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D-4D
Common rail
Common rail
direct fuel injection is a direct fuel injection system for diesel engines. On diesel engines, it features a high-pressure (over 100 bar or 10 MPa or 1,500 psi) fuel rail feeding individual solenoid valves, as opposed to a low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors (or pump nozzles)
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Common Rail (other)
Common rail
Common rail
may refer to: Common rail
Common rail
direct fuel injection
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Executive Car
Executive car
Executive car
is a British term for an automobile larger than a large family car. In official use, the term is adopted by Euro NCAP, a European organization founded to test for car safety. It is a passenger car classification defined by European Commission.[1]Contents1 Background 2 History in Europe2.1 France 2.2 Germany 2.3 Italy 2.4 Sweden 2.5 United Kingdom3 Overview3.1 Body styles 3.2 Market situation4 Other corresponding classes 5 Cars bigger than executive in Europe 6 Compact executive cars 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksBackground[edit] The term was coined in the 1960s to describe cars targeted at successful professionals and middle-to-senior managers. It was often a company car, but retained enough performance and comfort to be desirable to private motorists. The executive car was seen as aspirational and a business tool enabling its users to exploit Britain and Europe's tax schemes as a company owned vehicle
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JTD Engine
Multijet is Fiat
Fiat
Chrysler
Chrysler
Automobiles' term for its current common rail direct injection turbodiesel engine range. Most of the Fiat, Alfa Romeo, Lancia
Lancia
range as well as certain Chrysler, RAM Trucks, Jeep
Jeep
and Maserati
Maserati
vehicles are equipped with Multijet engines. Ownership of some Fiat
Fiat
Multijet designs is shared with General Motors
General Motors
as part of a settlement of the failed merger between the two auto conglomerates. GM Powertrain Torino group in Turin, Italy
Turin, Italy
manages their interest in these engines. Some PSA Peugeot Citroën
PSA Peugeot Citroën
diesel engines are also rebadged JTD units, and vice versa
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Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
(German: [mɛʁˈtseːdəsˌbɛnts]) is a global automobile marque and a division of the German company Daimler AG. The brand is known for luxury vehicles, buses, coaches, and lorries. The headquarters is in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, which is widely regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile
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Mercedes-Benz C-Class (W202)
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
W202 is a compact executive car which was produced by the German automaker Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
in 1993–2000, under the C-Class model names. In May 1993, the first generation Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
C-Class was introduced as a replacement for the 190. The C-Class sedan was the company's entry-level model up until 1997, when Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
launched the smaller A-Class
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Locomotive
A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. If a locomotive is capable of carrying a payload, it is usually rather referred to as multiple units, motor coaches, railcars or power cars; the use of these self-propelled vehicles is increasingly common for passenger trains, but rare for freight (see CargoSprinter). Traditionally, locomotives pulled trains from the front
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Cooper Bessemer
Cooper-Bessemer refers to the Cooper-Bessemer Corporation and the Cooper-Bessemer brand of industrial engines and compressors, manufactured in Mount Vernon, Ohio. The Cooper-Bessemer Corporation was formed when C. & G. Cooper (founded in 1833) and the Bessemer Gas Engine Company (founded in 1899) merged in 1929
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Vickers
Vickers
Vickers
was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 1999.Contents1 History1.1 Early history 1.2 Vickers, Sons & Company 1.3 Vickers, Sons & Maxim 1.4 Vickers
Vickers
Limited 1.5 Reorganisation 1.6 Merger with Armstrong Whitworth 1.7 Nationalisation 1.8 Vickers
Vickers
plc 1.9 Current status of Vickers2 See also 3 Bibliography 4 Footnotes 5 External linksHistory[edit] Early history[edit] Vickers
Vickers
was formed in Sheffield
Sheffield
as a steel foundry by the miller Edward Vickers and his father-in-law George Naylor in 1828. Naylor was a partner in the foundry Naylor & Sanderson and Vickers' brother William owned a steel rolling operation
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British G-class Submarine
The Royal Navy's G-class of diesel/electric submarines were launched between 1914 and 1917, and intended for operations in the North Sea and German Bight
German Bight
in World War I
World War I
against German U-boats.Contents1 Description 2 Boats 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] The G-class submarines were designed by the Admiralty
Admiralty
in response to a rumour that the Germans were building double-hulled submarines for overseas duties. The submarines had a partial double hull, a length of 187 feet 1 inch (57.0 m) overall, a beam of 22 feet 8 inches (6.9 m) and a mean draft of 13 feet 4 inches (4.1 m). They displaced 703 long tons (714 t) on the surface and 837 long tons (850 t) submerged. However, the design offered little improvement in practice, the ships being notoriously slow to dive.[1][2]G 14, displaying raised bow
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William Doxford & Sons
William Doxford & Sons Ltd, often referred to simply as Doxford, was a British shipbuilding and marine engineering company.Contents1 History 2 Operations 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] William Doxford founded the company in 1840.[1] From 1870 it was based in Pallion, Sunderland, on the River Wear
River Wear
in Northeast England
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Opposed-piston Engine
An opposed-piston engine is a reciprocating internal combustion engine in which each cylinder has a piston at both ends, and no cylinder head.Contents1 Early first opposed piston engines 2 Advantages and drawbacks 3 Configurations 4 Assembly and function 5 Modern developments 6 Free-piston engine 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEarly first opposed piston engines[edit]Animation of the Atkinson differential engineIn 1882 James Atkinson developed the Atkinson cycle, a variant of the four stroke Otto cycle. The first implementation of this was arranged as an opposed piston engine, the Atkinson differential engine.[1] Opposed piston engines using the two stroke cycle are known to have been made by Oechelhäuser as early as 1898,[2] when a 600 hp 2-stroke gas engine was installed at the Hoerde ironworks
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City Car
A city car (also known as urban car or a mini) is a small car[2] designed to be used primarily in urban areas[3] and conurbations. The term is used along with other terms for small cars including subcompact in North America. The Euro NCAP
Euro NCAP
calls all small cars superminis.[4] The European Commission
European Commission
refers to A-segment (Utility/city class: entry level small passenger car).[5] In Japan, the kei car is a specific type of small car.Contents1 Internal combustion engine
Internal combustion engine
city cars1.1 Early history 1.2 The boom 1.3 Larger city cars2 See also 3 References 4 External links Internal combustion engine
Internal combustion engine
city cars[edit] Early history[edit] The original concept for the city car came about as a result of the growing market for entry level vehicles in the 1920s and 1930s
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Audi A8
The Audi
Audi
A8 is a four-door, full-size, luxury sedan manufactured and marketed by the German automaker Audi
Audi
since 1994. Succeeding the Audi V8, and now in its fourth generation, the A8 has been offered with both front- or permanent all-wheel drive—and in short- and long-wheelbase variants. The first two generations employed the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group D platform, with the current generation deriving from the MLB platform
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Mass-production
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch production, it is one of the three main production methods.[1] The term mass production was popularized by a 1926 article in the Encyclopædia Britannica supplement that was written based on correspondence with Ford Motor Company
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Delphi Automotive
Aptiv
Aptiv
PLC (formerly known as Delphi Automotive PLC) is a global automotive parts technology company headquartered in Gillingham, Kent, UK.[1] With offices worldwide, the company operates manufacturing sites, 14 technical centers, and customer centers across 45 countries. On 5 December 2017, the company changed its name to Aptiv
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