and Kent Nagano. A stage for shows, big events and musicals is the Deutsche Theater. It is Germany's largest theatre for guest performances.

The Golden Friedensengel

Munich's contributions to modern popular music are often overlooked in favour of its strong association with classical music, but they are numerous: the city has had a strong music scene in the 1960s and 1970s, with many internationally renowned bands and musicians frequently performing in its clubs. Furthermore, Munich
Munich
was the centre of Krautrock
Krautrock
in southern Germany, with many important bands such as Amon Düül II, Embryo or Popol Vuh hailing from the city. In the 1970s, the Musicland Studios
Musicland Studios
developed into one of the most prominent recording studios in the world, with famous bands such as the Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple
Deep Purple
and Queen recording albums there. Munich
Munich
also played a significant role in the development of electronic music, with genre pioneer Giorgio Moroder, who invented synth disco and electronic dance music, and Donna Summer, one of disco music's most important performers, both living and working in the city. In the late 1990s, Electroclash was substantially co-invented if not even invented in Munich, when DJ Hell
DJ Hell
introduced and assembled international pioneers of this musical genre through his International DeeJay Gigolo Records label here.[28] Other examples of notable musicians and bands from Munich
Munich
are Konstantin Wecker, Willy Astor, Spider Murphy Gang, Münchener Freiheit, Lou Bega, Megaherz, FSK, Colour Haze
Colour Haze
and Sportfreunde Stiller. Music is so important in the Bavarian capital that the city hall gives permissions every day to 10 musicians for performing in the streets around Marienplatz. This is how performers such as Olga Kholodnaya
Olga Kholodnaya
and Alex Jacobowitz
Alex Jacobowitz
are entertaining the locals and the tourists every day. Next to the Bavarian Staatsschauspiel in the Residenz Theatre (Residenztheater), the Munich Kammerspiele
Munich Kammerspiele
in the Schauspielhaus is one of the most important German language theatres in the world. Since Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's premieres in 1775 many important writers have staged their plays in Munich
Munich
such as Christian Friedrich Hebbel, Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
and Hugo von Hofmannsthal. The city is known as the second largest publishing centre in the world (around 250 publishing houses have offices in the city), and many national and international publications are published in Munich, such as Arts in Munich, LAXMag and Prinz. At the turn of the 20th century, Munich, and especially its suburb of Schwabing, was the preeminent cultural metropolis of Germany. Its importance as a centre for both literature and the fine arts was second to none in Europe, with numerous German and non-German artists moving there. For example, Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky
chose Munich
Munich
over Paris to study at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, and, along with many other painters and writers living in Schwabing
Schwabing
at that time, had a profound influence on modern art. Prominent literary figures worked in Munich
Munich
especially during the final decades of the Kingdom of Bavaria, the so-called Prinzregentenzeit (literally "prince regent's time") under the reign of Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria, a period often described as a cultural Golden Age for both Munich
Munich
and Bavaria
Bavaria
as a whole. Among them were luminaries such as Thomas Mann, Heinrich Mann, Paul Heyse, Rainer Maria Rilke, Ludwig Thoma, Fanny zu Reventlow, Oskar Panizza, Gustav Meyrink, Max Halbe, Erich Mühsam
Erich Mühsam
and Frank Wedekind. For a short while, even Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
lived in Schwabing, where he wrote and published his most important work, What Is to Be Done?
What Is to Be Done?
Central to Schwabing's bohemian scene (although they were actually often located in the nearby Maxvorstadt
Maxvorstadt
quarter) were Künstlerlokale (artist's cafés) like Café Stefanie
Café Stefanie
or Kabarett Simpl, whose liberal ways differed fundamentally from Munich's more traditional localities. The Simpl, which survives to this day (although with little relevance to the city's contemporary art scene), was named after Munich's famous anti-authoritarian satirical magazine Simplicissimus, founded in 1896 by Albert Langen
Albert Langen
and Thomas Theodor Heine, which quickly became an important organ of the Schwabinger Bohème. Its strikingly modern caricatures and biting satirical attacks on Wilhelmine German society were the result of countless of collaborative efforts by many of the best visual artists and writers from Munich
Munich
and elsewhere. The period immediately before World War I
World War I
saw continued economic and cultural prominence for the city. Thomas Mann
Thomas Mann
wrote somewhat ironically in his novella Gladius Dei about this period: "München leuchtete" (literally " Munich
Munich
shone"). Munich
Munich
remained a centre of cultural life during the Weimar period, with figures such as Lion Feuchtwanger, Bertolt Brecht, Peter Paul Althaus, Stefan George, Ricarda Huch, Joachim Ringelnatz, Oskar Maria Graf, Annette Kolb, Ernst Toller, Hugo Ball
Hugo Ball
and Klaus Mann
Klaus Mann
adding to the already established big names. Karl Valentin
Karl Valentin
was Germany's most important cabaret performer and comedian and is to this day well-remembered and beloved as a cultural icon of his hometown. Between 1910 and 1940, he wrote and performed in many absurdist sketches and short films that were highly influential, earning him the nickname of "Charlie Chaplin of Germany". Many of Valentin's works wouldn't be imaginable without his congenial female partner Liesl Karlstadt, who often played male characters to hilarious effect in their sketches. After World War II, Munich
Munich
soon again became a focal point of the German literary scene and remains so to this day, with writers as diverse as Wolfgang Koeppen, Erich Kästner, Eugen Roth, Alfred Andersch, Elfriede Jelinek, Hans Magnus Enzensberger, Michael Ende, Franz Xaver Kroetz, Gerhard Polt, John Vincent Palatine and Patrick Süskind calling the city their home. From the Gothic to the Baroque
Baroque
era, the fine arts were represented in Munich
Munich
by artists like Erasmus Grasser, Jan Polack, Johann Baptist Straub, Ignaz Günther, Hans Krumpper, Ludwig von Schwanthaler, Cosmas Damian Asam, Egid Quirin Asam, Johann Baptist Zimmermann, Johann Michael Fischer and François de Cuvilliés. Munich
Munich
had already become an important place for painters like Carl Rottmann, Lovis Corinth, Wilhelm von Kaulbach, Carl Spitzweg, Franz von Lenbach, Franz von Stuck, Karl Piloty
Karl Piloty
and Wilhelm Leibl
Wilhelm Leibl
when Der Blaue Reiter
Der Blaue Reiter
(The Blue Rider), a group of expressionist artists, was established in Munich
Munich
in 1911. The city was home to the Blue Rider's painters Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Alexej von Jawlensky, Gabriele Münter, Franz Marc, August Macke
August Macke
and Alfred Kubin. Kandinsky's first abstract painting was created in Schwabing. Munich
Munich
was (and in some cases, still is) home to many of the most important authors of the New German Cinema movement, including Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Werner Herzog, Edgar Reitz
Edgar Reitz
and Herbert Achternbusch. In 1971, the Filmverlag der Autoren was founded, cementing the city's role in the movement's history. Munich
Munich
served as the location for many of Fassbinder's films, among them Ali: Fear Eats the Soul. The Hotel Deutsche Eiche near Gärtnerplatz was somewhat like a centre of operations for Fassbinder and his "clan" of actors. New German Cinema is considered by far the most important artistic movement in German cinema history since the era of German Expressionism in the 1920s. In 1919, the Bavaria
Bavaria
Film Studios were founded, which developed into one of Europe's biggest film studios. Famous directors like Alfred Hitchcock, Billy Wilder, Orson Welles, John Huston, Ingmar Bergman, Stanley Kubrick, Claude Chabrol, Fritz Umgelter, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Wolfgang Petersen and Wim Wenders
Wim Wenders
made films there. Among the internationally well-known films produced at the studios are The Pleasure Garden by Alfred Hitchcock, The Great Escape by John Sturges, Paths of Glory
Paths of Glory
by Stanley Kubrick, Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory by Mel Stuart and both Das Boot
Das Boot
and The Neverending Story by Wolfgang Petersen. To this day, Munich
Munich
remains one of the centres of the German film and entertainment industry. Hofbräuhaus
Hofbräuhaus
and Oktoberfest[edit] Main article: Oktoberfest

Hofbräuhaus

Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
(2003)

The Hofbräuhaus
Hofbräuhaus
am Platzl, arguably the most famous beer hall worldwide, is located in the city centre. It also operates the second largest tent at the Oktoberfest, one of Munich's most famous attractions. For two weeks, the Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
attracts millions of people visiting its beer tents ("Bierzelte") and fairground attractions. The Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
was first held on 12 October 1810 in honour of the marriage of crown prince Ludwig to Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen. The festivities were closed with a horse race and in the following years the horse races were continued and later developed into what is now known as the Oktoberfest. Despite its name, most of Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
occurs in September. It always finishes on the first Sunday in October unless the German national holiday on 3 October (Tag der deutschen Einheit, i. e., "Day of German Unity") is a Monday or Tuesday – then the Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
remains open for these days. Culinary specialities[edit]

Weisswürste with sweet mustard and a pretzel

Münchner Weißwurst ('white sausage') was invented here in 1857. It is a Munich
Munich
speciality. Traditionally eaten only before noon – a tradition dating to a time before refrigerators – these morsels are often served with sweet mustard and freshly baked pretzels. Beers and breweries[edit]

Munich
Munich
Hofbräuhaus
Hofbräuhaus
beer

Munich
Munich
is famous for its breweries and the Weissbier
Weissbier
(or Weißbier / Weizenbier, wheat beer) is a speciality from Bavaria. Helles, a pale lager with a translucent gold colour is the most popular Munich
Munich
beer today, although it's not old (only introduced in 1895) and is the result of a change in beer tastes. Helles
Helles
has largely replaced Munich's dark beer, Dunkles, which gets its colour from roasted malt. It was the typical beer in Munich
Munich
in the 19th century, but today it is more of a speciality. Starkbier is the strongest Munich
Munich
beer, containing 6%–9% alcohol. It is dark amber in colour and has a heavy malty taste. It is available and popular during the Lenten Starkbierzeit (strong beer season), which begins on or before St. Joseph's Day (19 March). The beer served at Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
is a special type of Märzen beer with a higher alcohol content than regular Helles. There are countless Wirtshäuser (traditional Bavarian ale houses/restaurants) all over the city area, many of which also have small outside areas. Biergärten (beer gardens) are the most famous and popular fixtures of Munich's gastronomic landscape. They are central to the city's culture and serve as a kind of melting pot for members of all walks of life, for locals, expatriates and tourists alike. It is allowed to bring one's own food to a beer garden, however, it is forbidden to bring one's own drinks. There are many smaller beer gardens and around twenty major ones, providing at least one thousand seats, with four of the most famous and popular in the Englischer Garten: Chinesischer Turm (Munich's second largest beer garden with 7,000 seats), Seehaus, Hirschau and Aumeister. Among locals, connoisseurs and well-informed tourists, Augustiner-Keller, near Hauptbahnhof (central station) at Arnulfstraße, is one of the most popular beer gardens in the city, since it is the only one in which Munich's most popular beer, Augustiner, is drawn from wooden barrels. Nockherberg, Hofbräukeller (not to be confused with the Hofbräuhaus) and Löwenbräukeller are other famous beer gardens. Hirschgarten is the largest beer garden in the world, with 8,000 seats. There are six main breweries in Munich:

Augustiner brewery in Munich

Augustiner-Bräu Hacker-Pschorr Hofbräu Löwenbräu Paulaner Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu
Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu
(separate brands Spaten and Franziskaner, the latter of which mainly for Weissbier)

Also popular, though not from Munich
Munich
and thus without the right to have a tent at the Oktoberfest, are especially Tegernseer
Tegernseer
and Schneider Weisse, the latter of which has a major beer hall in Munich just as the Munich
Munich
breweries do. Smaller breweries are becoming more prevalent in Munich, such as Giesinger Bräu.[29] However, these breweries do not have tents at Oktoberfest. Markets[edit]

Viktualienmarkt
Viktualienmarkt
from above

The Viktualienmarkt
Viktualienmarkt
is Munich's most popular market for fresh food and delicatessen. A very old feature of Munich's Fasching (carnival) is the dance of the Marktfrauen (market women) of the Viktualienmarkt
Viktualienmarkt
in comical costumes. The Auer Dult
Auer Dult
is held three times a year on the square around Mariahilf church and is one of Munich's oldest markets, well known for its hardware, trinkets and antiques. Three weeks before Christmas, the Christkindlmarkt opens at Marienplatz
Marienplatz
and other squares in the city, selling Christmas goods. Nightlife[edit]

Nightclub in Munich
Munich
(Harry Klein)

Nightlife
Nightlife
in Munich
Munich
is located mostly in the city centre (Altstadt-Lehel) and the boroughs Maxvorstadt, Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt, Au-Haidhausen
Au-Haidhausen
and Schwabing. Between Sendlinger Tor
Sendlinger Tor
and Maximiliansplatz lies the so-called Feierbanane (party banana), a roughly banana-shaped unofficial party zone spanning 1.3 kilometres (0.8 miles) along Sonnenstraße, characterised by a high concentration of clubs, bars and restaurants. In recent years, the Feierbanane has become the mainstream focus of Munich's nightlife and tends to get quite crowded, especially on weekends. It also has sparked some debate among city officials regarding alcohol-related security issues and the party zone's general impact on local residents as well as day-time businesses. Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt's two main quarters, Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glockenbachviertel, are both considered decidedly less mainstream than most other nightlife hotspots in the city and are renowned for their many hip and laid back bars and clubs as well as for being Munich's main centres of gay culture. On warm spring or summer nights, hundreds of young people can be seen gathering at Gärtnerplatz, where they lay down in the grass to relax, talk with friends and drink beer, occupying most of the square's available space in the process. Maxvorstadt
Maxvorstadt
has many smaller bars that are especially popular with university students, whereas Schwabing, once Munich's first and foremost party district with legendary clubs such as Big Apple, PN, Domicile, Hot Club, Piper Club, Tiffany, Germany's first large-scale disco Blow Up and the underwater nightclub Yellow Submarine as well as many bars such as Schwabinger 7
Schwabinger 7
or Schwabinger Podium,[28] has lost much of its nightlife activity in the last decades, mainly due to gentrification and the resulting high rents. It has become the city's most coveted and expensive residential district, attracting affluent citizens with little interest in partying. Since the mid-1990s, the Kunstpark Ost and its successor Kultfabrik, a former industrial complex that was converted to a large party area near München Ostbahnhof
München Ostbahnhof
in Berg am Laim, hosted more than 30 clubs and was especially popular among younger people and residents of the metropolitan area surrounding Munich.[30] The Kultfabrik was closed at the end of the year 2015 to convert the area into a residential and office area. Apart from the Kultfarbik and the smaller Optimolwerke, there is a wide variety of establishments in the urban parts of nearby Haidhausen. Before the Kunstpark Ost, there had already been an accumulation of internationally known nightclubs in the remains of the abandoned former Munich-Riem Airport. Munich
Munich
nightlife tends to change dramatically and quickly. Establishments open and close every year, and some survive only a few months, while others last many years. Beyond the already mentioned venues of the 1960s and 1970s, nightclubs with international recognition in recent history included Tanzlokal Größenwahn, Atomic Cafe, Ultraschall, KW – Das Heizkraftwerk, Natraj Temple and Babalu Bar. From 1995 to 2001, Munich
Munich
was also home to the Union Move, one of the largest technoparades in Germany. Munich
Munich
has two directly connected gay quarters, which basically can be seen as one: Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glockenbachviertel, both part of the Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt
Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt
district. Freddie Mercury
Freddie Mercury
had an apartment near the Gärtnerplatz and transsexual icon Romy Haag
Romy Haag
had a club in the city centre for many years. Munich
Munich
has more than 100 night clubs and thousands of bars and restaurants within city limits.[31][32]

Kronebau at night

Some notable nightclubs are: popular techno clubs are MMA Club (Mixed Munich
Munich
Arts), Blitz Music Club, Harry Klein, Rote Sonne, Bahnwärter Thiel, Bob Beaman, Pimpernel, Charlie and Palais. Popular mixed music clubs are Call me Drella, Cord, Wannda Circus, Tonhalle and Backstage. High society clubs are the P1 and Pacha Munich. Some notable bars (pubs are located all over the city) are Charles Schumann's Cocktail Bar, Havana Club, Sehnsucht, Bar Centrale, Ksar, Holy Home, Eat the Rich, Negroni, Die Goldene Bar and Bei Otto (a bavarian-style pub). Circus[edit] The Circus Krone
Circus Krone
based in Munich
Munich
is one of the largest circuses in Europe.[33] It was the first and still is one of only a few in Western Europe to also occupy a building of its own. Education[edit] Colleges and universities[edit]

Main building of the LMU

Main building of the Technical University

University of Applied Sciences (HM)

TU Munich's Garching Campus

Academy of Fine Arts Munich

University of Television and Film

Munich
Munich
is a leading location for science and research with a long list of Nobel Prize laureates from Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1901 to Theodor Hänsch in 2005. Munich
Munich
has become a spiritual centre already since the times of Emperor Louis IV when philosophers like Michael of Cesena, Marsilius of Padua
Marsilius of Padua
and William of Ockham
William of Ockham
were protected at the emperor's court. The Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU) and the Technische Universität München
Technische Universität München
(TU or TUM), were two of the first three German universities to be awarded the title elite university by a selection committee composed of academics and members of the Ministries of Education and Research of the Federation and the German states (Länder). Only the two Munich
Munich
universities and the Technical University of Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
(now part of Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
Institute of Technology) have held this honour, and the implied greater chances of attracting research funds, since the first evaluation round in 2006.

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
(LMU), founded in 1472 in Ingolstadt, moved to Munich
Munich
in 1826 Technical University of Munich
Technical University of Munich
(TUM), founded in 1868 Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, founded in 1808 Bundeswehr University Munich, founded in 1973 (located in Neubiberg) Deutsche Journalistenschule, founded in 1959 Bayerische Akademie für Außenwirtschaft, founded in 1989 Hochschule für Musik und Theater München, founded in 1830 International Max Planck
Max Planck
Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences International School of Management[34] Katholische Stiftungsfachhochschule München, founded in 1971 Munich Business School
Munich Business School
(MBS), founded in 1991 Munich Intellectual Property Law Center (MIPLC) Munich
Munich
School of Philosophy, founded in 1925 in Pullach, moved to Munich
Munich
in 1971 Munich
Munich
School of Political Science Munich University of Applied Sciences
Munich University of Applied Sciences
(HM), founded in 1971 New European College, founded in 2014 Pionierschule und Fachschule des Heeres für Bautechnik Ukrainian Free University, founded in 1921 (from 1945 – in Munich) University of Television and Film Munich
University of Television and Film Munich
(Hochschule für Fernsehen und Film), founded in 1966 Globe Business College Munich

Primary and secondary schools[edit] Grundschule in Munich:

Grundschule an der Gebelestraße Grund- und Mittelschule an der Hochstraße Grundschule Flurstraße Grundschule an der Stuntzstraße Ernst-Reuter-Grundschule Grundschule Gertrud Bäumer Straße Grundschule an der Südlichen Auffahrtsallee

Gymnasiums in Munich:

Maria-Theresia-Gymnasium Gymnasium Max-Josef-Stift Luitpold Gymnasium Edith-Stein-Gymnasium der Erzdiözese München und Freising Städtisches St.-Anna-Gymnasium Wilhelmsgymnasium Städtisches Luisengymnasium Wittelsbacher Gymnasium

Realschule in Munich:

Städt. Fridtjof-Nansen-Realschule Städtische Adalbert-Stifter-Realschule Maria Ward Mädchenrealschule Städtische Ricarda-Huch-Realschule Isar
Isar
Realschule München Städtische Hermann-Frieb Realschule

International schools in Munich:

Lycée Jean Renoir (French school) Japanische Internationale Schule München Bavarian International School Munich
Munich
International School

Scientific research institutions[edit]

Fraunhofer Headquarters in Munich

Max Planck
Max Planck
Society[edit] The Max Planck
Max Planck
Society, an independent German non-profit research organisation, has its administrative headquarters in Munich. The following institutes are located in the Munich
Munich
area:

Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute for Astrophysics, Garching Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute for Foreign and International Social Law, München Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute for Intellectual Property, Competition and Tax Law, München Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute for Ornithology, Andechs-Erling (Biological Rhythms and Behaviour), Radolfzell, Seewiesen (Reproductive Biology and Behaviour)[35] Max Planck Institute for Physics
Max Planck Institute for Physics
( Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
Institute), München Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (also in Greifswald) Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute of Psychiatry, München Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute for Psychological Research, München (closed) Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching

Fraunhofer Society[edit] The Fraunhofer Society, the German non-profit research organization for applied research, has its headquarters in Munich. The following institutes are located in the Munich
Munich
area:

Applied and Integrated Security – AISEC Embedded Systems and Communication - ESK Modular Solid-State Technologies - EMFT Building Physics – IBP Process Engineering and Packaging – IVV

Other research institutes[edit]

Botanische Staatssammlung München, a notable herbarium CESifo, theoretical and applied research in economics and finance Doerner Institute European Southern Observatory Helmholtz Zentrum München Zoologische Staatssammlung München

Economy[edit]

BMW Headquarters
BMW Headquarters
building (one of the few buildings that has been built from the top to the bottom) and the bowl shaped BMW
BMW
museum

Siemens-Forum in Munich

The HypoVereinsbank
HypoVereinsbank
tower

Munich
Munich
has the strongest economy of any German city[36] and the lowest unemployment rate (3.0% in June 2014) of any German city of more than a million people (the others being Berlin, Hamburg
Hamburg
and Cologne).[37][38] The city is also the economic centre of southern Germany. The initiative "Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft (INSM)" (New Social Market Economy) and the magazine WirtschaftsWoche (Business Weekly) awarded Munich
Munich
the top score in its comparative survey for the third time in June 2006. Munich
Munich
topped the ranking of the magazine Capital in February 2005 for the economic prospects between 2002 and 2011 in 60 German cities. Munich
Munich
is a financial centre and a global city and holds the headquarters of Siemens
Siemens
AG (electronics), BMW
BMW
(car), MAN AG (truck manufacturer, engineering), Linde (gases), Allianz
Allianz
(insurance), Munich Re (re-insurance), and Rohde & Schwarz (electronics). Among German cities with more than 500,000 inhabitants, purchasing power is highest in Munich
Munich
(€26,648 per inhabitant) as of 2007[update].[39] In 2006, Munich
Munich
blue-collar workers enjoyed an average hourly wage of €18.62 (ca. $20).[40] The breakdown by cities proper (not metropolitan areas) of Global 500 cities listed Munich
Munich
in 8th position in 2009.[41] Munich
Munich
is also a centre for biotechnology, software and other service industries. Munich
Munich
is also the home of the headquarters of many other large companies such as the aircraft engine manufacturer MTU Aero Engines, the injection moulding machine manufacturer Krauss-Maffei, the camera and lighting manufacturer Arri, the semiconductor firm Infineon Technologies (headquartered in the suburban town of Neubiberg), lighting giant Osram, as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as McDonald's
McDonald's
and Microsoft. Munich
Munich
has significance as a financial centre (second only to Frankfurt), being home of HypoVereinsbank
HypoVereinsbank
and the Bayerische Landesbank. It outranks Frankfurt
Frankfurt
though as home of insurance companies such as Allianz
Allianz
and Munich
Munich
Re.[42] Munich
Munich
is the largest publishing city in Europe[43] and home to the Süddeutsche Zeitung, one of Germany's largest daily newspapers. The city is also the location of the programming headquarters of Germany's largest public broadcasting network, ARD, while the largest commercial network, Pro7-Sat1 Media AG, is headquartered in the suburb of Unterföhring. The headquarters of the German branch of Random House, the world's largest publishing house, and of Burda publishing group are also in Munich. The Bavaria
Bavaria
Film Studios are located in the suburb of Grünwald. They are one of Europe's biggest and most famous film production studios.[44] Top 10 largest companies in Munich
Munich
(2016)[edit]

Employer

est. Munich
Munich
located employees[45]

BMW 1916 34.500

Technische Universität München 1868 9.800

Stadtwerke München 1998 9.700

MAN SE 1758 9.200

Siemens 1847 9.000

Allianz 1890 8.500

Linde AG 1879 8.000

Munich
Munich
Airport 1992 7.500

Munich
Munich
Re 1880 3.600

Stadtsparkasse München 1824 3.000

Transport[edit] The trade fair transport logistic is held every two years at the Neue Messe München (Messe München International). Munich
Munich
International Airport[edit]

Munich
Munich
International Airport (MUC)

Franz Josef Strauss
Franz Josef Strauss
International Airport (IATA: MUC, ICAO: EDDM) is the second-largest airport in Germany
Germany
and seventh-largest in Europe after London
London
Heathrow, Paris
Paris
Charle de Gaulle, Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Madrid and Istanbul Atatürk. It is used by about 34 million passengers a year, and lies some 30 km (19 mi) north east of the city centre. It replaced the smaller Munich-Riem airport in 1992. The airport can be reached by suburban train lines S8 from the east and S1 from the west of the city. From the main railway station the journey takes 40–45 minutes. An express train will be added that will cut down travel time to 20–25 minutes with limited stops on dedicated tracks. A magnetic levitation train (called Transrapid), which was to have run at speeds of up to 400 km/h (249 mph) from the central station to the airport in a travel time of 10 minutes, had been approved,[46] but was cancelled in March 2008 because of cost escalation and after heavy protests.[47] Lufthansa opened its second hub at the airport when Terminal 2 was opened in 2003. Other airports[edit] In 2008, the Bavarian state government granted a license to expand Oberpfaffenhofen Air Station located west of Munich, for commercial use. These plans were opposed by many residents in the Oberpfaffenhofen area as well as other branches of local Government, including the city of Munich, which took the case to court.[48] However, in October 2009, the permit allowing up to 9725 business flights per year to depart from or land at Oberpfaffenhofen was confirmed by a regional judge.[49] Despite being 110 km (68 mi) from Munich, Memmingen
Memmingen
Airport has been advertised as Airport Munich
Munich
West. After 2005, passenger traffic of nearby Augsburg
Augsburg
Airport was relocated to Munich
Munich
Airport, leaving the Augsburg
Augsburg
region of Bavaria
Bavaria
without an air passenger airport within close reach. München Hauptbahnhof[edit] Main article: München Hauptbahnhof

Munich
Munich
main railway station

München Hauptbahnhof
München Hauptbahnhof
is the main railway station located in the city centre. The first Munich
Munich
station was built about 800 metres to the west in 1839. A station at the current site was opened in 1849 and it has been rebuilt numerous times, including to replace the main station building, which was badly damaged during World War II. München Hauptbahnhof
München Hauptbahnhof
is one of the three long distance stations in Munich, the others being München Ost (to the east) and München- Pasing
Pasing
(to the west). All three are connected to the public transport system and serve as transportation hubs. München Hauptbahnhof sees about 450,000 passengers a day, which puts it on par with other large stations in Germany, such as Hamburg
Hamburg
Hauptbahnhof and Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Hauptbahnhof. It and München Ost are two of the 21 stations in Germany
Germany
classified by Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
as a category 1 station. The mainline station is a terminal station with 32 platforms. The subterranean S-Bahn with 2 platforms and U-Bahn stations with 6 platforms are through stations.[50][51] ICE highspeed trains stop at Munich- Pasing
Pasing
and Munich-Hauptbahnhof only. InterCity
InterCity
and EuroCity
EuroCity
trains to destinations east of Munich also stop at Munich
Munich
East. Since 28 May 2006 Munich
Munich
has been connected to Nuremberg
Nuremberg
via Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
by the 300 km/h (186 mph) Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway
Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway
line. Public transportation[edit]

Public transport network

For its urban population of 2.6 million people, Munich
Munich
and its closest suburbs have one of the most comprehensive in the world, incorporating the Munich U-Bahn
Munich U-Bahn
(underground railway), the Munich S-Bahn (suburban trains), trams and buses. The system is supervised by the Munich Transport and Tariff Association
Munich Transport and Tariff Association
(Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund GmbH). The Munich tramway
Munich tramway
is the oldest existing public transportation system in the city, which has been in operation since 1876. Munich
Munich
also has an extensive network of bus lines.

Westfriedhof platform of the Munich
Munich
U-Bahn

The extensive network of subway and tram lines assist and complement pedestrian movement in the city centre. The 700m-long Kaufinger Strasse, which starts near the Main train station, forms a pedestrian east-west spine that traverses almost the entire centre. Similarly, Weinstrasse leads off northwards to the Hofgarten. These major spines and many smaller streets cover an extensive area of the centre that can be enjoyed on foot and bike. The transformation of the historic area into a pedestrian priority zone enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and enjoyable. These attributes result from applying the principle of "filtered permability", which selectively restricts the number of roads that run through the centre. While certain streets are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths, which permeate the entire centre. In addition, these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip (see image). The logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts – the Fused Grid. Munich
Munich
Public Transportation Statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Munich, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 56 min. 11% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 10 min, while 6% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 9.2 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[52] Individual transportation[edit]

Munich
Munich
motorway network

The Mariensäule (Mary's column)

Munich
Munich
is an integral part of the motorway network of southern Germany. Motorways from Stuttgart
Stuttgart
(W), Nuremberg, Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Berlin (N), Deggendorf
Deggendorf
and Passau
Passau
(E), Salzburg
Salzburg
and Innsbruck
Innsbruck
(SE), Garmisch Partenkirchen (S) and Lindau
Lindau
(SW) terminate at Munich, allowing direct access to the different parts of Germany, Austria
Austria
and Italy. Traffic, however, is often very heavy in and around Munich. Traffic jams are commonplace during rush hour as well as at the beginning and end of major holidays in Germany. There are few "green waves" or roundabouts, and the city's prosperity often causes an abundance of obstructive construction sites. Other contributing factors are the extraordinarily high rates of car ownership per capita (multiple times that of Berlin), the city's historically grown and largely preserved centralised urban structure, which leads to a very high concentration of traffic in specific areas, and sometimes poor planning (for example bad traffic light synchronisation and a less than ideal ring road). Cycling[edit] Main article: Cycling in Munich Cycling has a strong presence in the city and is recognised as a good alternative to motorised transport. The growing number of bicycle lanes are widely used throughout the year. Munich
Munich
cyclists have a reputation for being quite daring or even careless, being frequently seen as a nuisance by drivers, especially when their numbers multiply in the warmer months. Cycle paths can be found alongside the majority of sidewalks and streets, although the newer and/or renovated ones are much easier to tell apart from pavements than older ones. The cycle paths usually involve a longer route than by the road, as they are diverted around objects, and the presence of pedestrians can make them quite slow. A modern bike hire system is available within the area bounded by the Mittlerer Ring. Around Munich[edit] Nearby towns[edit] The Munich
Munich
agglomeration sprawls across the plain of the Alpine foothills comprising about 2.6 million inhabitants. Several smaller traditional Bavarian towns and cities like Dachau, Freising, Erding, Starnberg, Landshut
Landshut
and Moosburg
Moosburg
are today part of the Greater Munich
Munich
Region, formed by Munich
Munich
and the surrounding districts, making up the Munich
Munich
Metropolitan Region, which has a population of about 6 million people.[4]

Dachau

Erding

Freising

Fürstenfeldbruck

Landsberg

Landshut

Moosburg

Starnberg

Recreation[edit] South of Munich, there are numerous nearby freshwater lakes such as Lake Starnberg, Ammersee, Chiemsee, Walchensee, Kochelsee, Tegernsee, Schliersee, Simssee, Staffelsee, Wörthsee, Kirchsee and the Osterseen (Easter Lakes), which are popular among the people of Munich
Munich
for recreation, swimming and watersports and can be quickly reached by car and a few also by Munich's S-Bahn.[53]

Lake Starnberg

Ammersee

Chiemsee

Walchensee

Tegernsee

Great Easterlake

Kirchsee

Simssee

Wörthsee

International relations[edit]

Plaque in the Neues Rathaus (New City Hall) showing Munich's twin towns and sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Munich
Munich
is twinned with the following cities (date of agreement shown in parentheses).[54]

Edinburgh, United Kingdom, (1954)[55][56] Verona, Italy
Italy
(1960)[57] Bordeaux, France
France
(1964)[58][59] Sapporo, Japan
Japan
(1972) Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
United States
(1989) Kiev, Ukraine
Ukraine
(1989) Harare, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(1996)

Famous people[edit] See also: List of honorary citizens of Munich Born in Munich[edit]

Entertainment

Herbert Achternbusch, born in 1938, film director Percy Adlon, born in 1935, film director Briana Banks, born in 1978, porn actress Moritz Bleibtreu, born in 1971, actor Gedeon Burkhard, born in 1969, actor Andy Fetscher, born in 1980, film director, cinematographer and screenplay writer Therese Giehse, 1898–1975, actress Michael Haneke, born in 1942, filmmaker and writer Werner Herzog, born in 1942, film director Curd Jürgens, 1915–1982, actor Max Neal, 1865–1941, dramatist Uschi Obermaier, born in 1946, sex symbol of the late sixties Lola Randl, born in 1980, film director and screenwriter Wolfgang Reitherman, 1909–1985, animator and director of Disney movies Jeri Ryan, actress, born in 1968 Julia Stegner, born in 1984, top model Karl Valentin, 1882–1948, comedian, author and film producer Fritz Wepper, born in 1941, actor Nico Liersch, born in 2000, actor

Fashion designers

Willy Bogner, born in 1942, fashion designer and director of photography Rudolph Moshammer, 1940–2005, fashion designer

Musicians

Lou Bega, born in 1975, singer-songwriter Harold Faltermeyer, born in 1952, composer and record producer Joey Heindle, born in 1993, DSDS participant in season 9.[60] Lubomyr Melnyk, born in 1948, composer and pianist Nick Menza, born in 1968, Megadeth
Megadeth
drummer Brent Mydland, born in 1952, Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
keyboardist Charles Oberthür, 1819–1895, composer Carl Orff, 1895–1982, composer Wolfgang Sawallisch, 1923–2013, conductor and pianist Ralph Siegel, born in 1945, composer Sportfreunde Stiller, popular German rock band Richard Strauss, 1864–1949, composer

Nobel Prize laureates

Eduard Buchner, 1860–1917, chemist and Nobel Prize winner Ernst Otto Fischer, 1918–2007, chemist and Nobel Prize winner Robert Huber, born in 1937, chemist and Nobel Prize winner Wassily Leontief, 1905–1999, economist and Nobel Prize winner Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen, 1911–1979, biochemist and Nobel Prize winner Rudolf Mössbauer, 1929–2011, physicist and Nobel Prize winner Arno Allan Penzias, born in 1933, physicist and Nobel Prize winner

Nobility

Elisabeth of Bavaria, 1837–1898, Empress "Sisi" of Austria Isabeau of Bavaria, 1371–1435, queen-consort of France Ludwig II the Dream King, at Nymphenburg Sophie, Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein, born in 1967

Painters

Franz Marc, 1880–1916, painter Karl von Piloty, 1826–1886, painter

Politicians

Carl Amery, 1922–2005, writer, President of the German PEN Center and founding member of the German Green Party Leon Feuchtwanger, 1884–1958, writer Heinrich Himmler, 1900–1945, leading member of the Nazi Party, main perpetrator of the Holocaust Dr. Carljörg Lacherbauer, 1902–1967, co-founder of Christian Social Union (CSU), Post-war mayor and secretary of the Department of Justice Heinrich Müller, 1900–1945, chief of the Gestapo Franz Josef Strauss, 1915–1988, Minister-President of the Free State of Bavaria

Professional Athletes

Franz Beckenbauer, born in 1945, former footballer and honorary president of Bayern Munich Korbinian Holzer, born in 1988, ice hockey player who currently plays in the NHL for the Toronto Maple Leafs Fabian Johnson, born in 1987, German born soccer player who plays for Borussia Monchengladbach and the United States
United States
National Team Philipp Lahm, born in 1983, footballer who played for Bayern Munich Christoph Schubert, born in 1982, Ice hockey Player who currently plays in the NHL for the Winnipeg Jets Frank Shorter, born 1947, champion distance runner

Writers

Lion Feuchtwanger, 1884-1958, writer Golo Mann, 1909–1994, writer Klaus Mann, 1906–1949, writer Eugen Roth, 1895–1976, writer Simran Sethi, born in 1970, environmental journalist Angie Westhoff, born in 1965, children's author

Others

Andreas Baader, 1943–1977, Red Army Faction
Red Army Faction
leader Eva Braun, 1912–1945, Adolf Hitler's mistress and later wife Adolf Abraham Halevi Fraenkel, 1891–1965, mathematician Franz Xaver Gabelsberger, 1789–1849, inventor of the Gabelsberger shorthand writing system Jean Baptiste Holzmayer, 1839–1890, teacher, archaeologist and folklorist Traudl Humps, 1920–2002, Adolf Hitler's personal secretary during the Second World War Dr. E. Lee Spence, born in 1947, pioneer underwater archaeologist and shipwreck historian

Notable residents[edit]

Max Emanuel Ainmiller
Max Emanuel Ainmiller
painter Pope Benedict XVI, born Joseph Ratzinger, former Archbishop of Munich-Freising Gudrun Burwitz, daughter of Heinrich Himmler Manfred Eicher, record producer and founder of ECM Records Albert Einstein, 1879–1955, Nobel Prize–winning physicist, grew up in Munich Hans Magnus Enzensberger, born 1929, author Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 1945–1982, film director Roger C. Field, inventor, industrial designer Joseph von Fraunhofer, optician Asger Hamerik, composer Werner Heisenberg, Nobel Prize–winning physicist Adolf Hitler, home address is 16, Prinzregentenplatz Brigitte Horney, actress (Münchhausen) Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet, who received his PhD from Munich
Munich
in 1907 Wassily Kandinsky, 1866–1944, painter* Erich Kästner, author Erich Kästner
Erich Kästner
(camera designer), movie camera designer, chief designer at ARRI Orlande de Lassus, composer Franz von Lenbach, painter Vladimir Lenin, Russian revolutionary Justus von Liebig, chemist Ernst Mach, physicist and philosopher Sepp Maier, born 1944, football goalkeeper Thomas Mann, 1875–1955, Nobel Prize–winning author Helene Mayer, fencer Freddie Mercury, lead singer of Queen

Wilhelm Emil "Willy" Messerschmitt, German aircraft designer and manufacturer Lola Montez, courtesan to King Ludwig I Gerd Müller, born 1945, footballer David Dalhoff Neal, painter William of Ockham, English medieval philosopher Georg Ohm, physicist Marsilius of Padua, Italian medieval scholar Max Planck, Nobel Prize–winning physicist Lucia Popp, Slovak-born opera singer Ludwig Prandtl, father of modern aerodynamics Max Reger, composer, organist, pianist and conductor Wilhelm Röntgen, Nobel Prize–winning physicist Willibald Sauerländer, art historian Max Schreck, actor Arnold Schwarzenegger, former Governor of California, bodybuilder and actor, resided at Christophstr. 1 and worked at Rolf Putziger's gym at Schillerstr. 36 from 1966 to 1968 Bastian Schweinsteiger, footballer Franz von Stuck, painter and sculptor Donna Summer, 1948–2012, singer, known as the "Queen of Disco" she was the most successful musical artist of the Disco
Disco
era in the late 1970s and early 80's Vardges Sureniants, Armenian painter Fyodor Tyutchev, Russian Romantic poet Richard Wagner, 1813–1883, composer Heinrich Otto Wieland, Nobel Prize–winning chemist who successfully protected Jewish
Jewish
people Stepan Bandera, Ukrainian nationalist, assassinated in October 1959

See also[edit]

Outline of Munich

References[edit]

^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). January 2018.  ^ Names of European cities in different languages: M–P#M ^ Landeshauptstadt München, Redaktion. "Landeshauptstadt München – Bevölkerung". Landeshauptstadt München. Retrieved 12 February 2016.  ^ a b "The Munich
Munich
Metropolitan Region" (in German). Europäische Metropolregion München e.V. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Quality of Living City Rankings". www.imercer.com. Retrieved 31 December 2015.  ^ "Alpha, Beta and Gamma cities (updated 2015)". Spotted by Locals.  ^ Englund, Peter (1993). Ofredsår. Stockholm: Atlantis.  ^ " Munich
Munich
Travel Tourism
Tourism
Munich". muenchen.de. Retrieved 12 February 2016.  ^ "Ausländeranteil in der Bevölkerung: In München ist die ganze Welt zu Hause – Abendzeitung München". www.abendzeitung-muenchen.de. Retrieved 31 December 2015.  ^ "Ausstellung im Foyer". Stmf.bayern.de. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.  ^ [1] Mercer Human Resource Consulting Archived 11 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ 2007 Cost of Living Report Munich
Munich
Mercer Human Resource Consulting Archived 10 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Gesunde Luft für Gesunde Bürger – Stoppt Dieselruß! – Greenpeace
Greenpeace
misst Feinstaub und Dieselruß in München". Greenpeace- Munich
Munich
branch. 28 June 2005. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.  ^ "Toytown Germany
Germany
– English language news and chat". toytowngermany.com.  ^ "Landeshauptstadt München: Bevölkerungsbestand - Aktuelle Jahreszahlen: Die Bevölkerung in den Stadtbezirken nach ausgewählten Konfessionen am 31.12.2017" (PDF). muenchen.de. Retrieved 2018-03-21.  ^ "Kartenseite: BRD - Muslime in den Landkreisen beim Zensus 2011" (PDF). kartenseite.wordpress.com. 2017-04-05. Retrieved 2017-04-29.  ^ "Best 110 historic places worldwide". Traveler.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 14 April 2010.  ^ " Munich
Munich
in Second Life". Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2008.  ^ "Olympia 2018 in Südkorea, München chancenlos". Die Welt
Die Welt
(in German). 6 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.  ^ " Munich
Munich
To Bid Once Again". Games Bids. 27 September 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2016.  ^ "Public Indoor Swimming Pools in Munich". muenchen.de – The official city portal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.  ^ "Public Outdoor Swimming Pools in Munich". muenchen.de – The official city portal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.  ^ "Munich: Swimming pools". Munich
Munich
City Utilities Company (SWM). Retrieved 5 September 2016.  ^ "Lakes in Munich" (in German). muenchen.de – The official city portal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.  ^ Riverbreak Editorial Team. "River Surfing Spots: Eisbach". Riverbreak: The International River Surf Magazine. Retrieved 7 August 2016.  ^ Toytown Germany. " River surfing
River surfing
in Munich". The Local Europe GmbH. Retrieved 7 August 2016.  ^ "Museum Reich der Kristalle München". Lrz-muenchen.de. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ a b Hecktor, Mirko; von Uslar, Moritz; Smith, Patti; Neumeister, Andreas (1 November 2008). Mjunik Disco
Disco
– from 1949 to now (in German). ISBN 978-3936738476.  ^ "Giesinger Bräu München". Giesinger Bräu München (in German). Retrieved 2017-10-25.  ^ "Corpus Techno: The music of the future will soon be history". MUNICHfound.com. Retrieved 5 February 2017.  ^ "List of bars in Munich" (in German). muenchen.de – The official city portal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.  ^ "List of nightclubs in Munich" (in German). muenchen.de – The official city portal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.  ^ "Circus Krone: Europe's largest traditional circus". Munichfound.com. December 2005. Retrieved 1 May 2013.  ^ "Management Studium – Private Hochschule – ISM Intern. School of Mgmt". ism.de. Retrieved 12 February 2016.  ^ "Startseite". mpg.de.  ^ "Study conducted by INSM (New Social Market Economy Initiative) and WirtschaftsWoche magazine". Icm-muenchen.de. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.  ^ "Statistik der BA". statistik.arbeitsagentur.de. Retrieved 16 July 2014.  ^ Artikel empfehlen: (27 September 2010). "Endlich amtlich: Köln ist Millionenstadt". Koeln.de. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ "In Hesse
Hesse
the purchasing power is highest in Germany
Germany
– CyberPress". Just4business.eu. Retrieved 25 July 2012.  ^ Landeshauptstadt München, Direktorium, Statistisches Amt: Statistisches Jahrbuch 2007, page 206 (Statistical Yearbook of the City of Munich
Munich
2007) http://currency.wiki/18-62eur-usd ^ "Global 500 2008: Cities". Money.cnn.com. 21 July 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2012.  ^ "Insurance - Munich
Munich
Financial Centre Initiative". www.fpmi.de. Retrieved 2018-02-27.  ^ " Munich
Munich
Literature House: About Us". Archived from the original on 4 April 2003. Retrieved 17 February 2008.  ^ " Bavaria
Bavaria
Film GmbH: Company Start". Bavaria-film.de. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.  ^ "Die 10 größten Arbeitgeber in München". Jobs-münchen.com. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ " Germany
Germany
to build maglev railway". BBC News. 25 September 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2008.  ^ " Germany
Germany
Scraps Transrapid
Transrapid
Rail Plans". Deutsche Welle. 27 March 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2008.  ^ "Flughafen Oberpfaffenhofen: Rolle rückwärts – Bayern – Aktuelles – merkur-online" (in German). Merkur-online.de. Retrieved 25 July 2012.  ^ Süddeutsche.de GmbH, Munich, Germany. "Flughafen Oberpfaffenhofen – Business-Jets willkommen – München". sueddeutsche.de. Retrieved 25 July 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "OpenRailwayMap" (Map). Map of München Hauptbahnhof. Cartography by OpenStreetMap. OpenRailwayMap. 28 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-19.  ^ "Lageplan Hauptbahnhof München" (PDF) (orientation map) (in German). Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
AG. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2014.  ^ " Munich
Munich
Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017.  Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ^ "Lakes in Munich's vicinity" (in German). muenchen.de – The official city portal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.  ^ "Partnerstädte". Muenchen.de (official website) (in German). Landeshauptstadt München. Retrieved 17 November 2014.  ^ " Edinburgh
Edinburgh
– Twin and Partner Cities". 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2008.  ^ "Twin and Partner Cities". City of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Council. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2009.  ^ " Verona
Verona
– Gemellaggi" (in Italian). Council of Verona, Italy. Retrieved 3 April 2013.  ^ " Bordeaux
Bordeaux
– Rayonnement européen et mondial". Mairie de Bordeaux (in French). Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.  ^ "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.  ^ "DSDS 2012: Kandidat Joey Heindle" (in German). RTL. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 

External links[edit]

Bavaria
Bavaria
portal

Find more aboutMunichat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Listen to this article (info/dl)

This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Munich" dated 2014-12-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles

Official website for the City of Munic Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund – public transport network On the brink: Munich
Munich
1918–1919 Munichfound – magazine for English speaking Münchners Destination Munich
Munich
– An online guide Munich Airport
Munich Airport
– Official Website Franz Josef Strauss
Franz Josef Strauss
Airport münchen.tv – local TV station Historical Atlas of Munich
Munich
(in German)

Photos

Europe Pictures – Munich Geocoded Pictures of Munich Munich
Munich
City Panoramas – Panoramic Views and virtual Tours Globosapiens Travel Community – Travel Tips Tales from Toytown – Photos of Munich Munich
Munich
photo gallery

Places adjacent to Munich

Stuttgart, Ulm, Augsburg Nuremberg, Regensburg, Ingolstadt Prague
Prague
(Czech Republic), Landshut

Memmingen

Munich

Linz
Linz
(Austria)

Vaduz
Vaduz
(Liechtenstein), Zürich
Zürich
(Switzerland) Innsbruck
Innsbruck
(Austria), Bolzano
Bolzano
(Italy) Rosenheim, Salzburg
Salzburg
(Austria)

v t e

Boroughs of Munich

Allach-Untermenzing Altstadt-Lehel Aubing-Lochhausen-Langwied Au-Haidhausen Berg am Laim Bogenhausen Feldmoching-Hasenbergl Hadern Laim Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt Maxvorstadt Milbertshofen-Am Hart Moosach Neuhausen-Nymphenburg Obergiesing Pasing-Obermenzing Ramersdorf-Perlach Schwabing-Freimann Schwabing-West Schwanthalerhöhe Sendling Sendling-Westpark Thalkirchen-Obersendling-Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln Trudering-Riem Untergiesing-Harlaching

v t e

Mayors of Munich

Bavarian Kingdom

Franz Paul von Mittermayr Josef von Teng Jakob Bauer Kaspar von Steinsdorf Alois von Erhardt Johannes von Widenmayer Wilhelm Georg von Borscht

Weimar Republic

Eduard Schmid Karl Scharnagl

Third Reich

Karl Fiehler

Federal Republic

Karl Scharnagl Thomas Wimmer Hans-Jochen Vogel Georg Kronawitter Erich Kiesl Georg Kronawitter Christian Ude Dieter Reiter

v t e

Capitals of states of the Federal Republic of Germany

Capitals of area states

Dresden
Dresden
(Saxony) Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
(North Rhine-Westphalia) Erfurt
Erfurt
(Thuringia) Hanover
Hanover
(Lower Saxony) Kiel
Kiel
(Schleswig-Holstein) Magdeburg
Magdeburg
(Saxony-Anhalt) Mainz
Mainz
(Rhineland-Palatinate) Munich
Munich
(Bavaria) Potsdam
Potsdam
(Brandenburg) Saarbrücken
Saarbrücken
(Saarland) Schwerin
Schwerin
(Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Stuttgart
Stuttgart
(Baden-Württemberg) Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
(Hesse)

City-states1

Berlin City of Bremen
Bremen
(State of Bremen) Hamburg

Capitals of former states

Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau
(South Baden, 1949–1952) Stuttgart
Stuttgart
(Württemberg-Baden, 1949–1952) Tübingen
Tübingen
(Württemberg-Hohenzollern, 1949–1952)

1 Unlike the mono-city states Berlin
Berlin
and Hamburg, the State of Bremen consists of two cities, thus state and capital are not identical.

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Bavaria
Bavaria
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Amberg Ansbach Aschaffenburg Augsburg Bamberg Bayreuth Coburg Erlangen Fürth Hof Ingolstadt Kaufbeuren Kempten Landshut Memmingen München (Munich) Nürnberg (Nuremberg) Passau Regensburg Rosenheim Schwabach Schweinfurt Straubing Weiden Würzburg

Rural districts

Aichach-Friedberg Altötting Amberg-Sulzbach Ansbach Aschaffenburg Augsburg Bad Kissingen Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen Bamberg Bayreuth Berchtesgadener Land Cham Coburg Dachau Deggendorf Dillingen Dingolfing-Landau Donau-Ries Ebersberg Eichstätt Erding Erlangen-Höchstadt Forchheim Freising Freyung-Grafenau Fürstenfeldbruck Fürth Garmisch-Partenkirchen Günzburg Haßberge Hof Kelheim Kitzingen Kronach Kulmbach Landsberg Landshut Lichtenfels Lindau Main-Spessart Miesbach Miltenberg Mühldorf München (Munich) Neuburg-Schrobenhausen Neumarkt Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim Neustadt an der Waldnaab Neu-Ulm Nürnberger Land Oberallgäu Ostallgäu Passau Pfaffenhofen Regen Regensburg Rhön-Grabfeld Rosenheim Roth Rottal-Inn Schwandorf Schweinfurt Starnberg Straubing-Bogen Tirschenreuth Traunstein Unterallgäu Weilheim-Schongau Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen Wunsiedel Würzburg

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
host cities

1896: Athens 1900: Paris 1904: St. Louis 1908: London 1912: Stockholm 1916: None[c1] 1920: Antwerp 1924: Paris 1928: Amsterdam 1932: Los Angeles 1936: Berlin 1940: None[c2] 1944: None[c2] 1948: London 1952: Helsinki 1956: Melbourne 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Mexico
Mexico
City 1972: Munich 1976: Montreal 1980: Moscow 1984: Los Angeles 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 154701792 LCCN: n79059670 ISNI: 0000 0001 2189 3141 GND: 4127793-4 SUDOC: 026392933 BNF: cb11864901q (data) HDS:

.