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Curopalates
Kouropalatēs, Latinized as curopalates or curopalata (Greek: κουροπαλάτης, from Latin: cura palatii "[the one in] charge of the palace")[1] and Anglicized as curopalate, was a Byzantine court title, one of the highest from the time of Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(r. 527–565) to that of the Komnenoi in the 12th century.[2] The female variant, held by the spouses of the kouropalatai, was kouropalatissa.Contents1 History and nature of the title 2 List of prominent Byzantine holders 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesHistory and nature of the title[edit] The title is first attested (as curapalati) in the early 5th century, as an official of vir spectabilis rank under the castrensis palatii, charged with the maintenance of the imperial palace (cf. Western European "majordomo").[3] When Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(r
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Latinisation Of Names
Latinisation (also spelled Latinization[1]: see spelling differences) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style.[1] It is commonly found with historical personal names, with toponyms and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation, which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic). This was often done in the classical to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by:transforming the name into Latin
Latin
sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir), or adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Leo Phokas The Younger
Leo Phokas or Phocas (Greek: Λέων Φωκᾶς, c. 915–920 – after 971) was a prominent Byzantine
Byzantine
general who scored a number of successes in the eastern frontier in the mid-10th century alongside his older brother, the Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas. He served as chief minister during his brother's reign, but was dismissed and imprisoned by his successor, John Tzimiskes.Depiction of Leo's victory at Andrassos, from the Madrid SkylitzesLeo was the younger son of Bardas Phokas the Elder, a noted general and longtime commander of the eastern armies under Constantine VII, and of an unnamed lady from the Maleinos clan. Leo was first appointed as strategos of the thema of Cappadocia in 945, and about ten years later, he was promoted to the post of strategos of the prestigious Anatolic Theme. Under Romanos II, he was named Domestic of the Schools of the West, i.e
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Phocas
Phocas
Phocas
(Latin: Flavius Phocas
Phocas
Augustus; Greek: Φωκᾶς, Phokas; – 5 October 610) was Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 602 to 610. The early life of Phocas
Phocas
is largely unknown, however he rose to prominence in 602, as a leader in the revolt against Emperor Maurice. Phocas captured Constantinople
Constantinople
and overthrew Maurice on 23 November 602, and declared himself as Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
on the same day. Phocas
Phocas
deeply distrusted the elite of Constantinople, and therefore installed his relatives in high military positions, and brutally purged his opponents
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Heraclius
Heraclius
Heraclius
(Latin: Flavius Heracles
Heracles
Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, translit. Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.[A 1] He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Roman Empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius
Heraclius
the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas. Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. The year Heraclius
Heraclius
came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Heraclius
Heraclius
immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628
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Artabasdos
Artavasdos or Artabasdos
Artabasdos
(Greek: Ἀρταύασδος or Ἀρτάβασδος, from Armenian: Արտավազդ, Artavazd, Ardavazt), Latinized as Artabasdus, was a Byzantine general of Armenian descent who seized the throne from June 741 or 742 until November 743. His reign constitutes a usurpation against Constantine V, who had retained control of several themes in Asia Minor.Contents1 Rise to power 2 Reign and downfall 3 Family 4 See also 5 Bibliography 6 Further readingRise to power[edit] In about 713, Emperor Anastasius II appointed the Armenian Artabasdos as governor (stratēgos) of the Armeniac theme
Armeniac theme
(Θέμα Άρμενιάκων, Thema Armeniakōn), the successor of the Army of Armenia, which occupied the old areas of the Pontus, Armenia Minor, and northern Cappadocia, with its capital at Amasea
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Leo III The Isaurian
Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian (Greek): Λέων Γ΄ ὁ Ἴσαυρος, Leōn III ho Isauros, (c. 675 – 18 June 741), was Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 717 until his death in 741.[1] He put an end to the Twenty Years' Anarchy, a period of great instability in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
between 695 and 717, marked by the rapid succession of several emperors to the throne. He also successfully defended the Empire against the invading Umayyads and forbade the veneration of icons.[2]Contents1 Life1.1 Early life 1.2 Siege of Constantinople 1.3 Administration 1.4 Iconoclasm2 Family 3 See also 4 Footnotes 5 Literature 6 External linksLife[edit]A Leo III base gold solidus, minted in Rome.Example of the miliaresion silver coins, first struck by Leo III to commemorate the coronation of his son, Constantine V, as co-emperor in 720. Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
717 AD
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Nikephoros I
Nikephoros I
Nikephoros I
or Nicephorus I (Greek: Νικηφόρος Α΄, Nikēphoros I; died July 26, 811), was Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 802 to 811, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska
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Bardas
Bardas
Bardas
(Greek: Βάρδας; died 21 April 866) was a Byzantine noble and high-ranking minister. As the brother of Empress Theodora, he rose to high office under Theophilos (r. 829–842). Although sidelined after Theophilos's death by Theodora and Theoktistos, in 855 he engineered Theoktistos's murder and became the de facto regent for his nephew, Michael III
Michael III
(r. 842–867). Rising to the rank of Caesar, he was the effective ruler of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
for ten years, a period which saw military success, renewed diplomatic and missionary activity, and an intellectual revival that heralded the Macedonian Renaissance
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Michael III
Michael III
Michael III
(Greek: Μιχαήλ Γʹ, Mikhaēl III; January 19, 840 – September 23/24, 867) was Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 842 to 867. Michael III
Michael III
was the third and traditionally last member of the Amorian (or Phrygian) dynasty
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Nikephoros II Phokas
Nikephoros II Phokas
Nikephoros II Phokas
(Latinized: Nicephorus II Phocas; Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς, Nikēphóros II Phōkãs; c. 912 – 11 December 969) was Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 963 to 969. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
during the 10th century. His reign, however, was not unmarred by controversy. In the west, he inflamed conflict with the Bulgarians and saw Sicily
Sicily
completely turn over to the Muslims, while he failed to make any serious gains in Italy following the incursions of Otto I. Meanwhile, in the east, he completed the conquest of Cilicia
Cilicia
and even retook the island of Cyprus, thus opening the path for subsequent Byzantine incursions reaching as far as the Jazira and the Levant
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Palaiologan Period
The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was ruled by the Palaiologoi
Palaiologoi
dynasty in a period spanning from 1261 to 1453 AD, from the restoration of Byzantine rule to Constantinople
Constantinople
by the usurper Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
following its recapture from the Latin Empire, founded after the Fourth Crusade (1204), up to the Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
to the Ottoman Empire. From the start, the régime faced numerous problems.[1] The Turks of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
had since 1263 been raiding and expanding into Byzantine territory in Asia Minor. Anatolia, which had formed the very heart of the shrinking empire, was systematically lost to numerous Turkic ghazis, whose raids evolved into conquering expeditions inspired by Islamic
Islamic
zeal
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Darigbed
Darigbed was a Sasanian title equivalent to the Byzantine title kouropalates ("palace superintendent").[1] The title is first mentioned in the inscription of Shapur II
Shapur II
(r. 240-270) at Naqsh-e Rostam.[2] List of prominent holders[edit]Apursam-Shapur, Iranian aristocrat, who served as darigbed under Shapur I
Shapur I
(r. 240-270).[2] Bozorgmehr, aristocrat from the House of Karen, who served as darigbed under Khosrow I
Khosrow I
(r. 531-579).[3] Bahram Chobin, aristocrat from the House of Mihran, who served as darigbed under Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV
(r. 579–590).[3] Rostam Farrokhzad, aristocrat from the House of Ispahbudhan, who served as darigbed under Khosrow II
Khosrow II
(r. 590-628).[4] Farrukhzad, aristocrat from the House of Ispahbudhan, who served as darigbed under Khosrow II
Khosrow II
(r
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J. B. Bury
John Bagnell Bury, FBA (/ˈbɛri/; 16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927), known as J. B. Bury, was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman historian and philologist. He objected to the label "Byzantinist" explicitly in the preface to the 1889 edition of his Later Roman Empire. He held the position of Erasmus Smith's Professor of Modern History at Trinity College Dublin.Contents1 Biography 2 Writings 3 "History as a science" 4 On the argument from ignorance and the burden of proof 5 Bibliography5.1 As editor6 See also 7 Notes 8 External linksBiography[edit] Bury was born and raised in Clontibret, County Monaghan, where his father was Rector of the Anglican
Anglican
Church of Ireland
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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