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Brine
Brine
is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water. In different contexts, brine may refer to salt solutions ranging from about 3.5% (a typical concentration of seawater, on the lower end of solutions used for brining foods) up to about 26% (a typical saturated solution, depending on temperature). Lower levels of concentration are called by different names: fresh water, brackish water and saline water. Brine
Brine
naturally occurs on Earth's surface (salt lakes), crust, and within brine pools on ocean bottom. High-concentration brine lakes typically emerge due to evaporation of ground saline water on high ambient temperatures. Brine
Brine
is used for food processing and cooking (pickling and brining), for de-icing of roads and other structures, and in a number of technological processes. It is also a by-product of many industrial processes, such as desalination, and may pose an environmental risk due to its corrosive and toxic effects, so it requires wastewater treatment for proper disposal.

Contents

1 In nature 2 Uses

2.1 Culinary 2.2 Chlorine production 2.3 Refrigerating fluid 2.4 Water
Water
softening and purification 2.5 De-icing

3 Wastewater 4 See also 5 References

In nature[edit] Main article: Saline water

A NASA technician measures the concentration level of brine using a hydrometer at a salt evaporation pond in San Francisco.

Saline water
Saline water
with relatively high concentration of salt (usually sodium chloride) occurs naturally on Earth's surface (salt lakes), crust, and within brine pools on ocean bottom. Numerous processes exist which can produce brines in nature. Modification of seawater via evaporation results in the concentration of salts in the residual fluid, a characteristic geologic deposit called an evaporite is formed as different dissolved ions reach the saturation states of minerals, typically gypsum and halite. A similar process occurs at high latitudes as seawater freezes resulting in a fluid termed a cryogenic brine. At the time of formation, these cryogenic brines are by definition cooler than the freezing temperature of seawater and can produce a feature called a brinicle where cool brines descend, freezing the surrounding seawater. The brine cropping out at the surface as saltwater springs are known as "licks" or "salines".[1] The contents of dissolved solids in groundwater vary highly from one location to another on Earth, both in terms of specific constituents (e.g. halite, anhydrite, carbonates, gypsum, fluoride-salts, organic halides, and sulfate-salts) and regarding the concentration level. Using one of several classification of groundwater based on total dissolved solids (TDS), brine is water containing more than 100,000 mg/L TDS.[2] Brine
Brine
is commonly produced during well completion operations, particularly after the hydraulic fracturing of a well. Uses[edit] Culinary[edit] Main article: Brining Brine
Brine
is a common agent in food processing and cooking. Brining
Brining
is used to preserve or season the food. Brining
Brining
can be applied to vegetables, cheeses and fruit in a process known as pickling. Meat
Meat
and fish are typically steeped in brine for shorter periods of time, as a form of marination, enhancing its tenderness and flavor, or to enhance shelf period. Chlorine production[edit] Main article: Chlorine production Elemental chlorine can be produced by electrolysis of brine (NaCl solution). This process also produces sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and Hydrogen
Hydrogen
gas (H2). The reaction equations are as follows: Cathode: 2 H+ (aq) + 2 e− → H2 (g) Anode: 2 Cl− (aq) → Cl2 (g) + 2 e− Overall process: 2 NaCl
NaCl
+ 2 H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOH Refrigerating fluid[edit] Brine
Brine
is a common fluid used as a secondary refrigerant in large refrigeration installations for the transport of thermal energy from place to place. Being inexpensive, most common refrigerant brines are based on calcium chloride and sodium chloride.[3] It is used because the addition of salt to water lowers the freezing temperature of the solution and the heat transport efficiency can be greatly enhanced for the comparatively low cost of the material. The lowest freezing point obtainable for NaCl
NaCl
brine is −21.1 °C (−6.0 °F) at the concentration of 23.3% NaCl
NaCl
by weight.[3] This is called the eutectic point. Sodium chloride
Sodium chloride
brine spray is used on some fishing vessels to freeze fish.[4] The brine temperature is generally −5 °F (−21 °C). Air blast freezing temperatures are −31 °F (−35 °C) or lower. Given the higher temperature of brine, the system efficiency over air blast freezing can be higher. High-value fish usually are frozen at much lower temperatures, below the practical temperature limit for brine. Because of the corrosive properties of salt-based brines, glycols such as polyethylene glycol have become more common for this purpose.[5] Water
Water
softening and purification[edit] Brine
Brine
is an auxiliary agent in water softening and water purification systems involving ion exchange technology. The most common example are household dishwashers, utilizing natrium chloride in form of dishwasher salt. Brine
Brine
is not involved in the purification process itself, but used for regeneration of ion-exchange resin on cyclical basis. The water being treated flows through the resin container until the resin is considered exhausted and water is purified to a desired level. Resin is then regenerated by sequentially backwashing the resin bed to remove accumulated solids, flushing removed ions from the resin with a concentrated solution of replacement ions, and rinsing the flushing solution from the resin.[6] After treatment, ion-exchange resin beads saturated with calcium and magnesium ions from the treated water, are regenerated by soaking in brine containing 6–12% NaCl. The sodium ions from brine replace the calcium and magnesium ions on the beads.[7][8] De-icing[edit] In lower temperatures, a brine solution can be used to de-ice or reduce freezing temperatures on roads.[9] Wastewater[edit] Main article: Industrial wastewater treatment
Industrial wastewater treatment
§  Brine
Brine
treatment Brine
Brine
is a byproduct of many industrial processes, such as desalination for human consumption and irrigation, power plant cooling towers, produced water from oil and natural gas extraction, acid mine or acid rock drainage, reverse osmosis reject, chlor-alkali wastewater treatment, pulp and paper mill effluent, and waste streams from food and beverage processing. Along with diluted salts, it can contain residues of pretreatment and cleaning chemicals, their reaction byproducts and heavy metals due to corrosion. Wastewater
Wastewater
brine can pose a significant environmental hazard, both due to corrosive and sediment-forming effects of salts and toxicity of other chemicals diluted in it. It must be properly disposed, which may require permits and compliance with environmental regulations.[10] The simplest way to dispose of unpolluted brine from desalination plants and cooling towers is to return it back to the ocean. To limit the environmental impact, it can be diluted with another stream of water, such as the outfall of a wastewater treatment or power plant. Since brine is heavier than seawater and would accumulate on the ocean bottom, it requires methods to ensure proper diffusion, such as installing underwater diffusers in the sewerage.[11] Other methods include drying in evaporation ponds, injecting to deep wells, and storing and reusing the brine for irrigation, de-icing or dust control purposes.[10] Technologies for treatment of polluted brine include: membrane filtration processes, such as reverse osmosis; ion exchange processes such as electrodialysis or weak acid cation exchange; or evaporation processes, such as brine concentrators and crystallizers employing mechanical vapour recompression and steam. See also[edit]

Brine
Brine
mining Brinicle

References[edit]

^ "The Scioto Saline-Ohio's Early Salt
Salt
Industry" (PDF). dnr.state.oh.us. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-07.  ^ "Global Overview of Saline Groundwater
Groundwater
Occurrence and Genesis". igrac.net.  ^ a b "Secondary Refrigerant
Refrigerant
Systems". Cool-Info.com. Retrieved 17 July 2017.  ^ Kolbe, Edward; Kramer, Donald (2007). "Planning forSeafood Freezing" (PDF). Alaska Sea Grant College Program Oregon State University. ISBN 1566121191. Retrieved 17 July 2017.  ^ " Calcium
Calcium
Chloride versus Glycol". accent-refrigeration.com. Retrieved 17 July 2017.  ^ Kemmer, Frank N., ed. (1979). The NALCO Water
Water
Handbook. McGraw-Hill. pp. 12–7; 12–25.  ^ "Hard and soft water". GCSE Bitesize. BBC.  ^ Arup K. SenGupta (19 April 2016). Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: A Series of Advances. CRC Press. pp. 125–. ISBN 978-1-4398-5540-9.  ^ "Prewetting with Salt
Salt
Brine
Brine
for More Effective Roadway Deicing". www.usroads.com.  ^ a b "7 Ways to Dispose of Brine
Brine
Waste". Desalitech. Retrieved 18 July 2017.  ^ "Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Brine
Brine
disposal". Lenntech. Retrieved 18 July 2017. 

v t e

Wastewater

Sources

Acid mine drainage Ballast water Bathroom Blackwater (coal) Blackwater (waste) Boiler blowdown Brine Combined sewer Cooling tower Cooling water Fecal sludge Greywater Infiltration/Inflow Industrial effluent Ion exchange Leachate Manure Papermaking Produced water Return flow Reverse osmosis Sanitary sewer Septage Sewage Sewage
Sewage
sludge Toilet Urban runoff

Quality indicators

Adsorbable organic halides Biochemical oxygen demand Chemical oxygen demand Coliform index Dissolved oxygen Heavy metals pH Salinity Temperature Total dissolved solids Total suspended solids Turbidity

Treatment options

Activated sludge Aerated lagoon Agricultural wastewater treatment API oil-water separator Carbon filtration Chlorination Clarifier Constructed wetland Decentralized wastewater system Extended aeration Facultative lagoon Fecal sludge
Fecal sludge
management Filtration Imhoff tank Industrial wastewater treatment Ion exchange Membrane bioreactor Reverse osmosis Rotating biological contactor Secondary treatment Sedimentation Septic tank Settling basin Sewage
Sewage
sludge treatment Sewage
Sewage
treatment Sewer mining Stabilization pond Trickling filter Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation UASB Vermifilter Wastewater treatment
Wastewater treatment
plant

Disposal options

Combined sewer Evaporation
Evaporation
pond Groundwater
Groundwater
recharge Infiltration basin Injection well Irrigation Marine dumping Marine outfall Reclaimed water Sanitary sewer Septic drain field Sewage
Sewage
farm Storm drain Surface r

.