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Curopalates
KOUROPALATēS, Latinized as CUROPALATES or CUROPALATA (Greek : κουροπαλάτης, from Latin : cura palatii " charge of the palace") and Anglicized as CUROPALATE, was a Byzantine court title , one of the highest from the time of Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(r. 527–565) to that of the Komnenoi in the 12th century. The female variant, held by the spouses of the kouropalatai, was KOUROPALATISSA. CONTENTS * 1 History and nature of the title * 2 List of prominent Byzantine holders * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources HISTORY AND NATURE OF THE TITLEThe title is first attested (as curapalati) in the early 5th century, as an official of vir spectabilis rank under the castrensis palatii, charged with the maintenance of the imperial palace (cf. Western European "majordomo "). When Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(r
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Leo III The Isaurian
LEO III THE ISAURIAN , also known as THE SYRIAN (Greek : Λέων Γ΄ ὁ Ἴσαυρος, Leōn III ho Isauros, (c. 685 – 18 June 741), was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741. He put an end to the Twenty Years\' Anarchy , a period of great instability in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
between 695 and 717, marked by the rapid succession of several emperors to the throne. He also successfully defended the Empire against the invading Umayyads and forbade the veneration of icons . CONTENTS* 1 Life * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
* 1.3 Administration * 1.4 Iconoclasm * 2 Family * 3 See also * 4 Footnotes * 5 Literature * 6 External links LIFE A Leo III base gold solidus, minted in Rome
Rome

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Nikephoros I
NIKEPHOROS I or NICEPHORUS I, also logothetēs tou genikou (Greek : Νικηφόρος Α΄, Nikēphoros I, "Bringer of Victory"; died July 26, 811), was Eastern Roman Emperor from 802 to 811 AD, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska
Pliska
. A patrician from Seleucia Sidera , Nikephoros was appointed finance minister (logothetēs tou genikou ) by the Empress Irene . With the help of the patricians and eunuchs he contrived to dethrone and exile Irene, and to be chosen as Emperor in her stead on October 31, 802. He crowned his son Staurakios co-emperor in 803. His rule was endangered by Bardanes Tourkos , one of his ablest generals, who revolted and received support from other commanders, notably the later emperors Leo V the Armenian and Michael II the Amorian in 803
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Bardas
BARDAS (Greek : Βάρδας; died 21 April 866) was a Byzantine noble and high-ranking minister. As the brother of Empress Theodora , he rose to high office under Theophilos (r. 829–842). Although sidelined after Theophilos's death by Theodora and Theoktistos
Theoktistos
, in 855 he engineered Theoktistos's murder and became the de facto regent for his nephew, Michael III
Michael III
(r. 842–867). Rising to the rank of Caesar , he was the effective ruler of the Byzantine Empire for ten years, a period which saw military success, renewed diplomatic and missionary activity, and an intellectual revival that heralded the Macedonian Renaissance . He was assassinated in 866 at the instigation of Michael III's new favourite, Basil the Macedonian
Basil the Macedonian
, who a year later would usurp the throne for himself and install his own dynasty on the Byzantine throne
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Michael III
MICHAEL III (Greek : Μιχαήλ Γʹ, Mikhaēl III; January 19, 840 – September 23/24, 867) was Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 842 to 867. Michael III
Michael III
was the third and traditionally last member of the Amorian (or Phrygian) dynasty . He was given the disparaging epithet the Drunkard (ὁ Μέθυσος) by the hostile historians of the succeeding Macedonian dynasty , but modern historical research has rehabilitated his reputation to some extent, demonstrating the vital role his reign played in the resurgence of Byzantine power in the 9th century
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Artabasdos
ARTAVASDOS or ARTABASDOS (Greek : Ἀρταύασδος or Ἀρτάβασδος, from Armenian : Արտավազդ, Artavazd, Ardavazt), Latinized as ARTABASDUS, was a Byzantine general of Armenian descent who seized the throne from June 741 or 742 until November 743. His reign constitutes a usurpation against Constantine V , who had retained control of several themes in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
. CONTENTS * 1 Rise to power * 2 Reign and downfall * 3 Family * 4 See also * 5 Bibliography * 6 Further reading RISE TO POWERIn about 713, Emperor Anastasius II appointed the Armenian Artabasdos as governor (stratēgos ) of the Armeniac theme (Θέμα Άρμενιάκων, Thema Armeniakōn), the successor of the Army of Armenia, which occupied the old areas of the Pontus, Armenia Minor, and northern Cappadocia, with its capital at Amasea
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Heraclius
HERACLIUS ( Latin
Latin
: Flavius Heracles
Heracles
Augustus, Greek : Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641. He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Roman Empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder , the exarch of Africa , led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas
Phocas
. Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. The year Heraclius
Heraclius
came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Heraclius
Heraclius
immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628
Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628

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Palaiologan Period
The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was ruled by the Palaiologoi dynasty in a period spanning from 1261 to 1453 AD, from the restoration of Roman rule to Constantinople
Constantinople
by the usurper Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
to the Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. From the start, the régime faced numerous problems. The Turks of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
had since 1263 been raiding and expanding into Byzantine territory in Asia Minor. Anatolia
Anatolia
, which had formed the very heart of the shrinking empire, was systematically lost to numerous Turkic ghazis , whose raids evolved into conquering expeditions inspired by Islamic
Islamic
zeal
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Latinisation Of Names
LATINISATION (also spelled LATINIZATION : see spelling differences ) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style . It is commonly found with historical personal names , with toponyms , and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation , which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic
Cyrillic
). This was often done in the classical era for much the same reason as English-speaking cultures produce English versions of some foreign names. In the case of personal names in the post-Roman era this may be done to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent
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Antioch
ANTIOCH ON THE ORONTES (/ˈæntiˌɒk/ ; also SYRIAN ANTIOCH) was an ancient Greco-Roman city on the eastern side of the Orontes River . Its ruins lie near the modern city of Antakya , Turkey
Turkey
, and lends the modern city its name. Antioch
Antioch
was founded near the end of the 4th century
4th century
BC by Seleucus I Nicator , one of Alexander the Great 's generals. The city's geographical, military, and economic location benefited its occupants, particularly such features as the spice trade , the Silk Road , and the Persian Royal Road . It eventually rivaled Alexandria
Alexandria
as the chief city of the Near East. It was also the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period
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Phocas
PHOCAS (Latin : Flavius Phocas
Phocas
Augustus; Greek : Φωκᾶς, Phokas; 547 – 5 October 610) was Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 602 to 610. He usurped the throne from the Emperor Maurice , and was himself overthrown by Heraclius
Heraclius
after losing a civil war. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Accession * 3 Reign * 4 Overthrow and death * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links ORIGINS Phocas
Phocas
was a Greek-speaking native of Thrace
Thrace
. Almost nothing is known of Phocas's early life and the name of his father is unknown. His mother was named Domentia (or Domentzia ). He had at least two brothers, Comentiolus and Domentziolus
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Leo Phokas The Younger
LEO PHOKAS or PHOCAS (Greek : Λέων Φωκᾶς, c. 915-920 – after 971) was a prominent Byzantine
Byzantine
general who scored a number of successes in the eastern frontier in the mid-10th century alongside his older brother, the Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas
Nikephoros II Phokas
. He served as chief minister during his brother's reign, but was dismissed and imprisoned by his successor, John Tzimiskes . Depiction of Leo's victory at Andrassos, from the Madrid Skylitzes
Madrid Skylitzes
Leo was the younger son of Bardas Phokas the Elder , a noted general and longtime commander of the eastern armies under Constantine VII
Constantine VII
, and of an unnamed lady from the Maleinos clan
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Nikephoros II Phokas
NIKEPHOROS II PHOKAS (Latinized: NICEPHORUS II PHOCAS; Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς, Nikēphóros II Phōkãs; c. 912 – 11 December 969) was Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 963 to 969. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
during the 10th century
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Alexander Kazhdan
ALEXANDER PETROVICH KAZHDAN (Russian : Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Кажда́н; 3 September 1922 – 29 May 1997) was a Soviet-American Byzantinist . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Soviet * 1.2 United States
United States
* 2 Notes * 3 Further reading BIOGRAPHYSOVIETBorn in Moscow
Moscow
, Kazhdan was educated at the Pedagogical Institute of Ufa
Ufa
and the University of Moscow
Moscow
, where he studied with the historian of medieval England , Evgenii Kosminskii
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The Oxford Dictionary Of Byzantium
THE OXFORD DICTIONARY OF BYZANTIUM (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press . With more than 5,000 entries, it contains comprehensive information in English on topics relating to the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. It was edited by Dr. Alexander Kazhdan , and was first published in 1991. Kazhdan was a professor at Princeton University who became a Senior Research Associate at Dumbarton Oaks
Dumbarton Oaks
, Washington, DC
Washington, DC
before his death. He contributed to many of the articles in the Dictionary and always signed his initials A.K. at the end of the article to indicate his contribution. DESCRIPTIONThe dictionary is available in printed and e-reference text versions from Oxford Reference Online . It covers the main historical events of Byzantium, as well as important social and religious events
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Cyril Toumanoff
CYRIL LEO HERACLIUS, PRINCE TOUMANOFF (Russian : Кирилл Львович Туманов; 13 October 1913 – 4 February 1997) was a Russian-born American historian and genealogist who mostly specialized in the history and genealogies of medieval Georgia , Armenia
Armenia
, Iran
Iran
and the Byzantine Empire . His works have significantly influenced the Western scholarship of the medieval Caucasus
Caucasus
. CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Career * 3 Bibliography * 4 References FAMILY Cyril Toumanoff was born in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
into a family of the military officer of the Russian army. His father came of the princely family of Tumanishvili from Georgia, whose ancestors had emigrated from their original homeland in Cilician Armenia
Armenia
in the 15th century
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