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Cumberland
Cumberland
Cumberland
(/ˈkʌmbərlənd/ KUM-bər-lənd; locally /ˈkʊmbələnd/ KUUM-bə-lənd) is a historic county of North West England
North West England
that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974. It was bordered by Northumberland
Northumberland
to the east, County Durham
County Durham
to the southeast, Westmorland
Westmorland
and Lancashire
Lancashire
to the south, and the Scottish counties of Dumfriesshire
Dumfriesshire
and Roxburghshire
Roxburghshire
to the north
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Scafell Pike
Scafell
Scafell
Pike /ˈskɔːˈfɛl/ or /skɑːˈfɛl/[1] is the highest mountain in England, at an elevation of 978 metres (3,209 ft) above sea level. It is located in the Lake District
Lake District
National Park, in Cumbria, and is part of the Southern Fells.Contents1 Topography 2 Summit 3 Geology 4 Tourism 5 Naming history 6 Survey point 7 Views from the summit7.1 Summer 7.2 Winter8 Visible "Marilyns"8.1 North 8.2 East 8.3 South 8.4 West9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External linksTopography[edit] Scafell
Scafell
Pike is one of a horseshoe of high fells, open to the south, surrounding the head of Eskdale, Cumbria. It stands on the western side of the cirque, with Scafell
Scafell
to the south and Great End
Great End
to the north
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Cheviot Hills
The Cheviot
The Cheviot
Hills (/'tʃiːvɪət/) are a range of rolling hills straddling the Anglo-Scottish border
Anglo-Scottish border
between Northumberland
Northumberland
and the Scottish Borders. The English section is within the Northumberland National Park. The range includes The Cheviot
The Cheviot
(the highest hill), plus Hedgehope Hill, Windy Gyle, Cushat Law and Bloodybush Edge. The hills are sometimes considered a part of the Southern Uplands
Southern Uplands
of Scotland as they adjoin the uplands to the north
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Henry I Of England
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England
King of England
from 1100 to his death. Henry was the fourth son of William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
and was educated in Latin
Latin
and the liberal arts. On William's death in 1087, Henry's elder brothers Robert Curthose
Robert Curthose
and William Rufus
William Rufus
inherited Normandy and England, respectively, but Henry was left landless. Henry purchased the County of Cotentin
Cotentin
in western Normandy from Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry gradually rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin
Cotentin
and allied himself with William against Robert
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Alston Moor
Alston Moor
Alston Moor
is a civil parish, also electoral ward in Cumbria, England, based around the small town of Alston. It is set in the moorlands of the North Pennines, mostly at an altitude of over 1000 feet. The parish/ward had a population of 2,088 at the 2011 census.[1] As well as the town of Alston, the parish includes the villages of Garrigill
Garrigill
and Nenthead, along with the hamlets of Nenthall, Nentsberry, Galligill, Blagill, Ashgill, Leadgate, Bayles and Raise. Alston Moor
Alston Moor
is part of the North Pennines
North Pennines
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB), the second largest of the 40 AONBs in England
England
and Wales. Under the Local Government Act 1894, the parish, then known as Alston with Garrigill, which had previously been a rural sanitary district on its own, became one of the few single-parish rural districts
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Ranulf Le Meschin
Ranulf is masculine given name in the English language. It is derived from the Old Norse
Old Norse
name Reginúlfr. This Old Norse
Old Norse
personal name is composed of two elements: the first, regin, means "advice", "decision" (and also "the gods"); the second element, úlfr, means "wolf". Reginúlfr was introduced into Scotland and northern England, by Scandinavian settlers, in the Early Middle Ages.[1] People with the name[edit] Ranulf I de Soules, Norman knight who came to Scotland with David I Ranulf I of Aquitaine Ranulf II of Aquitaine Ranulf II, Count of Alife Rainulf Trincanocte, third count of Aversa Ranulf de Broc (died c
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Liberty (division)
A liberty was an English unit originating in the Middle Ages, traditionally defined as an area in which regalian right was revoked and where the land was held by a mesne lord (i.e., an area in which rights reserved to the king had been devolved into private hands). It later became a unit of local government administration.[1] Liberties were areas of widely variable extent which were independent of the usual system of hundreds and boroughs for a number of different reasons, usually to do with peculiarities of tenure
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Earl Of Northumbria
Earl of Northumbria
Northumbria
was a title in the Anglo-Danish, late Anglo-Saxon, and early Anglo-Norman period in England. The earldom of Northumbria was the successor of the earldom of Bamburgh. In the seventh century, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Bernicia
Bernicia
and Deira
Deira
were united in the kingdom of Northumbria, but this was destroyed by the Vikings in 867. Southern Northumbria, the former Deira, then became the Viking kingdom of York, while English earls ruled the former northern kingdom of Bernicia
Bernicia
from their base at Bamburgh. The northern part of Bernicia was lost to the Scots, probably in the late tenth century. In 1006 Uhtred the Bold was earl of Bamburgh, and Æthelred the Unready appointed him earl of York
York
as well, re-uniting the area of Northumbria still under English control into a single earldom
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Solway Firth
The Solway Firth
Firth
(Scottish Gaelic: Tràchd Romhra) is a firth that forms part of the border between England and Scotland, between Cumbria (including the Solway Plain) and Dumfries
Dumfries
and Galloway. It stretches from St Bees
St Bees
Head, just south of Whitehaven
Whitehaven
in Cumbria, to the Mull of Galloway, on the western end of Dumfries
Dumfries
and Galloway. The Isle of Man is also very near to the firth. The firth comprises part of the Irish Sea. The coastline is characterised by lowland hills and small mountains. It is a mainly rural area with fishing and hill farming (as well as some arable farming) still playing a large part in the local economy, although tourism is increasing
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Edmund I Of England
Edmund I
Edmund I
(Old English: Ēadmund, pronounced [æːɑdmund]; 921 – 26 May 946) was King of the English
King of the English
from 939 until his death. His epithets include the Elder, the Deed-doer, the Just, and the Magnificent. Edmund was the son of Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
and his third wife Eadgifu of Kent, and a grandson of Alfred the Great. His father died when he was young, and was succeeded by his oldest son Æthelstan. Edmund came to the throne upon the death of his half-brother in 939, apparently with little opposition. His reign was marked by almost constant warfare, including conquests or reconquests of the Midlands, Northumbria, and Strathclyde (the last of which was ceded to Malcolm I of Scotland). Edmund was assassinated after six-and-a-half years as king, while attending mass in Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire
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Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
(r. 871–899). Multiple copies were made of that one original and then distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being actively updated in 1154. Nine manuscripts survive in whole or in part, though not all are of equal historical value and none of them is the original version. The oldest seems to have been started towards the end of Alfred's reign, while the most recent was written at Peterborough Abbey after a fire at that monastery in 1116
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Irish Sea
The Irish Sea
Sea
(Irish: Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann,[1] Manx: Y Keayn Yernagh,[2] Scots: Erse Sea, Scottish Gaelic: Muir Èireann,[3] Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Welsh: Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland
Ireland
and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea
Sea
in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland[4] in the north by the Straits of Moyle. Anglesey, Wales, is the largest island in the Irish Sea. The second in size is the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and the sea may occasionally, but rarely, be referred to as the Manx Sea
Sea
(Irish: Muir Meann,[5] Manx: Mooir Vannin, Scottish Gaelic: Muir Mhanainn).[6][7][8] The Irish Sea
Sea
is of significant economic importance to regional trade, shipping and transport, fishing, and power generation in the form of wind power and nuclear power plants
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Henry II Of England
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England
King of England
and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland
Scotland
and Brittany. Henry was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou
Anjou
and Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England, then occupied by Stephen of Blois, and was made Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
at 17
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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River Irthing
The River
River
Irthing is a river in Cumbria, England
England
and a major tributary of the River
River
Eden. The name is recorded as Ard or Arden in early references.[1] For the first 15 miles of its course it defines the border between Northumberland
Northumberland
and Cumbria.[2] It is thought that before the last glacial maximum the Irthing flowed into the South Tyne
South Tyne
valley through the watershed near Greenhead, now known as the Tyne Gap
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Administrative Centre
An administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located. In countries which have French as one of their administrative languages (such as Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland or many African countries) and in some other countries (such as Italy, cf. cognate capoluogo), a chef-lieu (French pronunciation: ​[ʃɛfljø], plural form chefs-lieux (literally "chief place" or "head place"), is a town or city that is pre-eminent from an administrative perspective. The ‘f’ in chef-lieu is pronounced, in contrast to chef-d'oeuvre where it is mute.Contents1 Algeria 2 Belgium 3 Luxembourg 4 France 5 Jordan 6 New Caledonia 7 Francophone West Africa 8 Russia 9 Switzerland 10 Tunisia 11 United Kingdom 12 Popular culture 13 See also 14 ReferencesAlgeria[edit] The capital of an Algerian Province is called a chef-lieu
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