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Curopalates
_KOUROPALATēS_, Latinized as _CUROPALATES_ or _CUROPALATA_ (Greek : κουροπαλάτης, from Latin : _cura palatii_ " charge of the palace") and Anglicized as CUROPALATE, was a Byzantine court title , one of the highest from the time of Emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565) to that of the Komnenoi in the 12th century. The female variant, held by the spouses of the _kouropalatai_, was _KOUROPALATISSA_. CONTENTS * 1 History and nature of the title * 2 List of prominent Byzantine holders * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources HISTORY AND NATURE OF THE TITLEThe title is first attested (as _curapalati_) in the early 5th century, as an official of _vir spectabilis _ rank under the _castrensis palatii_, charged with the maintenance of the imperial palace (cf. Western European "majordomo "). When Emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565) made his nephew and heir Justin II _curopalates_ in 552, however, the office took on new significance, and became one of the most exalted dignities, ranking next to _Caesar _ and _nobilissimus _ and, like them, reserved initially for members of the imperial family. Unlike them, however, it later came to be granted to important foreign rulers, mostly in the Caucasus
Caucasus
. Thus, from the 580s to the 1060s, sixteen Georgian ruling princes and kings held that honorific, as well as, after 635, several Armenian dynasts
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Latinisation Of Names
LATINISATION (also spelled LATINIZATION : see spelling differences ) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style . It is commonly found with historical personal names , with toponyms , and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation , which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic
Cyrillic
). This was often done in the classical era for much the same reason as English-speaking cultures produce English versions of some foreign names. In the case of personal names in the post-Roman era this may be done to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by: * transforming the name into Latin
Latin
sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir ), and/or * adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems. The Greek language
Greek language
holds an important place in the history of the Western world
Western world
and Christianity
Christianity
; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes seminal works in the Western canon such as the epic poems _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus
Plautus
and Terence
Terence

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Anglicization
ANGLICISATION (or ANGLICIZATION, see English spelling differences ), occasionally ANGLIFICATION, ANGLIFYING, ENGLISHING, in this article refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English. It commonly refers to the respelling of foreign words, often to a more drastic degree than romanisation . One example is the word "dandelion", modified from the French dent-de-lion (“lion’s tooth”, because of the sharply indented leaves). Anglicising non-English words for use in English is just one case of the widespread domestication of foreign words that is common to many languages, sometimes involving shifts in meaning. One example is the German word Felleisen (a backpack), a germanization of the French word valise (small suitcase). This article does not cover the unmodified adoption of foreign words into English (kindergarten); the unmodified adoption of English words into foreign languages (internet, computer, web), or the voluntary or enforced adoption of the English language or of British or American customs and culture in other countries or ethnic groups, also known as social and economic anglicisation
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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe
. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the _Roman Empire_ (Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. _Basileia tôn Rhōmaiōn_; Latin : _Imperium Romanum_), or _Romania_ (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans". Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I
Constantine I
(r
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Byzantine Aristocracy And Bureaucracy
The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy , which was inherited from the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. At the apex of the hierarchy stood the emperor , who was the sole ruler (autokrator ) and who was considered to be divinely ordained . Beneath him, a multitude of officials and court functionaries operated the complex administrative machinery that was necessary to run the empire. In addition to those officials, a large number of honorific titles existed, which the emperor awarded to his subjects or to friendly foreign rulers. Over the more than thousand years of the empire's existence, different titles were adopted and discarded, and many lost or gained prestige. At first the various titles of the empire were the same as those in the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. However, by the time that Heraclius was emperor (610–641), many of the titles had become obsolete. By the time of Alexios I reign (1082–1118), many of the positions were either new or drastically changed. However, from that time on they remained essentially the same until the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453
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Justinian I
JUSTINIAN I (/dʒʌˈstɪniən/ ; Latin
Latin
: _Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus_; Greek : Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός _Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós_) (c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as JUSTINIAN THE GREAT and also SAINT JUSTINIAN THE GREAT in the Eastern Orthodox Church , was the Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire
Later Roman empire
, and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized _renovatio imperii_, or "restoration of the Empire". Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the "last Roman " in modern historiography . This ambition was expressed by the partial recovery of the territories of the defunct western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. His general, Belisarius , swiftly conquered the Vandal kingdom in North Africa
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Reign
A REIGN is the period of a person's or dynasty 's occupation of the office of monarch of a nation (e.g., Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Belgium , Andorra ), of a people (e.g., the Franks , the Zulus ) or of a spiritual community (e.g., Roman Catholicism , Tibetan Buddhism , Nizari Ismailism ). In most hereditary monarchies and some elective monarchies (e.g., Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
) there have been no limits on the duration of a sovereign's reign or incumbency , nor is there a term of office . Thus, a reign usually lasts until the monarch dies, unless the monarchy itself is abolished or the monarch abdicates or is deposed. In elective monarchies , there may be a fixed period of time for the duration of the monarch's tenure in office (e.g., Malaysia ). The term of a reign can be indicated with the abbreviation "r." after a sovereign's name, such as the following: George VI, King of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(r. 1936–1952) CONTENTS* 1 Regnal periods * 1.1 Abdications * 1.2 Abolitions * 2 See also * 3 References REGNAL PERIODSNotable reigns have included the following
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Komnenos Dynasty
KOMNENOS (Greek : Κομνηνός), Latinized COMNENUS, plural KOMNENOI or COMNENI (Κομνηνοί, pronounced /komniní/), is the name of a noble family who ruled the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
from 1081 to 1185, and later, as the GRAND KOMNENOI (Μεγαλοκομνηνοί, _Megalokomnenoi_) founded and ruled the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1461). Through intermarriages with other noble families, notably the Doukai , Angeloi , and Palaiologoi , the Komnenos
Komnenos
name appears among most of the major noble houses of the late Byzantine world. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Founding the dynasty * 3 The Komnenoi as emperors * 4 Later family * 5 Komnenian ancestry in Western Europe * 6 References * 7 Sources ORIGINS Michael Psellos reports that the family originated from the village of Komne in Thrace
Thrace
—usually identified with the "Fields of Komnene" (Κομνηνῆς λειμῶνας) mentioned in the 14th century by John Kantakouzenos —a view commonly accepted by modern scholarship. The first known member of the family, Manuel Erotikos Komnenos , acquired extensive estates at Kastamon in Paphlagonia , which became the stronghold of the family in the 11th century
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Vir Illustris
The title VIR ILLUSTRIS ("illustrious man") is used as a formal indication of standing in late antiquity to describe the highest ranks within the senates of Rome and Constantinople
Constantinople
. All senators had the title vir clarissimus ("very famous man"); but from the mid fourth century onwards, vir illustris and vir spectabilis ("admirable man", a lower rank than illustris) were used to distinguish holders of high office. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Offices * 1.3 Later developments * 2 Written forms * 3 References * 4 Notes HISTORYORIGINSThe custom of Roman senators of late antiquity appending the title of vir clarissimus to their names developed gradually over the first two centuries. During the fourth century, the senatorial order greatly increased in number, so that the title became more common and new titles were devised to distinguish senators of a higher dignity, namely vir spectabilis and vir illustris. The first instance of vir illustris occurred in AD 354 with its use by the Praefectus praetorio . For some decades it was used inconsistently, but then more regularly, perhaps in connection with a formal codification of honours by Emperor Valentinian I in AD 372. OFFICESThe offices that had a right to the title varied with time
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Western Europe
WESTERN EUROPE is the region comprising the western part of Europe
Europe
. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined. For centuries, Western Europe
Europe
was defined as the countries with dominant Catholic and Protestant churches, while Eastern Europe
Europe
was dominated by the Eastern Orthodox Church . A more contemporary definition subdivides Western Europe
Europe
into several other regions like Central Europe
Europe
or Northern Europe
Europe
. Western Europe's significant historical events include the time of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(including the Punic, Gallic an Civil Wars fought by Rome), the reign of Augustus
Augustus
, the spreading of The Gospel under St Paul , Pax Romana , Fall of the Western Roman Empire reign of Charlemange , the Viking Invasions, the Black Death , the Renaissance , the Age of Discovery , the Protestant Reformation as well as the Counter-Reformation of the Catholic Church , the Age of Enlightenment , the French Revolution , Industrial Revolution , the two World Wars and the Cold War
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Majordomo
A MAJORDOMO is a person who speaks, makes arrangements, or takes charge for another. Typically, the term refers to the highest (major) person of a household (domūs or domicile) staff, a head servant who acts on behalf of the owner of a large or significant residence. Similar terms include castellan , concierge , chamberlain , seneschal , mayor of the palace , maître d\'hôtel , head butler , and steward . The term also refers, more informally, to someone who oversees the day-to-day responsibilities of a business enterprise. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Examples in fiction * 3 See also * 4 References ETYMOLOGYThe origin is from maior domūs ( Latin , "principal" and "house"), and it was borrowed into English from Spanish "mayordomo" or obsolete Italian "maiordomo". Also found as French "majordome", modern Italian "maggiordomo", Portuguese and Galician "mordomo", in Romanian and Catalan "majordom". EXAMPLES IN FICTIONIn the 1991 Disney animated film Beauty and the Beast the character of Cogsworth, has the position of majordomo in the castle, alongside Lumiere who is the castle's Maître d\'hôtel . In the 1994 film The Lion King the character Zazu serves as majordomo (or as he introduces himself, "majordodo") to Mufasa and later his son Simba
Simba
after he became king
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Justin II
JUSTIN II (Latin : Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Φλάβιος Ἰουστίνος ὁ νεώτερος; c. 520 – 5 October 578) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 565 to 574. He was the husband of Sophia , nephew of Justinian I
Justinian I
and the Empress Theodora , and was therefore a member of the Justinian Dynasty
Dynasty
. His reign is marked by war with the Sassanid Empire and the loss of the greater part of Italy
Italy
. He presented the Cross of Justin II to Saint Peter\'s, Rome . CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Reign * 2.1 Accession * 2.2 Foreign policy * 3 Personal traits * 4 Succession and Abdication * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 7.1 Primary sources * 7.2 Secondary sources * 8 External links FAMILYHe was a son of Vigilantia and Dulcidio (or Dulcissimus), respectively the sister and brother-in-law of Justinian. His siblings included Marcellus and Praejecta . REIGNACCESSION Justinian I
Justinian I
died on the night of 14 to 15 November 565. Callinicus (pl), the praepositus sacri cubiculi , seems to have been the only witness to his dying moments, and later claimed that Justinian had designated "Justin, Vigilantia's son" as his heir in a deathbed decision
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Caesar (title)
CAESAR (English pl. CAESARS; Latin
Latin
pl. Caesares) is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
, the Roman dictator
Roman dictator
. The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called " Year of the Four Emperors
Year of the Four Emperors
". CONTENTS * 1 Sole Roman Emperor
Emperor
* 2 Dynastic title * 3 Late Empire * 3.1 The Third Century Crisis * 3.2 Tetrarchy * 3.3 After the Tetrarchy * 4 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
* 5 Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* 6 Legacy * 6.1 Name * 6.2 Historiography * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography SOLE ROMAN EMPERORFor political and personal reasons Octavian chose to emphasize his relationship with Caesar by styling himself simply " Imperator
Imperator
Caesar" (whereto the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
added the honorific Augustus , "Majestic" or "Venerable," in 27 BC), without any of the other elements of his full name
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Nobilissimus
NOBILISSIMUS ( Latin : "most noble"), in Byzantine Greek NōBELISSIMOS (Greek: νωβελίσσιμος), was one of the highest imperial titles in the late Roman and Byzantine empires. The feminine form of the title was NOBILISSIMA. CONTENTS * 1 History and functions * 2 Nobilissimi * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORY AND FUNCTIONS "Prōtonōbelissimos" from the codicil of the Sicilian admiral Christodulus The term nobilissimus originated as an epithet to the title of Caesar , whose holder was the Roman and Byzantine emperor's heir-apparent and who would, after Geta in 198, be addressed nobilissimus Caesar. According to the historian Zosimus , Emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306–337) first created the nobilissimus into a separate dignity, so as to honour some of his relatives without implying a claim to the imperial throne. The title thus came to be awarded to members of the imperial family, coming in rank immediately after that of Caesar, and remained so throughout the early and middle Byzantine period, until the mid-11th century. In the Klētorologion of Philotheos, written in 899, the rank's insignia are described as a purple tunic, mantle and belt, indicating the exalted position