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Desalination
DESALINATION is a process that extracts minerals from saline water . More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance, as in soil desalination , which is an issue for agriculture. Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation . One by-product of desalination is salt . Desalination
Desalination
is used on many seagoing ships and submarines . Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater , it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources. Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater , water recycling and water conservation . However, these alternatives are not always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide
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Fresh Water
FRESH WATER is the debut album by Australian rock and blues singer Alison McCallum , released in 1972. Rare for an Australian artist at the time, it came in a gatefold sleeve. It was re-issued in 1974 under the title ANY WAY YOU WANT ME in a single sleeve with new artwork
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Saudi Arabia
SAUDI ARABIA (/ˌsɔːdiː əˈreɪbiə/ ( listen ), /ˌsaʊ-/ ( listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA (KSA), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia
Western Asia
constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula . With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia
Arabia
is geographically the fifth-largest state in Asia and second-largest state in the Arab
Arab
world after Algeria
Algeria

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Vacuum Distillation
VACUUM DISTILLATION is a method of distillation whereby the pressure above the liquid mixture to be distilled is reduced to less than its vapor pressure (usually less than atmospheric pressure ) causing evaporation of the most volatile liquid(s) (those with the lowest boiling points ). This distillation method works on the principle that boiling occurs when the vapor pressure of a liquid exceeds the ambient pressure. Vacuum distillation
Vacuum distillation
is used with or without heating the mixture
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Submarine
A SUBMARINE (or simply SUB) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible , which has more limited underwater capability. The term most commonly refers to a large, crewed vessel. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots , as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub . The noun submarine evolved as a shortened form of submarine boat; by naval tradition , submarines are usually referred to as "boats " rather than as "ships ", regardless of their size (boat is usually reserved for seagoing vessels of relatively small size). Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, and they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first widely used during World War I (1914–1918), and now figure in many navies large and small
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Ship
A SHIP is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways , carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing. Historically, a "ship" was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit . Ships are generally distinguished from boats , based on size, shape, load capacity, and tradition. Ships have been important contributors to human migration and commerce. They have supported the spread of colonization and the slave trade , but have also served scientific, cultural, and humanitarian needs. After the 15th century, new crops that had come from and to the Americas via the European seafarers significantly contributed to the world population growth . Ship transport
Ship transport
is responsible for the largest portion of world commerce. As of 2016, there were more than 49,000 merchant ships , totaling almost 1.8 billion dead weight tons
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Saline Water
SALINE WATER (more commonly known as SALT WATER) is water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl ). The salt concentration is usually expressed in parts per thousand (permille, ‰) or parts per million (ppm). The United States Geological Survey classifies saline water in three salinity categories. Salt
Salt
concentration in slightly saline water is around 1,000 to 3,000 ppm (0.1–0.3%), in moderately saline water 3,000 to 10,000 ppm (0.3–1%) and in highly saline water 10,000 to 35,000 ppm (1–3.5%). Seawater
Seawater
has a salinity of roughly 35,000 ppm, equivalent to 35 grams of salt per one liter (or kilogram) of water. The saturation level is dependent on the temperature of the water. At 20 °C one milliliter of water can dissolve about 0.357 grams of salt; a concentration of 26.3%
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Sodium Chloride
SODIUM CHLORIDE /ˌsoʊdiəm ˈklɔːraɪd/ , also known as SALT or HALITE , is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NACL, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g·mol−1, respectively, 100 g of NaCl contain 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium
Sodium
chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms . In the form of edible or table salt it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative . Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. A second major application of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather
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Vapor Pressure
VAPOR PRESSURE or EQUILIBRIUM VAPOR PRESSURE is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system . The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile . The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation
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Dissolved Organic Carbon
DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC), sometimes known as dissolved organic material (DOM), is a broad classification for organic molecules of varied origin and composition within aquatic systems. The "dissolved" fraction of organic carbon is an operational classification. Many researchers use the term "dissolved" for compounds below 0.45 micrometers , but 0.22 micrometers is also common, saving colloidal for higher concentrations. A practical definition of dissolved typically used in marine chemistry is all substances that pass through a GF/F filter. The recommended measure technique is the HTCO technique after filtration on precombusted glass fiber filters, typically GF/F filters. Dissolved organic carbon
Dissolved organic carbon
in marine and freshwater systems is one of the greatest cycled reservoirs of organic matter on Earth, accounting for the same amount of carbon as the atmosphere and up to 20% of all organic carbon
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Polyphosphate
POLYPHOSPHATES are salts or esters of polymeric oxyanions formed from tetrahedral PO4 (phosphate ) structural units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms. Polyphosphates can adopt linear or a cyclic ring structures. In biology, the polyphosphate esters ADP and ATP are involved in energy storage. A variety of polyphosphates find application in mineral sequestration in municipal waters, generally being present at 1 to 5 ppm. GTP , CTP , and UTP are also nucleotides important in the protein synthesis, lipid synthesis, and carbohydrate metabolism, respectively
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Marine Habitats
The marine environment supplies many kinds of habitats that support marine life. Marine life
Marine life
depends in some way on the saltwater that is in the sea (the term marine comes from the Latin
Latin
mare, meaning sea or ocean). A habitat is an ecological or environmental area inhabited by one or more living species . MARINE HABITATS can be divided into coastal and open ocean habitats. Coastal
Coastal
habitats are found in the area that extends from as far as the tide comes in on the shoreline out to the edge of the continental shelf . Most marine life is found in coastal habitats, even though the shelf area occupies only seven percent of the total ocean area. Open ocean habitats are found in the deep ocean beyond the edge of the continental shelf. Alternatively, marine habitats can be divided into pelagic and demersal zones
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Phosphonates
PHOSPHONATES and PHOSPHONIC ACIDS are organophosphorus compounds containing C−PO(OH)2 or C−PO(OR)2 groups (where R = alkyl , aryl ). Phosphonic acids, typically handled as salts, are generally nonvolatile solids that are poorly soluble in organic solvents, but soluble in water and common alcohols. Many commercially important compounds are phosphonates, including glyphosate , the herbicide "Roundup", and ethephon , a widely used plant growth regulator. Bisphosphonates are popular drugs for treatment of osteoporosis . Clodronic acid is a bisphosphonate used as a drug to treat osteoporosis . In biology and medicinal chemistry, phosphonate groups are used as stable bioisoteres for phosphate, such as in the antiviral nucleotide analogue, Tenofovir , one of the cornerstones of anti- HIV
HIV
therapy
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Acrylamide
ACRYLAMIDE (or acrylic amide ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C 3H 5N O . Its IUPAC name is PROP-2-ENAMIDE. It is a white odorless crystalline solid, soluble in water , ethanol , ether , and chloroform . Acrylamide
Acrylamide
decomposes in the presence of acids, bases, oxidizing agents, iron, and iron salts. It decomposes non-thermally to form ammonia , and thermal decomposition produces carbon monoxide , carbon dioxide , and oxides of nitrogen . Acrylamide
Acrylamide
can be prepared by the hydrolysis of acrylonitrile by nitrile hydratase . In industry, most acrylamide is used to synthesize polyacrylamides , which find many uses as water-soluble thickeners . These include use in wastewater treatment, gel electrophoresis ( SDS-PAGE ), papermaking , ore processing , tertiary oil recovery , and the manufacture of permanent press fabrics
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