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Cumberland
CUMBERLAND (/ˈkʌmbələnd/ KUM-bə-lənd ; locally /ˈkʊmbələnd/ KUUM-bə-lənd ) is a historic county of North West England
England
that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974. It was bordered by Northumberland
Northumberland
to the east, County Durham to the southeast, Westmorland and Lancashire
Lancashire
to the south, and the Scottish counties of Dumfriesshire and Roxburghshire to the north. It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974 (excluding Carlisle from 1914) and now forms part of Cumbria
Cumbria

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Malcolm I
MáEL COLUIM MAC DOMNAILL (anglicised MALCOLM I) (died 954) was king of Scots (before 943 – 954), becoming king when his cousin Causantín mac Áeda abdicated to become a monk. He was the son of Domnall mac Causantín . Máel Coluim was probably born during his father's reign (889–900). By the 940s, he was no longer a young man, and may have become impatient in awaiting the throne. Willingly or not—the 11th-century Prophecy of Berchán , a verse history in the form of a supposed prophecy, states that it was not a voluntary decision that Constantine II abdicated in 943 and entered a monastery, leaving the kingdom to Máel Coluim. Seven years later, the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says: plundered the English as far as the River Tees
River Tees
, and he seized a multitude of people and many herds of cattle: and the Scots called this the raid of Albidosorum, that is, Nainndisi
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Edmund I Of England
EDMUND I (Old English : Ēadmund, pronounced ; 921 – 26 May 946), called the Elder, the Deed-doer, the Just, or the Magnificent, was King of the English from 939 until his death. He was a son of Edward the Elder and half-brother of Æthelstan
Æthelstan
. Æthelstan
Æthelstan
died on 27 October 939, and Edmund succeeded him as king
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Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
The ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex
Wessex
, during the reign of Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
. Multiple copies were made of that one original and then distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being actively updated in 1154. Nine manuscripts survive in whole or in part, though not all are of equal historical value and none of them is the original version. The oldest seems to have been started towards the end of Alfred's reign, while the most recent was written at Peterborough Abbey after a fire at that monastery in 1116
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Cheviot Hills
The CHEVIOT HILLS (/'tʃiːvɪət/) are a range of rolling hills straddling the Anglo-Scottish border between Northumberland and the Scottish Borders . The English section is within the Northumberland National Park . The range includes The Cheviot (the highest hill), plus Hedgehope Hill , Windy Gyle , Cushat Law and Bloodybush Edge . The hills are sometimes considered a part of the Southern Uplands of Scotland as they adjoin the uplands to the north. Since the Pennine Way runs through the region, the hills are also considered a part of the northern Pennines although they are separated from the Cheviot Hills by the Tyne Gap , part of which lies within the southern extent of the Northumberland National Park
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Henry II Of England
HENRY II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as HENRY CURTMANTLE (French : Court-manteau), HENRY FITZEMPRESS or HENRY PLANTAGENET, ruled as Count of Anjou
Count of Anjou
, Count of Maine , Duke of Normandy , Duke of Aquitaine , Count of Nantes , King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland ; at various times, he also controlled Wales
Wales
, Scotland
Scotland
and Brittany . Henry was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda , daughter of Henry I of England . He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England , then occupied by Stephen of Blois , and was made Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards married Eleanor of Aquitaine , whose marriage to Louis VII of France had recently been annulled
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Irish Sea
The IRISH SEA (Irish : Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Manx : Y Keayn Yernagh, Scots : Erse Sea, Scottish Gaelic : Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots : Airish Sea, Welsh : Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland
Ireland
and Great Britain. It is connected to the Celtic Sea
Sea
in the south by St George\'s Channel , and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast
Coast
of Scotland
Scotland
in the north by the North Channel . Anglesey
Anglesey
is the largest island within the Irish Sea, followed by the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
. The sea is occasionally, but rarely, referred to as the MANX SEA (Irish : Muir Meann, Manx : Mooir Vannin, Scottish Gaelic : Muir Mhanainn). The sea is of significant economic importance to regional trade, shipping and transport, fishing, and power generation in the form of wind power and nuclear power plants
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Earl Of Northumbria
EARL OF NORTHUMBRIA was a title in the Anglo-Danish , late Anglo-Saxon , and early Anglo-Norman
Anglo-Norman
period in England
England
. The earldom of Northumbria
Northumbria
was the successor of the earldom of Bamburgh . In the seventh century, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Bernicia
Bernicia
and Deira
Deira
were united in the kingdom of Northumbria
Northumbria
, but this was destroyed by the Vikings in 867. Southern Northumbria, the former Deira, then became the Viking kingdom of York
York
, while English earls ruled the former northern kingdom of Bernicia
Bernicia
from their base at Bamburgh . The northern part of Bernicia
Bernicia
was lost to the Scots, probably in the late tenth century
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Henry I Of England
HENRY I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as HENRY BEAUCLERC, was King of England
King of England
from 1100 to his death. Henry was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and was educated in Latin
Latin
and the liberal arts . On William's death in 1087, Henry's elder brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England, respectively, but Henry was left landless. Henry purchased the County of Cotentin
Cotentin
in western Normandy from Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry gradually rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin
Cotentin
and allied himself with William against Robert. Henry was present when William died in a hunting accident in 1100, and he seized the English throne, promising at his coronation to correct many of William's less popular policies
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Malcolm IV
MALCOLM IV (Mediaeval Gaelic : Máel Coluim mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Eanraig), nicknamed VIRGO, "the Maiden" (between 23 April and 24 May 1141 – 9 December 1165), King of Scots , was the eldest son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumbria (died 1152) and Ada de Warenne . The original MALCOLM CANMORE, a name now associated with his great-grandfather Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada), he succeeded his grandfather David I , and shared David's Anglo-Norman tastes. Called MALCOLM THE MAIDEN by later chroniclers, a name which may incorrectly suggest weakness or effeminacy to modern readers, he was noted for his religious zeal and interest in knighthood and warfare. For much of his reign he was in poor health and died unmarried at the age of twenty-four
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Alston Moor
ALSTON MOOR is a civil parish , also electoral ward in Cumbria , England , based around the small town of Alston . It is set in the moorlands of the North Pennines, mostly at an altitude of over 1000 feet. The parish/ward had a population of 2,088 at the 2011 census. As well as the town of Alston, the parish includes the villages of Garrigill and Nenthead , along with the hamlets of Nenthall, Nentsberry, Galligill, Blagill, Ashgill, Leadgate , Bayles and Raise. Alston Moor is part of the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) , the second largest of the 40 AONBs in England and Wales. Under the Local Government Act 1894 , the parish, then known as Alston with Garrigill, which had previously been a rural sanitary district on its own, became one of the few single-parish rural districts
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Liberty (division)
A LIBERTY was an English unit originating in the Middle Ages , traditionally defined as an area in which regalian right was revoked and where the land was held by a mesne lord (i.e., an area in which rights reserved to the king had been devolved into private hands). It later became a unit of local government administration. Liberties were areas of widely variable extent which were independent of the usual system of hundreds and boroughs for a number of different reasons, usually to do with peculiarities of tenure . Because of their tenurial rather than geographical origin, the areas covered by liberties could either be widely scattered across a county or limited to an area smaller than a single parish : an example of the former is Fordington Liberty , and of the latter, the Liberty of Waybayouse , both in Dorset
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Solway Firth
The SOLWAY FIRTH (Scottish Gaelic : Tràchd Romhra) is a firth that forms part of the border between England and Scotland
Scotland
, between Cumbria
Cumbria
(including the Solway Plain ) and Dumfries
Dumfries
and Galloway . It stretches from St Bees Head, just south of Whitehaven
Whitehaven
in Cumbria, to the Mull of Galloway , on the western end of Dumfries
Dumfries
and Galloway. The Isle of Man
Isle of Man
is also very near to the firth. The firth comprises part of the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
. The coastline is characterised by lowland hills and small mountains. It is a mainly rural area with fishing and hill farming (as well as some arable farming) still playing a large part in the local economy, although tourism is increasing
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River Irthing
The RIVER IRTHING is a river in Cumbria
Cumbria
, England
England
and a major tributary of the River
River
Eden. The name is recorded as Ard or Arden in early references. For the first 15 miles of its course it defines the border between Northumberland
Northumberland
and Cumbria
Cumbria
. It is thought that before the last glacial maximum the Irthing flowed into the South Tyne
South Tyne
valley through the watershed near Greenhead, now known as the Tyne Gap. This section of the valley is now blocked by a filling of glacial till , diverting the river south west, but the old course has been detected by drilling and echo-sounding
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Scotland
SCOTLAND (/ˈskɒt.lənd/ ; Scots : ; Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: Alba
Alba
( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
. It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides . The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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River Tees
The RIVER TEES (/tiːz/ ) is in northern England
England
. It rises on the eastern slope of Cross Fell in the North Pennines , and flows eastwards for 85 miles (137 km) to reach the North Sea
North Sea
between Hartlepool
Hartlepool
and Redcar near Middlesbrough
Middlesbrough
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Water levels * 3 Seal Sands * 4 Alterations * 5 Industrialisation of the River Tees
River Tees
* 6 Legends and folklore * 7 In popular culture * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links GEOGRAPHYThe river drains 710 square miles (1,800 km2) and has a number of tributaries including the River Greta , River Lune , River Balder , River Leven and River Skerne
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