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Heraclius
Heraclius
(Latin: Flavius Heracles
Heracles
Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, translit. Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.[A 1] He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Roman Empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius
Heraclius
the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas. Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. The year Heraclius
Heraclius
came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Heraclius
Heraclius
immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. The first battles of the campaign ended in defeat for the Byzantines; the Persian army fought their way to the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
but Constantinople
Constantinople
was protected by impenetrable walls and a strong navy, and Heraclius
Heraclius
was able to avoid total defeat. Soon after, he initiated reforms to rebuild and strengthen the military. Heraclius
Heraclius
drove the Persians out of Asia Minor and pushed deep into their territory, defeating them decisively in 627 at the Battle of Nineveh. The Persian king Khosrau II
Khosrau II
was overthrown and executed by his son Kavadh II, who soon sued for a peace treaty, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territory. This way peaceful relations were restored to the two deeply strained empires. Heraclius
Heraclius
soon experienced a new event, the Muslim conquests. Emerging from the Arabian Peninsula, the Muslims quickly conquered the Sasanian Empire. In 634 the Muslims marched into Roman Syria, defeating Heraclius's brother Theodore. Within a short period of time, the Arabs conquered Mesopotamia, Armenia and Egypt. Heraclius
Heraclius
entered diplomatic relations with the Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
in the Balkans. He tried to repair the schism in the Christian
Christian
church in regard to the Monophysites, by promoting a compromise doctrine called Monothelitism. The Church of the East
Church of the East
(commonly called Nestorian) was also involved in the process.[4] Eventually this project of unity was rejected by all sides of the dispute.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Origins 1.2 Revolt against Phocas
Phocas
and accession

2 Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628

2.1 Initial Persian advantage 2.2 Byzantine counter-offensive and resurgence

3 War against the Arabs 4 Legacy

4.1 Accomplishments 4.2 Recovery of the True Cross

4.2.1 Opposing view: returned relic a fake

4.3 Islamic view of Heraclius

5 Family

5.1 Family tree

6 See also 7 Annotations 8 References 9 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life[edit] Origins[edit] Heraclius
Heraclius
was the eldest son of Heraclius the Elder
Heraclius the Elder
and Epiphania, of a family of possible Armenian origin from Cappadocia,[A 2][5] with speculative Arsacid descent.[6] Beyond that, there is little specific information known about his ancestry. His father was a key general during Emperor Maurice's war with Bahrām Chobin, usurper of the Sasanian Empire, during 590.[7] After the war, Maurice appointed Heraclius the Elder
Heraclius the Elder
to the position of Exarch
Exarch
of Africa.[7] Revolt against Phocas
Phocas
and accession[edit]

Gold solidus of Heraclius
Heraclius
and his father in consular robes, struck during their revolt against Phocas

In 608, Heraclius the Elder
Heraclius the Elder
renounced his loyalty to the Emperor Phocas, who had overthrown Maurice six years earlier. The rebels issued coins showing both Heraclii dressed as consuls, though neither of them explicitly claimed the imperial title at this time.[8] Heraclius's younger cousin Nicetas launched an overland invasion of Egypt; by 609, he had defeated Phocas's general Bonosus and secured the province. Meanwhile, the younger Heraclius
Heraclius
sailed eastward with another force via Sicily
Sicily
and Cyprus.[8] As he approached Constantinople, he made contact with prominent leaders and planned an attack to overthrow aristocrats in the city, and soon arranged a ceremony where he was crowned and acclaimed as Emperor. When he reached the capital, the Excubitors, an elite Imperial Guard unit led by Phocas's son-in-law Priscus, deserted to Heraclius, and he entered the city without serious resistance. When Heraclius
Heraclius
captured Phocas, he asked him "Is this how you have ruled, wretch?" Phocas's reply—"And will you rule better?"—so enraged Heraclius
Heraclius
that he beheaded Phocas
Phocas
on the spot.[9] He later had the genitalia removed from the body because Phocas
Phocas
had raped the wife of Photius, a powerful politician in the city.[10] On October 5, 610, Heraclius
Heraclius
was crowned for a second time, this time in the Chapel of St. Stephen within the Great Palace; at the same time he married Fabia, who took the name Eudokia. After her death in 612, he married his niece Martina in 613; this second marriage was considered incestuous and was very unpopular.[11] In the reign of Heraclius's two sons, the divisive Martina was to become the center of power and political intrigue. Despite widespread hatred for Martina in Constantinople, Heraclius
Heraclius
took her on campaigns with him and refused attempts by Patriarch
Patriarch
Sergius to prevent and later dissolve the marriage.[11] Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628[edit] Initial Persian advantage[edit] See also: Byzantine–Sasanian wars
Byzantine–Sasanian wars
and Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 During his Balkan Campaigns, Emperor Maurice and his family were murdered by Phocas
Phocas
in November 602 after a mutiny.[12] Khosrau II (Chosroes) of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
had been restored to his throne by Maurice, and they had remained allies.[A 3] Thus, the Persian King Khosrau II
Khosrau II
seized the pretext to attack the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and reconquer the Byzantine province of Mesopotamia.[13] Khosrau had at his court a man who claimed to be Maurice's son Theodosius, and Khosrau demanded that the Byzantines accept this Theodosius as Emperor. The war initially went the Persians' way, partly because of Phocas's brutal repression and the succession crisis that ensued as the general Heraclius
Heraclius
sent his nephew Nicetas to attack Egypt, enabling his son Heraclius
Heraclius
the younger to claim the throne in 610.[14] Phocas, an unpopular ruler who is invariably described in historical sources as a "tyrant" (in its original meaning of the word, i.e. illegitimate king by the rules of succession), was eventually deposed by Heraclius, who sailed to Constantinople
Constantinople
from Carthage
Carthage
with an icon affixed to the prow of his ship.[15][16] By this time, the Persians had conquered Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the Caucasus, and in 611 they overran Syria and entered Anatolia. A major counter-attack led by Heraclius
Heraclius
two years later was decisively defeated outside Antioch
Antioch
by Shahrbaraz
Shahrbaraz
and Shahin, and the Roman position collapsed; the Persians devastated parts of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and captured Chalcedon
Chalcedon
across from Constantinople
Constantinople
on the Bosporus.[17] Over the following decade the Persians were able to conquer Palestine and Egypt
Egypt
(by mid-621 the whole province was in their hands)[18] and to devastate Anatolia,[A 4] while the Avars and Slavs
Slavs
took advantage of the situation to overrun the Balkans, bringing the Empire to the brink of destruction. In 613, the Persian army took Damascus
Damascus
with the help of the Jews, seized Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 614, damaging the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and capturing the True Cross, and afterwards capturing Egypt
Egypt
in 617 or 618.[20] With the Persians at the very gate of Constantinople, Heraclius thought of abandoning the city and moving the capital to Carthage, but the powerful church figure Patriarch
Patriarch
Sergius convinced him to stay. Safe behind the walls of Constantinople, Heraclius
Heraclius
was able to sue for peace in exchange for an annual tribute of a thousand talents of gold, a thousand talents of silver, a thousand silk robes, a thousand horses, and a thousand virgins to the Persian King.[21] The peace allowed him to rebuild the Empire's army by slashing non-military expenditure, devaluing the currency, and melting down, with the backing of Patriarch
Patriarch
Sergius, Church treasures to raise the necessary funds to continue the war.[22] Byzantine counter-offensive and resurgence[edit] On April 5, 622, Heraclius
Heraclius
left Constantinople, entrusting the city to Sergius and general Bonus as regents of his son. He assembled his forces in Asia Minor, probably in Bithynia, and, after he revived their broken morale, he launched a new counter-offensive, which took on the character of a holy war; an acheiropoietos image of Christ
Christ
was carried as a military standard.[22][23][24][25]

Cherub
Cherub
and Heraclius
Heraclius
receiving the submission of Khosrau II; plaque from a cross ( Champlevé
Champlevé
enamel over gilt copper, 1160–1170, Paris, Louvre).

The Roman army proceeded to Armenia, inflicted a defeat on an army led by a Persian-allied Arab chief, and then won a victory over the Persians under Shahrbaraz.[26] Heraclius
Heraclius
would stay on campaign for several years.[27][28] On March 25, 624 he again left Constantinople with his wife, Martina, and his two children; after he celebrated Easter
Easter
in Nicomedia
Nicomedia
on April 15, he campaigned in the Caucasus, winning a series of victories in Armenia against Khosrau and his generals Shahrbaraz, Shahin, and Shahraplakan.[29][30] In the same year the Visigoths
Visigoths
succeeded in recapturing Cartagena, capital of the western Byzantine province of Spania, resulting in the loss of one of the few minor provinces that had been conquered by the armies of Justinian I.[31] In 626 the Avars and Slavs
Slavs
supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, besieged Constantinople, but the siege ended in failure (the victory was attributed to the icons of the Virgin which were led in procession by Sergius about the walls of the city),[32] while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius's brother Theodore. With the Persian war effort disintegrating, Heraclius
Heraclius
was able to bring the Gokturks
Gokturks
of the Western Turkic Khaganate, Ziebel, who invaded Persian Transcaucasia. Heraclius
Heraclius
exploited divisions within the Persian Empire, keeping the Persian general Shahrbaraz
Shahrbaraz
neutral by convincing him that Khosrau had grown jealous of him and had ordered his execution. Late in 627 he launched a winter offensive into Mesopotamia, where, despite the desertion of his Turkish allies, he defeated the Persians under Rhahzadh at the Battle of Nineveh.[33] Continuing south along the Tigris he sacked Khosrau's great palace at Dastagird
Dastagird
and was only prevented from attacking Ctesiphon by the destruction of the bridges on the Nahrawan Canal. Discredited by this series of disasters, Khosrau was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his son Kavadh II, who at once sued for peace, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories.[34] In 629 Heraclius
Heraclius
restored the True Cross to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in a majestic ceremony.[16][35][36] Heraclius
Heraclius
took for himself the ancient Persian title of "King of Kings" after his victory over Persia. Later on, starting in 629, he styled himself as Basileus, the Greek word for "sovereign", and that title was used by the Roman Emperors for the next 800 years. The reason Heraclius
Heraclius
chose this title over previous Roman terms such as Augustus
Augustus
has been attributed by some scholars as relating to his Armenian origins.[37] Heraclius's defeat of the Persians ended a war that had been going on intermittently for almost 400 years and led to instability in the Persian Empire. Kavadh II
Kavadh II
died only months after assuming the throne, plunging Persia into several years of dynastic turmoil and civil war. Ardashir III, Heraclius's ally Shahrbaraz, and Khosrau's daughters Purandokht
Purandokht
and Azarmidokht
Azarmidokht
all succeeded to the throne within months of each other. Only when Yazdgerd III, a grandson of Khosrau II, succeeded to the throne in 632 was there stability. But by then the Sasanid Empire was severely disorganised and had been severely weakened by years of war and civil strife over the succession to the throne.[38][39] The war had devastating impact and left the Byzantines in much weakened state. Within a few years both empires were overwhelmed by the onslaught of the Arabs
Arabs
who had become newly united by Islam,[40] ultimately leading to the Muslim conquest of Persia
Muslim conquest of Persia
and the fall of the Sasanian dynasty in 651.[41] War against the Arabs[edit] Main articles: Arab–Byzantine wars
Arab–Byzantine wars
and List of battles of Muhammad

Arab-Byzantine troop movement from September 635 to just before the event of the Battle of Yarmouk

v t e

Campaigns of Muhammad

Ghazwah (expeditions where he took part)

Abwa Buwat Safwan Dul 1st Badr Kudr Sawiq Qaynuqa Thi Bahran Uhud Asad Nadir 2nd Nejd 2nd Badr Jandal Trench Qurayza Lahyan Mustaliq Treaty Khaybar Fadak Qura Dhat Baqra Mecca Hunayn Autas Ta'if Tabouk

In 629, the Islamic Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
had recently succeeded in unifying all the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula. Those tribes had previously been too divided to pose a serious military challenge to the Byzantines or the Persians. Now unified and animated by their new conversion to Islam, they comprised one of the most powerful states in the region.[42] The first conflict between the Byzantines and Muslims was the Battle of Mu'tah in September 629. A small Muslim skirmishing force attacked the province of Arabia in response to their ambassador's murder at the hands of the Ghassanid
Ghassanid
Roman governor, but were repulsed. Because the engagement was a Byzantine victory, there was no apparent reason to make changes to the military configuration of the region.[43] Also, the Byzantines had little preceding battlefield experience with the Arabs, and even less with zealous soldiers united by a prophet.[44] Even the Strategicon of Maurice, a manual of war praised for the variety of enemies it covers, does not mention warfare against Arabs
Arabs
at any length.[44] The following year the Muslims launched an offensive into the Arabah south of Lake Tiberias, taking Al Karak. Other raids penetrated into the Negev
Negev
reaching as far as Gaza.[45] The Battle of Yarmouk
Battle of Yarmouk
in 636 resulted in a crushing defeat for the larger Byzantine army; within three years, the Levant
Levant
had been lost again. By the time of Heraclius's death in Constantinople, on February 11, 641, most of Egypt
Egypt
had fallen as well.[46] Legacy[edit] See also: Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Heraclian dynasty

Battle between Heraclius's army and Persians under Khosrau II. Fresco by Piero della Francesca, ca. 1452

Looking back at the reign of Heraclius, scholars have credited him with many accomplishments. He enlarged the Empire, and his reorganization of the government and military were great successes. His attempts at religious harmony failed, but he succeeded in returning the True Cross, one of the holiest Christian
Christian
relics, to Jerusalem. Accomplishments[edit] Although the territorial gains produced by his defeat of the Persians were lost to the advance of the Muslims, Heraclius
Heraclius
still ranks among the great Roman Emperors. His reforms of the government reduced the corruption which had taken hold in Phocas's reign, and he reorganized the military with great success. Ultimately, the reformed Imperial army halted the Muslims in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and held on to Carthage
Carthage
for another 60 years, saving a core from which the empire's strength could be rebuilt.[47] The recovery of the eastern areas of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from the Persians once again raised the problem of religious unity centering on the understanding of the true nature of Christ. Most of the inhabitants of these provinces were Monophysites who rejected the Council of Chalcedon.[48] Heraclius
Heraclius
tried to promote a compromise doctrine called Monothelitism
Monothelitism
but this philosophy was rejected as heretical by both sides of the dispute. For this reason, Heraclius
Heraclius
was viewed as a heretic and bad ruler by some later religious writers. After the Monophysite
Monophysite
provinces were finally lost to the Muslims, Monotheletism rather lost its raison d'être and was eventually abandoned.[48] One of the most important legacies of Heraclius
Heraclius
was changing the official language of the Empire from Latin
Latin
to Greek in 620.[49] The Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
of Byzantine Dalmatia
Byzantine Dalmatia
initiated diplomatic relations and dependencies with Heraclius.[50] The Serbs, who briefly lived in Macedonia, became foederati and were baptized at the request of Heraclius
Heraclius
(before 626).[50][51] At his request, Pope John IV (640–642) sent Christian
Christian
teachers and missionaries to Duke Porga and his Croats, who practiced Slavic paganism.[52] He also created the office of sakellarios, a comptroller of the treasury.[53] Up to the 20th century he was credited with establishing the Thematic system but modern scholarship now points more to the 660s, under Constans
Constans
II.[54]

Heraclius
Heraclius
returns the True Cross
True Cross
to Jerusalem, anachronistically accompanied by Saint Helena. 15th century, Spain

Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
in his work The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
wrote:

Of the characters conspicuous in history, that of Heraclius
Heraclius
is one of the most extraordinary and inconsistent. In the first and last years of a long reign, the emperor appears to be the slave of sloth, of pleasure, or of superstition, the careless and impotent spectator of the public calamities. But the languid mists of the morning and evening are separated by the brightness of the meridian sun; the Arcadius
Arcadius
of the palace arose the Caesar of the camp; and the honor of Rome and Heraclius
Heraclius
was gloriously retrieved by the exploits and trophies of six adventurous campaigns. [...] Since the days of Scipio and Hannibal, no bolder enterprise has been attempted than that which Heraclius
Heraclius
achieved for the deliverance of the empire.[55]

Recovery of the True Cross[edit] Heraclius
Heraclius
was long remembered favourably in the Western church for his reputed feat in recovering the True Cross, which had been captured by the Persians. As Heraclius
Heraclius
approached the capital, Khosrau fled from his favourite residence, Dastagird
Dastagird
near Baghdad, without offering resistance. Meanwhile, some of the Persian grandees freed Khosrau's eldest son Kavadh II, who had been imprisoned by his father, and proclaimed him King on the night of 23–24 February, 628.[56] Kavadh however was mortally ill and was anxious that Heraclius
Heraclius
should protect his infant son Ardeshir. So, as a goodwill gesture, he sent the True Cross with a negotiator to sue for peace in 628.[34] After a tour of the Empire Heraclius
Heraclius
returned the cross on March 21, 629 or 630.[57][58] For Christians of the Western Medieval Europe, Heraclius
Heraclius
was the "first crusader". The iconography of the emperor appeared in the sanctuary at Mont Saint-Michel (ca. 1060),[59] and then it became popular especially in France, Italian Peninsula and Holy Roman Empire.[60] The story was included in the Golden Legend, the famous 13th century compendium of hagiography, and he is sometimes shown in art, as in The History of the True Cross
True Cross
sequence of frescoes painted by Piero della Francesca
Piero della Francesca
in Arezzo, and a similar sequence on a small altarpiece by Adam Elsheimer
Adam Elsheimer
(Städel, Frankfurt). Both of these show scenes of Heraclius
Heraclius
and Constantine I's mother Saint Helena, traditionally responsible for the excavation of the cross. The scene usually shown is Heraclius
Heraclius
carrying the cross; according to the Golden Legend
Golden Legend
he insisted on doing this as he entered Jerusalem, against the advice of the Patriarch. At first, when he was on horseback (shown above), the burden was too heavy, but after he dismounted and removed his crown it became miraculously light, and the barred city gate opened of its own accord. Probably because he was one of the few Eastern Roman Emperors widely known in the West, the Late Antique Colossus of Barletta
Colossus of Barletta
was considered to depict Heraclius. Opposing view: returned relic a fake[edit] Some scholars disagree with this narrative, Professor Constantin Zuckerman going as far as to suggest that the True Cross
True Cross
was actually lost, and that the wood contained in the allegedly still sealed reliquary brought to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
by Heraclius
Heraclius
in 629 was a fake. In his analysis, the hoax was designed to serve the political purposes of both Heraclius
Heraclius
and his former foe, recently turned ally and co-father-in-law, Persian general and soon-to-become king, Shahrvaraz.[58] Islamic view of Heraclius[edit]

Purported letter sent by Muhammad
Muhammad
to Heraclius, emperor of Byzantium; reproduction taken from Majid Ali Khan, Muhammad
Muhammad
The Final Messenger Islamic Book Service, New Delhi (1998).

In Surah 30, the Qur'an refers to the Roman-Sasanian wars as follows:

30:2 The Romans have been defeated 3 In the nearest land. But they, after their defeat, will overcome. 4 Within several years. To Allah belongs the command before and after. And that day the believers will rejoice 5 In the victory of Allah . He gives victory to whom He wills, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Merciful.[61]

In Islamic and Arab histories Heraclius
Heraclius
is the only Roman Emperor who is discussed at any length.[62] Owing to his role as the Roman Emperor at the time Islam
Islam
emerged, he was remembered in Arabic literature, such as the Islamic hadith and sira. The Swahili Utendi wa Tambuka, an epic poem composed in 1728 at Pate Island (off the shore of present-day Kenya) and depicting the wars between the Muslims and Byzantines from the former's point of view, is also known as Kyuo kya Hereḳali ("The book of Heraclius"). In that work, Heraclius
Heraclius
is portrayed as declining the Prophet's command to renounce his belief in Christianity; he is therefore defeated by the Muslim forces.[63] In Muslim tradition he is seen as a just ruler of great piety, who had direct contact with the emerging Islamic forces.[64] The 14th century scholar Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
(d. 1373) went even further stating that "Heraclius was one of the wisest men and among the most resolute, shrewd, deep and opinionated of kings. He ruled the Romans with great leadership and splendor."[62] Historians such as Nadia Maria El-Cheikh and Lawrence Conrad note that Islamic histories even go so far as claiming that Heraclius
Heraclius
recognized Islam
Islam
as the true faith and Muhammad
Muhammad
as its prophet, by comparing Islam
Islam
to Christianity.[65][66][67] Islamic historians often cite a letter that they claim Heraclius
Heraclius
wrote to Muhammad: "I have received your letter with your ambassador and I testify that you are the messenger of God found in our New Testament. Jesus, son of Mary, announced you."[64] According to the Muslim sources reported by El-Cheikh, he tried to convert the ruling class of the Empire, but they resisted so strongly that he reversed his course and claimed that he was just testing their faith in Christianity.[68] El-Cheikh notes that these accounts of Heraclius
Heraclius
add "little to our historical knowledge" of the emperor; rather, they are an important part of "Islamic kerygma," attempting to legitimate Muhammad's status as a prophet.[69] Most scholarly historians view such traditions as "profoundly kerygmatic" and that "enormous difficulties" exist in using these sources for actual history.[70] Furthermore, any messengers sent by Muhammad
Muhammad
to Heraclius
Heraclius
would not have received an imperial audience or recognition.[71] Outside of Islamic sources there is no evidence to suggest Heraclius
Heraclius
ever heard of Islam,[72] and it is possible that he and his advisors actually viewed the Muslims as some special sect of Jews.[44] Family[edit]

Solidus showing Heraclius
Heraclius
(middle, with the large beard) in his later reign flanked by his sons Heraclius
Heraclius
Constantine and Heraclonas

Heraclius
Heraclius
was married twice: first to Fabia Eudokia, a daughter of Rogatus, and then to his niece Martina. He had two children with Fabia (Princess Eudoxia Epiphania and Emperor Constantine III) and at least nine with Martina, most of whom were sickly children.[A 5][75] Of Martina's children at least two were disabled, which was seen as punishment for the illegality of the marriage: Fabius (Flavius) had a paralyzed neck and Theodosios, who was a deaf-mute, married Nike, daughter of Persian general Shahrbaraz
Shahrbaraz
or daughter of Niketas, cousin of Heraclius. Two of Heraclius's children would become Emperor: Heraclius Constantine (Constantine III), his son from Eudokia, for four months in 641, and Martina's son Constantine Heraclius
Heraclius
(Heraklonas), in 638–641.[75] Heraclius
Heraclius
had at least one illegitimate son, John Athalarichos, who conspired a plot against Heraclius
Heraclius
with his cousin, the magister Theodorus, and the Armenian noble David Saharuni.[A 6] When Heraclius discovered the plot, he had Athalarichos's nose and hands cut off, and he was exiled to Prinkipo, one of the Princes' Islands.[79] Theodorus had the same treatment but was sent to Gaudomelete (possibly modern day Gozo
Gozo
Island) with additional instructions to cut off one leg.[79] During the last years of Heraclius's life, it became evident that a struggle was taking place between Heraclius
Heraclius
Constantine and Martina, who was trying to position her son Heraklonas
Heraklonas
in line for the throne. When Heraclius
Heraclius
died, he devised the empire to both Heraclius Constantine and Heraklonas
Heraklonas
to rule jointly with Martina as Empress.[75] Family tree[edit] Further information: Heraclian dynasty
Heraclian dynasty
family tree See also[edit]

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

Flavia (gens) List of Byzantine emperors Non-Muslim interactants with Muslims during Muhammad's era Revolt against Heraclius

Annotations[edit]

^ Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
is a relatively modern term for what in Heracles's time was referred to the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
or Eastern Roman Empire.[1] The earliest use of the term, "Byzantine" was 900 years after Heraclius's death. It first appeared in 1557, when German historian Hieronymus Wolf coined the term when he published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ. Later French historians popularized the term.[1] Other civilizations of the time referred to Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
as the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
or just the Roman Empire. In the Persian, Islamic, and Slavic worlds, the Empire's Roman identity was generally accepted. In the Islamic world it was known primarily as روم (Rûm "Rome").[2][3] For more information see Nomenclature of the Byzantine Empire. ^ His father referred to retrospectively as Heraclius
Heraclius
the Elder. ^ Also referred to as Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" (in Persian: خسرو پرویز). ^ The mint of Nicomedia
Nicomedia
ceased operating in 613, and Rhodes
Rhodes
fell to the invaders in 622/623.[19] ^ The number and order of Heraclius's children by Martina is unsure. Some sources say nine children[73] and others saying ten.[74] ^ The illegitimate son is recorded by a number of different spellings including: Atalarichos,[76] Athalaric,[77] At'alarik,[78] etc.

References[edit]

^ a b Fox, Clifton R. (March 29, 1996). "What, if anything, is a Byzantine?". Lone Star College–Tomball. Archived from the original on October 2, 2009. Retrieved October 21, 2009.  ^ Tarasov 2004, p. 121. ^ El-Cheikh 2004, p. 22. ^ Seleznyov N.N. " Heraclius
Heraclius
and Ishoʿyahb II" Archived 2012-01-27 at the Wayback Machine., Simvol 61: Syriaca-Arabica-Iranica. (Paris-Moscow, 2012), pp. 280–300. ^ Treadgold 1997, p. 287. ^ "Sasanian Dynasty". Encyclopædia Iranica. 20 July 2005. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.  ^ a b Kaegi 2003, pp. 24–25. ^ a b Mitchell 2007, p. 411. ^ Olster 1993, p. 133. ^ Charles 2007, p. 177. ^ a b Kaegi 2003, p. 106. ^ Gibbon 1994, chap. 46, ii.902. ^ Foss 1975, p. 722. ^ Gibbon 1994, ii.906. ^ Haldon 1997, p. 41. ^ a b Speck 1984, p. 178. ^ Greatrex-Lieu 2002, pp. II, 194–195. ^ Greatrex-Lieu 2002, p. II, 196. ^ Greatrex-Lieu 2002, p. II, 197. ^ Gibbon 1994, ii.908–909. ^ Gibbon 1994, chap. 46, ii.914. ^ a b Greatrex-Lieu 2002, p. II, 198. ^ Theophanes 1997, pp. 303.12–304.13. ^ Cameron 1979, p. 23. ^ Grabar 1984, p. 37. ^ Treadgold 1997, p. 294. ^ Theophanes 1997, pp. 304.25–306.7. ^ Greatrex-Lieu 2002, p. II, 199. ^ Theophanes 1997, pp. 307.19–308.25. ^ Greatrex-Lieu 2002, pp. II, 202–205. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, article Cartagena, p. 384. ^ Cameron 1979, pp. 5–6, 20–22. ^ Treadgold 1997, p. 298. ^ a b Baynes 1912, p. 288. ^ Baynes 1912, passim. ^ Haldon 1997, p. 46. ^ Kouymjian 1983, pp. 635–642. ^ Kaegi 2003, p. 227. ^ Beckwith 2009, p. 121. ^ Foss 1975, pp. 746–747. ^ Milani 2004, p. 15. ^ Lewis 2002, pp. 43–44. ^ Kaegi 2003, p. 231. ^ a b c Kaegi 2003, p. 230. ^ Kaegi 2003, p. 233. ^ Franzius. ^ Collins 2004, p. 128. ^ a b Bury 2005, p. 251. ^ Davis 1990, p. 260. ^ a b Kaegi, p. 319. ^ De Administrando Imperio, ch. 32 [Of the Serbs
Serbs
and of the country they now dwell in.]: "the emperor brought elders from Rome and baptized them and taught them fairly to perform the works of piety and expounded to them the faith of the Christians." ^ Deanesly 1969, p. 491. ^ Kaegi 2003, p. 227. ^ Haldon 1997, pp. 208ff. ^ Gibbon 1994, chap. 46, ii.914, 918. ^ Thomson 1999, p. 221. ^ Frolow 1953, pp. 88–105. ^ a b Zuckerman, Constantin (2013). Heraclius
Heraclius
and the return of the Holy Cross. Constructing the Seventh Century. Travaux et mémoires. Paris: Association des amis du Centre d'histoire et civilisation de Byzance. pp. 197–218. ISBN 978-2-916716-45-9. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ Baert 2008, pp. 03–20. ^ Souza 2015, pp. 27–38. ^ "Quran". 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-05-22.  ^ a b El-Cheikh 1999, p. 7. ^ Summary of the plot of the poem Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. at the Swahili Manuscripts Project at the School of Oriental and African Studies of London. ^ a b El-Cheikh 1999, p. 9. ^ El-Cheikh 1999, p. 12. ^ Conrad 2002, p. 120. ^ Haykal 1994, p. 402. ^ El-Cheikh 1999, p. 14. ^ El-Cheikh 1999, p. 54. ^ Lawrence I. Conrad. ' Heraclius
Heraclius
in Early Islamic Kerygma' Edited by Reinink and Stolte. (Leuven, Paris: Peeters, 2002) ^ Walter Emil Kaegi (27 March 2003). Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium. Cambridge University Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-521-81459-1. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  ^ Kaegi 2003, p. 229. ^ Alexander 1977, p. 230. ^ Spatharakis 1976, p. 19. ^ a b c Bellinger-Grierson 1992, p. 385. ^ Kaegi 2003, p. 120. ^ Charanis 1959, p. 34. ^ Sebeos; Translated from Old Armenian by Robert Bedrosian. "Chapter 29". Sebeos
Sebeos
History: A History of Heraclius. History Workshop. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  ^ a b Nicephorus 1990, p. 73.

Sources[edit]

Alexander, Suzanne Spain (April 1977). "Heraclius, Byzantine Imperial Ideology, and the David Plates". Medieval Academy of America. 52 (2): 217–237. JSTOR 2850511.  Baert, Barbara (2008). "Héraclius, l'Exaltation de la Croix et le Mont-Saint-Michel au XIe siècle: une lecture attentive du ms. 641 de la Pierpont Morgan Library à New York". Cahiers de Civilisation médiévale (51): 03–20.  Baynes, Norman H. (1912). "The restoration of the Cross at Jerusalem". The English Historical Review. 27 (106): 287–299. doi:10.1093/ehr/XXVII.CVI.287. ISSN 0013-8266.  Bellinger, Alfred Raymond; Grierson, Philip. Catalogue of the Byzantine coins in the Dumbarton Oaks
Dumbarton Oaks
Collection and in the Whittemore Collection, Volume 2, Parts 1–2 (1992 ed.). Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 0-88402-024-X.  Bury, John Bagnell. A history of the later Roman empire from Arcadius to Irene (2005 ed.). Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1-4021-8368-2.  - Total pages: 579 Cameron, Averil (1979). "Images of Authority: Elites and Icons in Late Sixth-century Byzantium". Past and Present. 84: 3. doi:10.1093/past/84.1.3.  Charles, Robert H. (2007) [1916]. The Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu: Translated from Zotenberg's Ethiopic Text. Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing.  Charanis, Peter (1959). "Ethnic Changes in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the Seventh Century". Dumbarton Oaks
Dumbarton Oaks
Papers. Trustees for Harvard University. 13 (1): 23–44. ISSN 0070-7546. JSTOR 1291127.  Collins, Roger. Visigothic Spain, 409–711 (2004 ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-18185-7.  - Total pages: 263 Conrad, Lawrence I (2002). Heraclius
Heraclius
in early Islamic Kerygma In "The reign of Heraclius
Heraclius
(610–641): crisis and confrontation" (2002 ed.). Peeters Publishers. ISBN 978-90-429-1228-1.  - Total pages: 319 Davis, Leo Donald. The first seven ecumenical councils (325–787): their history and theology (1990 ed.). Liturgical Press. ISBN 0-8146-5616-1.  - Total pages: 342 Davies, Norman. Europe: A History (January 1, 1996 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820171-0.  - Total pages: 1384 Deanesly, Margaret. A history of early medieval Europe, 476 to 911 (July 1969 ed.). Methuen young books. ISBN 0-416-29970-9.  - Total pages: 636 Dodgeon, Michael H.; Greatrex, Geoffrey; Lieu, Samuel N. C. (2002). The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars (Part I, 226–363 AD). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00342-3.  El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria (1999). "Muḥammad and Heraclius: A Study in Legitimacy". Studia Islamica. Maisonneuve & Larose. 62 (89): 5–21. doi:10.2307/1596083. ISSN 0585-5292.  El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria. Byzantium viewed by the Arabs
Arabs
(2004 ed.). Harvard CMES. ISBN 0-932885-30-6.  - Total pages: 271 Foss, Clive (1975). "The Persians in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the End of Antiquity". The English Historical Review. 90: 721–47. doi:10.1093/ehr/XC.CCCLVII.721.  Franzius, Enno. "Heraclius". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 February 2018.  Frolow, Anatole (1953). La Vraie Croix et les expéditions d’Héraclius en Perse. Revue des études byzantines. pp. 88–105.  Gibbon, Edward (1994). David Womersley, ed. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Penguin. ISBN 978-0140433937.  - Total pages: 3170 Grabar, André (1984). L'Iconoclasme Byzantin: le Dossier Archéologique. Flammarion. ISBN 2-08-081634-9.  Haykal, Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn (1994). The Life of Muhammad
Muhammad
(1994 ed.). The Other Press. ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7.  - Total pages: 639 Kaegi, Walter Emil. Heraclius: emperor of Byzantium (2003 ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81459-6.  - Total pages: 359 Haldon, John (1997). Byzantium in the Seventh Century: the Transformation of a Culture. Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-31917-X.  Kouymjian, Dickran. "Ethnic Origins and the 'Armenian' Policy of Emperor Heraclius". Revue des Études Arméniennes
Revue des Études Arméniennes
(vol. XVII, 1983 ed.).  Lewis, Bernard. The Arabs
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in History (2002 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280310-7.  - Total pages: 240 Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and Christian
Christian
divisions: The Church 450-680 A.D. The Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press.  Milani, Abbas (2004). Lost wisdom: rethinking modernity in Iran (2004 ed.). Mage Publishers. ISBN 0-934211-89-2.  - Total pages: 168 Mitchell, Stephen. A history of the later Roman Empire, AD 284–641: the transformation of the ancient world (2007 ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-0857-6.  - Total pages: 469 Nicephorus (1990). Short history. Trans. Cyril Mango (1990 ed.). Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 0-88402-184-X.  - Total pages: 247 Olster, David Michael. The politics of usurpation in the seventh century: rhetoric and revolution in Byzantium (1993 ed.). A.M. Hakkert.  - Total pages: 209 Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.  Souza, Guilherme Queiroz de (2015). "Heraclius, emperor of Byzantium" (PDF). Revista Digital de Iconografía Medieval. 7 (14): 27–38.  Spatharakis, Iohannis (1976). The portrait in Byzantine illuminated manuscripts (1976 ed.). Brill Archive. ISBN 90-04-04783-2.  - Total pages: 287 Speck, Paul (1984). "Ikonoklasmus und die Anfänge der Makedonischen Renaissance". Varia 1 (Poikila Byzantina 4). Rudolf Halbelt. pp. 175–210.  Tarasov, Oleg (2004). Icon and Devotion: Sacred Spaces in Imperial Russia (January 3, 2004 ed.). Reaktion Books. ISBN 1-86189-118-0.  - Total pages: 448 Theophanes the Confessor — Cyril Mango (trans.) & Roger Scott (trans.). The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor (July 10, 1997 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822568-7.  - Total pages: 848 Thomson, Robert W.; Howard-Johnston, James & Greenwood, Tim. The Armenian history attributed to Sebeos
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Further reading[edit]

Kazhdan, Alexander P. The Oxford dictionary of Byzantium, Volumes 1–3 (1991 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.  Hovorun, Cyril (2008). Will, Action and Freedom: Christological Controversies in the Seventh Century. Leiden-Boston: BRILL. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Heraclius.

Media related to Heraclius
Heraclius
at Wikimedia Commons De Imperatoribus Romanis -online encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Heraclius Heraclian Dynasty Born: ca. 575 Died: 11 February 641

Regnal titles

Preceded by Phocas Byzantine Emperor 610–641 with Constantine III from 613 Succeeded by Constantine III and Heraklonas

Political offices

Preceded by Imp. Caesar Flavius Phocas
Phocas
Augustus, 603, then lapsed Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 608 with Heraclius
Heraclius
the Elder Succeeded by Lapsed, then Imp. Caesar Constantinus Augustus
Augustus
in 642

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 268960974 LCCN: n83212342 ISNI: 0000 0001 0800 8590 GND: 102421064 SELIBR: 232869 SUDOC: 058645535 BNF:

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