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Cumbria
Cumbria
(English: /ˈkʌmbriə/ KUM-bree-ə; locally [ˈkʊmbɾiə] KUUM-bree-ə) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria
Cumbria
County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county, and the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
on the southwestern tip of the county. The county of Cumbria
Cumbria
consists of six districts (Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland), and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria
Cumbria
is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, with 73.4 people per km2 (190/sq mi). Cumbria
Cumbria
is the third largest county in England
England
by area, and is bounded to the north by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders, to the west by the Irish Sea, to the south by Lancashire, to the southeast by North Yorkshire, and to the east by County Durham
County Durham
and Northumberland. Cumbria
Cumbria
is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District, and Lake District
Lake District
National Park, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
considered one of England's most outstanding areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists, writers, and musicians. A large area of the south east of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines
North Pennines
AONB. Much of Cumbria
Cumbria
is mountainous, and it contains every peak in England
England
over 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level, with Scafell Pike
Scafell Pike
at 3,209 feet (978 m) being the highest point of England. An upland, coastal, and rural area, Cumbria's history is characterised by invasions, migration, and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots. Notable historic sites in Cumbria
Cumbria
include Carlisle Castle, Furness
Furness
Abbey, Hardknott Roman Fort, Brough Castle
Brough Castle
and Hadrian's Wall, also a World Heritage Site.

Contents

1 History 2 Celtic Revival 3 Geography

3.1 Boundaries and divisions

4 Economy

4.1 Tourism 4.2 Economic output

5 Politics 6 Education 7 Transport 8 Demography 9 Settlements

9.1 Town and city twinnings

10 Symbols and county emblems 11 Sport

11.1 Football 11.2 Rugby league 11.3 Rugby union 11.4 Cricket 11.5 Other

12 Dialect Influences 13 Media 14 Places of interest 15 Notable people 16 See also 17 References 18 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Cumbria

The Castlerigg stone circle
Castlerigg stone circle
dates from the late Neolithic
Neolithic
age and was constructed by some of the earliest inhabitants of Cumbria

The county of Cumbria
Cumbria
was created in April 1974 through an amalgamation of the previous counties of Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland and small parts of Lancashire
Lancashire
(the part known as Lancashire
Lancashire
over the sands) and West Riding of Yorkshire, which was also abolished at that time. At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain (c. AD 410) the inhabitants of Cumberland
Cumberland
were Cumbric-speaking native Romano-Britons who were probably descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii
Carvetii
(sometimes considered to be a sub-tribe of the Brigantes) that the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
had conquered in about AD 85. Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii
Carvetii
seems to have covered portions of Cumbria. The names Cumbria, Cymru (the native Welsh name for Wales), Cambria, and Cumberland
Cumberland
are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Common Brittonic, which originally meant "compatriots".[2][3] In the Early Middle Ages, Cumberland
Cumberland
formed the core of the Brittonic kingdom of Rheged. Known as part of 'The Old North', Yr Hen Ogledd in Welsh history. For the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria
Cumbria
was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Celtic Kingdom of Strathclyde
Kingdom of Strathclyde
and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Most of modern-day Cumbria
Cumbria
was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
at the time of the Norman conquest of England
England
in 1066 and thus was excluded from the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
survey of 1086. In 1092 Cumberland
Cumberland
was invaded by William II and incorporated into England. Nevertheless, the region was dominated by the many Anglo-Scottish Wars
Anglo-Scottish Wars
of the latter Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and early modern period and the associated Border Reivers
Border Reivers
who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region. There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England
England
and Scotland, and two further sieges during the Jacobite risings. After the Jacobite Risings of the eighteenth century, Cumberland became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England, the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
caused a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington, Millom
Millom
and Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
saw large iron and steel mills develop, with Barrow also developing a significant shipbuilding industry. Kendal, Keswick and Carlisle all became mill towns, with textiles, pencils and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The early nineteenth century saw the county gain fame as the Lake Poets
Lake Poets
and other artists of the Romantic movement, such as William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, lived among, and were inspired by, the lakes and mountains of the region. Later, the children's writer Beatrix Potter also wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death. In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation of the Lake District
Lake District
National Park in 1951, which remains the largest National Park in England
England
and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county. The county of Cumbria
Cumbria
was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland, the Cumberland
Cumberland
County Borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness
Furness
part of Lancashire, usually referred to as " Lancashire
Lancashire
North of the Sands", (including the county borough of Barrow-in-Furness) and, from the West Riding of Yorkshire, the Sedbergh
Sedbergh
Rural District. It is governed by Cumbria
Cumbria
County Council. Local papers The Westmorland
Westmorland
Gazette and Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland Herald continue to use the name of their historic county. Other publications, such as local government promotional material, describe the area as "Cumbria", as do the Lake District
Lake District
National Park Authority and most visitors. Celtic Revival[edit] In Recent times this area has been subject to a minor Celtic revival with many Cumbrian natives stitching up the old Cumbric
Cumbric
language with Remains of the language and Old Welsh Cumbric
Cumbric
Phrasebook Geography[edit]

Topographic map of Cumbria

Cumbria
Cumbria
is the most northwesterly county of England. The northernmost and southernmost points in Cumbria
Cumbria
are just west of Deadwater, Northumberland
Northumberland
and South Walney respectively. Kirkby Stephen
Kirkby Stephen
(close to Tan Hill, North Yorkshire) and St Bees Head
St Bees Head
are the most easterly and westerly points of the county. Most of Cumbria
Cumbria
is mountainous, with the majority of the county being situated in the Lake District
Lake District
while the Pennines, consisting of the Yorkshire Dales and the North Pennines, lie at the eastern and south-east areas of the county. At 978 metres (3,209 ft) Scafell Pike
Scafell Pike
is the highest point in Cumbria
Cumbria
and in England. Windermere
Windermere
is the largest natural lake in England. The Lancaster Canal
Lancaster Canal
runs from Preston into South Cumbria
Cumbria
and is partly in use. The Ulverston Canal
Ulverston Canal
which once reached to Morecambe Bay
Morecambe Bay
is maintained although it was closed in 1945. The Solway Coast
Solway Coast
and Arnside and Silverdale
Arnside and Silverdale
AONB's lie in the lowland areas of the county, to the north and south respectively. Boundaries and divisions[edit] Cumbria
Cumbria
is bordered by the English counties of Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
and Scottish Borders. The boundaries are along the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to Morecambe Bay
Morecambe Bay
in the west, and along the Pennines
Pennines
to the east. Cumbria's northern boundary stretches from the Solway Firth
Solway Firth
from the Solway Plain
Solway Plain
eastward along the border with Scotland
Scotland
to Northumberland. It is made up of six districts: Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland. For many administrative purposes Cumbria
Cumbria
is divided into three areas — East, West and South. East consists of the districts of Carlisle and Eden, West consists of Allerdale
Allerdale
and Copeland, and South consists of Lakeland and Barrow. In January 2007, Cumbria County Council
Cumbria County Council
voted in favour of an official bid to scrap the current two-tier system of county and district councils in favour of a new unitary Cumbria
Cumbria
Council, to be submitted for consideration to the Department for Communities and Local Government.[4] This was then rejected. The county returns six Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, representing the constituencies of Carlisle, Penrith & The Border, Workington, Copeland, Westmorland
Westmorland
and Lonsdale and Barrow & Furness. Economy[edit]

BAE Systems Submarine Solutions
BAE Systems Submarine Solutions
in Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
has a workforce of around 5,000 people.

Many large companies and organisations are based in Cumbria. The county council itself employs around 17,000 individuals, while the largest private employer in Cumbria, the Sellafield
Sellafield
nuclear processing site, has a workforce of 10,000.[5] Below is a list of some of the county's largest companies and employers (excluding services such as Cumbria
Cumbria
Constabulary, Cumbria
Cumbria
Fire and Rescue and the NHS in Cumbria), categorised by district:

Allerdale

Associated British Ports Holdings
Associated British Ports Holdings
own and operate the port of Silloth.[6] Plastic film maker Innovia Films has its headquarters and only UK factory in Wigton, which employs almost 1,000 people and is Wigton's biggest employer. U.S.-based multinational bed maker Sealy Beds UK (which is part of the Silentnight Group) own a factory at Aspatria, which employs around 300 people. Flour miller Carr's
Carr's
Milling Industries PLC, which is based in Carlisle, owns a large factory at Silloth
Silloth
which makes the 'Carr's Breadmaker' range and Carr's
Carr's
farm feeds. Window maker WestPort Windows owns a large factory at Maryport, which makes UPVC windows and doors. World rally company M-Sport
M-Sport
has its headquarters at Dovenby Hall, near Cockermouth. Swedish paper maker Iggesund Paperboard
Iggesund Paperboard
has its only UK factory at Siddick, near Workington U.S.-based Eastman Chemical Company
Eastman Chemical Company
has a factory at Siddick, near Workington. It makes plastic bottle pellets (PBP) and products for the smoking industry and employs 100 people. Steel company Tata Steel
Tata Steel
owns a cast products plant at Workington, which employs 300 people. Carlisle-based haulage group The Stobart Group
Stobart Group
owns a large haulage depot at Workington, which was once owned by truck and bus maker Leyland. Packaging company Amcor
Amcor
owns the former Alcan
Alcan
packaging plant at Salterbeck, Workington. James Walker Ltd, an international high-performance sealing manufacturer, has a large factory at Cockermouth.

Barrow-in-Furness

Barrow's shipyard is one of the UK's largest. BAE Systems
BAE Systems
is the current owner and employs around 5,000.[7] Associated British Ports Holdings
Associated British Ports Holdings
own and operate the port of Barrow.[8] The only Kimberly-Clark
Kimberly-Clark
mill in the North of England
England
is located in Barrow.[9] James Fisher & Sons, a large provider of marine engineering services, is based in Barrow.[10] One of the largest single-site furniture stores in the UK, Stollers, is located in Barrow.[11]

Carlisle

Close to 1,000 people work in one of only two Pirelli
Pirelli
tyre plants in the UK.[12] Carr's
Carr's
is a successful foodstuff and agricultural brand that was established in 1831 in Carlisle.[13] The Stobart Group, which is one of the UK's largest haulage companies, is headquartered in Carlisle.[14] Nestlé
Nestlé
operates a factory on the outskirts of Carlisle.[15] Cavaghan & Gray is a food manufacturing business based in Carlisle and a significant employer in the city. Crown Holdings
Crown Holdings
owns two factories in Carlisle, locally known as 'Metal Box'. Both factories make products for the beverage industry.

Copeland

As stated above, Sellafield
Sellafield
is the largest private employer in the county; many West Cumbrians have links to the site.[16]

Eden

Center Parcs owns a large resort in Whinfell Forest
Whinfell Forest
near Penrith.[17] Carlisle based haulage giant, The Stobart Group, owns a large transport depot at Penrith National sawdust, animal bedding and bark suppliers A W Jenkinson is headquartered at Clifton, Penrith

South Lakeland

Pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
operates a large factory in Ulverston.[18] International kitchenware store Lakeland has its headquarters and flagship store in Windermere.[19] Farley Health Products, a subsidiary of the Heinz Company, runs a factory in Kendal.[20]

Tourism[edit]

The entrance to Whinlatter Forest Park

Sizergh Castle

Muncaster Castle

The largest and most widespread industry in Cumbria
Cumbria
is tourism. The Lake District
Lake District
National Park alone receives some 15.8 million visitors every year.[21] Despite this, fewer than 50,000 people reside permanently within the Lake District
Lake District
– mostly in Ambleside, Bowness-on-Windermere, Coniston, Keswick, Grasmere
Grasmere
and Windermere.[21] Over 36,000 Cumbrians are employed in the tourism industry which adds £1.1 billion a year to the county's economy. The Lake District and county as a whole attracts visitors from across the UK,[21] Europe, North America and the Far East (particularly Japan).[21] The tables below show the twenty most-visited attractions in Cumbria
Cumbria
in 2009 (please note that not all visitor attractions provided data to Cumbria
Cumbria
Tourism who collated the list. Notable examples are Furness Abbey, the Lakes Aquarium
Lakes Aquarium
and South Lakes Safari Zoo, the latter of which would almost certainly rank within the top five).[22]

Rank Attraction Location Visitors

1 Windermere
Windermere
Lake Cruises Bowness-on-Windermere 1,313,807

2 Rheged Penrith 439,568

3 Ullswater
Ullswater
Steamers Glenridding 348,000

4 Whinlatter Forest Park and Visitor Centre Whinlatter 252,762

5 Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery Carlisle 251,808

6 Grizedale Forest
Grizedale Forest
Park and Visitor Centre Grizedale 175,033

7 Carlisle Cathedral Carlisle 166,141

8 Lake District
Lake District
Visitor Centre Brockhole Windermere 135,539

9 Hill Top Hawkshead 103,682

10 Sizergh Castle Sizergh Castle 90,063

Rank Attraction Location Visitors

11 Cumberland
Cumberland
Pencil Museum Keswick 80,100

12 Muncaster Castle Ravenglass 78,474

13 Dock Museum Barrow-in-Furness 73,239

14 The Beacon Whitehaven 71,602

15 Holker Hall Cartmel 58,060

16 Carlisle Castle Carlisle 56,957

17 Beatrix Potter
Beatrix Potter
Gallery Hawkshead 47,244

18 Lake District
Lake District
Wildlife Park[23] Bassenthwaite 45,559

19 The Homes of Football Ambleside 49,661

20 Cartmel Priory Cartmel 43,672

Economic output[edit] This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of East Cumbria
Cumbria
at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[24] Agriculture[25] Industry[26] Services[27]

1995 2,679 148 902 1,629

2000 2,843 120 809 1,914

2003 3,388 129 924 2,335

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of West Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[24] Agriculture[25] Industry[26] Services[27]

1995 2,246 63 1,294 888

2000 2,415 53 1,212 1,150

2003 2,870 60 1,420 1,390

Politics[edit] Main article: List of Parliamentary constituencies in Cumbria

Constituency 1983 1987 1992 1997 2001 2005 2010 2015 2017

Barrow and Furness  CON  Cecil Franks  LAB  John Hutton  LAB  John Woodcock

Carlisle  LAB  Ronald Lewis  LAB  Eric Martlew  CON  John Stevenson

Copeland  LAB  Jack Cunningham  LAB  Jamie Reed  CON  Trudy Harrison

Penrith and The Border  CON  David Maclean  CON  Rory Stewart

Westmorland
Westmorland
and Lonsdale  CON  Michael Jopling  CON  Tim Collins  LD  Tim Farron

Workington  LAB  Dale Campbell-Savours  LAB  Tony Cunningham  LAB  Sue Hayman

General Election 2015: Cumbria

Conservative Labour Liberal Democrats UKIP Green Independent Turnout

104,627 +16,255 76,420 +16,128 34,271 -25,715 32,417 +27,518 8,625 +7,622 446 N/A 256,806 +36,052

Overall Number of seats as of 2017

Labour Conservative Liberal Democrats UKIP Green Independent

2 3 1 0 0 0

Education[edit]

The University of Cumbria's Fusehill Campus in Carlisle

See also: List of schools in Cumbria Although Cumbria
Cumbria
has a comprehensive system almost in toto, it has one state grammar school in Penrith. There are 42 state secondary schools and 10 independent schools. The more rural secondary schools tend to have sixth forms (although in Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
district, no schools have sixth forms) and this is the same for three schools in Allerdale and South Lakeland, and one in the other districts. Chetwynde is also the only school in Barrow to educate children from nursery all the way to sixth form level. Colleges of further education in Cumbria
Cumbria
include Carlisle College, Furness
Furness
College which includes Barrow Sixth Form College, Kendal College and Lakes College West Cumbria. The University of Cumbria
University of Cumbria
is one of the UK's newest universities having been established in 2007, it is at present the only university in Cumbria
Cumbria
and has campuses across the county, together with Lancaster and London. Transport[edit]

The M6 motorway
M6 motorway
and West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line
near Grayrigg Forest

The M6 is the only motorway that runs through Cumbria. Kendal
Kendal
and Penrith are amongst its primary destinations before it terminates just north of Carlisle. Major A roads within Cumbria
Cumbria
include:

A6 (Luton, Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
to Carlisle via Kendal
Kendal
and Penrith) A66 ( Workington
Workington
to Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
via Keswick, Penrith and Brough) A69 (Carlisle to Newcastle upon Tyne via Brampton and Hexham) A590 (M6 Junction 36 to Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
via Ulverston) A591 (Sizergh to Bothel via Kendal, Windermere, Ambleside, Grasmere and Keswick) A592 (M6 Junction 40 to Newby Bridge via Penrith, Windermere
Windermere
and Bowness-on-Windermere) A595 (Carlisle to Dalton-in- Furness
Furness
via Whitehaven
Whitehaven
and Workington) A596 (Carlisle to Workington)

Several bus companies run services in Cumbria
Cumbria
serving the main towns and villages in the county, with some services running to neighbouring areas such as Lancaster. Stagecoach North West
Stagecoach North West
is the largest; it has depots in Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Kendal
Kendal
and Workington. Stagecoach's flagship X6 route connects Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
and Kendal in south Cumbria. There are only two airports in the county: Carlisle Lake District
Lake District
and Barrow/Walney Island. Both airports formerly served scheduled passenger flights and both are proposing expansions and renovations to handle domestic and European flights in the near future. The nearest international airports to south Cumbria
Cumbria
are Blackpool, Manchester
Manchester
and Liverpool
Liverpool
John Lennon. North Cumbria
Cumbria
is closer to Newcastle, Glasgow Prestwick and Glasgow International. Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
is one of the country's largest shipbuilding centres, but the Port of Barrow
Port of Barrow
is only minor, operated by Associated British Ports
Associated British Ports
alongside the Port of Silloth
Silloth
in Allerdale. There are no ferry links from any port or harbour along the Cumbria
Cumbria
coast. The busiest railway stations in Cumbria
Cumbria
are Carlisle, Barrow-in-Furness, Penrith and Oxenholme Lake District. The West Coast Main Line runs for 399 miles (642 km) through the Cumbria countryside adjacent to the M6 motorway. The Cumbrian Coast Line connects Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
to Carlisle and is a vital link in the west of the county. Other railways in Cumbria
Cumbria
are the Windermere
Windermere
Branch Line, most of the Furness
Furness
Line and much of the Settle-Carlisle Railway. Demography[edit]

Carlisle

Barrow-in-Furness

Kendal

Whitehaven

Workington

Penrith

Maryport

Ulverston

The largest settlements in Cumbria

Main article: Demography of Cumbria Cumbria's largest settlement and only city is Carlisle, in the north of the county. The largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, in the south, is slightly smaller. The county's population is largely rural: it has the second-lowest population density among English counties, and has only five towns with a population of over 20,000. Cumbria
Cumbria
is also one of the country's most ethnically homogeneous counties, with 95.1% of the population categorised as White British (around 470,900 of the 495,000 Cumbrians).[28] However, the larger towns have ethnic makeups that are closer to the national average. The 2001 census indicated that Christianity was the religion with the most adherents in the county. 2010 ONS estimates placed the number of foreign-born (non-United Kingdom) people living in Cumbria
Cumbria
at around 14,000 and foreign nationals at 6,000.[29] The 2001 UK Census
2001 UK Census
showed the following most common countries of birth for Cumbrians that year:

  England
England
– 454,137   Scotland
Scotland
– 16,628   Wales
Wales
– 3,471  Northern Ireland – 2,289   Germany
Germany
– 1,438   Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
– 1,359  South Africa – 603  Canada – 581   Australia
Australia
– 531   United States
United States
– 493  India – 476  Hong Kong – 417  Italy – 249  New Zealand – 241   France
France
– 197   Poland
Poland
– 193  Cyprus – 174  Netherlands – 167  Spain – 166  Singapore – 160

Population totals for Cumbria

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1801 173,017 —    

1811 193,139 +1.11%

1821 225,555 +1.56%

1831 242,320 +0.72%

1841 255,603 +0.54%

1851 274,957 +0.73%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1861 320,257 +1.54%

1871 365,556 +1.33%

1881 410,856 +1.18%

1891 434,867 +0.57%

1901 437,364 +0.06%

1911 440,485 +0.07%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1921 441,483 +0.02%

1931 442,693 +0.03%

1941 456,833 +0.31%

1951 471,897 +0.32%

1961 473,706 +0.04%

1971 475,669 +0.04%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1981 471,693 −0.08%

1991 489,191 +0.36%

2001 487,607 −0.03%

2011 499,900 +0.25%

2014 499,800 −0.01%

Pre-1974 statistics were gathered from local government areas that are now comprised by Cumbria Source: Great Britain Historical GIS.[30][31]

Settlements[edit] Main article: List of places in Cumbria The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.

Administration borough/district Centre of administration

Other towns, villages and settlements

Allerdale

Workington

Aspatria Cockermouth Harrington Keswick Maryport Silloth Wigton

Barrow-in-Furness

Barrow-in-Furness

Askam and Ireleth Dalton-in-Furness Walney Island

Carlisle

Carlisle

Brampton Dalston Longtown

Copeland

Whitehaven

Arlecdon and Frizington Cleator Moor Egremont Millom St Bees

Eden

Penrith

Alston Appleby-in-Westmorland Kirkby Stephen Shap Kirkoswald

South Lakeland

Kendal

Ambleside Bowness-on-Windermere Coniston Grasmere Hawkshead Kirkby Lonsdale Milnthorpe Sedbergh Ulverston Windermere

Town and city twinnings[edit]

Settlement District Twinned settlement

Carlisle Carlisle Flensburg, Germany Słupsk, Poland

Cockermouth Allerdale Marvejols, France

Dalton-in-Furness Barrow-in-Furness Dalton, Pennsylvania, United States

Kendal South Lakeland Killarney, Ireland Rinteln, Germany

Penrith Eden Penrith, New South Wales, Australia

Sedbergh South Lakeland Zreče, Slovenia

Ulverston South Lakeland Albert, France

Whitehaven Copeland Kozloduy, Bulgaria[32]

Windermere South Lakeland Diessen am Ammersee, Germany

Workington Allerdale Selm, Germany Val-de-Reuil, France

Symbols and county emblems[edit] The arms of Cumbria County Council
Cumbria County Council
were granted by the College of Arms on 10 October 1974. The arms represent the areas from which the new county council's area was put together; the shield's green border has Parnassus flowers representing Cumberland
Cumberland
interspersed with roses; red for Lancashire
Lancashire
(the Furness
Furness
district) on white for Yorkshire (Sedbergh is from the West Riding). The crest is a ram's head crest, found in the arms both of Westmorland
Westmorland
County Council and Barrow County Borough, with Cumberland's Parnassus flowers again. The supporters are the legendary Dacre Bull (Cumberland) and a red dragon, redolent of Cumbria's Brittonic origin.(Appleby in Westmorland). They stand on a base compartment representing Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
(in Cumberland), crossed with two red bars (from the Westmorland
Westmorland
arms).[33] The county council motto "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" is Latin, from Psalm 121; ("I shall lift up mine eyes unto the hills").[33] The county flag of Cumbria
Cumbria
is a banner of arms of Cumbria
Cumbria
County Council.[34][35] Sport[edit]

Brunton Park, the home of Carlisle United

Craven Park, home of Barrow Raiders

Football[edit] Carlisle United are the only professional football team in Cumbria
Cumbria
and currently play in League Two (4th Tier in the English football pyramid). They attract support from across Cumbria
Cumbria
and beyond, with many Cumbrian "ex-pats" travelling to see their games, both home and away.[citation needed] Home attendances are usually 3,000 to 4,000 and the away support is often 1,000 to 2,000. This is one of the highest proportions of away-home support in England.[citation needed] Barrow and Workington
Workington
A.F.C—who are always known locally as "the reds"—are well-supported non-league teams,[citation needed] having both been relegated from the Football League in the 1970s, with Barrow being one of the best supported non-league football teams in England. Recently Workington
Workington
A.F.C have made a rapid rise up the non league ladder and in 2007/08 competed with Barrow in the Conference North (Tier 6). Barrow were then promoted to the Blue Square Premier (Tier 5) in 2007/08. Rugby league[edit] Rugby league
Rugby league
is a very popular sport in South and West Cumbria. Barrow, Whitehaven
Whitehaven
and Workington
Workington
play in the Rugby League National Leagues and Carlisle in the Rugby League Conference. Amateur teams; Wath Brow Hornets, Askam, Egremont Rangers, Kells, and Millom
Millom
play in the National Conference. Rugby union[edit] Rugby union
Rugby union
is popular in the east of the county with teams such as Furness
Furness
RUFC & Hawcoat Park RUFC (South Cumbria), Workington
Workington
RUFC (West Cumbria), Carlisle RUFC, Aspatria
Aspatria
RUFC, Wigton
Wigton
RUFC, Kendal RUFC, Kirkby Lonsdale
Kirkby Lonsdale
RUFC, Keswick RUFC, Cockermouth
Cockermouth
RUFC, Upper Eden RUFC and Penrith RUFC. Cricket[edit] Cumberland
Cumberland
County Cricket
Cricket
Club is one of the cricket clubs that constitute the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure. The club, based in Carlisle, competes in the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy. The club also play some home matches in Workington, as well as other locations. Cumbrian club cricket teams play in the North Lancashire
Lancashire
and Cumbria League. Other[edit] Uppies and Downies Main article: Uppies and Downies Workington
Workington
is home to the ball game known as Uppies and Downies,[36] a traditional version of football, with its origins in Medieval football or an even earlier form.[37] Players from outside Workington
Workington
do take part, especially fellow West Cumbrians from Whitehaven
Whitehaven
and Maryport.[38] Wrestling Main article: Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland
Westmorland
wrestling Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland
Westmorland
wrestling is an ancient and well-practised tradition in the county with a strong resemblance to Scottish Backhold. In the 21st century Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland
Westmorland
wrestling along with other aspects of Lakeland culture are practised at the Grasmere
Grasmere
Sports and Show, an annual meeting held every year since 1852 on the August Bank Holiday. The origin of this form of wrestling is a matter of debate, with some describing it as having evolved from Norse wrestling brought over by Viking invaders,[39] while other historians associate it with the Cornish and Gouren
Gouren
styles[40] indicating that it may have developed out of a longer-standing Celtic tradition.[41] American Football Cumbria
Cumbria
is home to the Walney Terriers
Walney Terriers
and the Carlisle Border Reivers, which are rival amateur American Football teams, despite a relatively low level of interest in the sport throughout the county. Karting Cumbria
Cumbria
Kart Racing Club is based at the Lakeland Circuit, Rowrah, between Cockermouth
Cockermouth
and Egremont [1]. The track is currently a venue for rounds of both major UK national karting championships [2]. Formula One
Formula One
world champions Lewis Hamilton
Lewis Hamilton
and Jenson Button
Jenson Button
both raced karts at Rowrah
Rowrah
many times in the formative stages of their motor sport careers [3], while other F1 drivers, past and present, to have competed there include Johnny Herbert, Anthony Davidson, Allan McNish, Ralph Firman, Paul di Resta
Paul di Resta
and David Coulthard, who hailed from just over the nearby Anglo-Scottish border
Anglo-Scottish border
and regarded Rowrah
Rowrah
as his home circuit, becoming Cumbria
Cumbria
Kart Racing Club Champion in 1985 in succession to McNish (di Resta also taking the CKRC title subsequently) [4]. Dialect Influences[edit] Celtic

Cumbria
Cumbria
– Celtic speaking until Viking invasion, if not later (Cymry) [42] little English spoken in Cumberland, relatively sparsely populated until 12th/13th century [43] Successful routing of indigenous Celtic peoples to Western highlands of Cumbria, Wales
Wales
and Cornwall
Cornwall
by the invading Angles
Angles
and Saxons, with little linguistic consequence, apart from scattering of residual place-names North- West – possibility of direct influence from Irish Gaelic across Irish Sea
Irish Sea
via Whitehaven
Whitehaven
until 10th century [44] Celtic influence/ kingdoms may have confirmed perception of difference between the North/South [42] linguistic interaction between Celts and English underrated, effectively Celtic influence marked the beginnings of a linguistic divide between English and other West-Germanic dialects [45] Lexis - Celtic influence left specifically on the sound pattern of sheep-scoring numerals of Cumbrian and West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
[42] Loss of inflections may be explained by contact with Celtic tribes and inter-marriage [42]

Anglo-Saxon/ Viking

Earliest Anglo-Saxon settlements in the east of England. Took over 200 years to establish a frontier in the west where the displaced British had settled[46] Morphology – Old Northumbrian (little evidence) signs of loss of inflexions long before southern dialects below the Humber, precede Viking settlements and dialect contact situation [42]

Scandinavian/ Norse/ Dane

Lack of extent of Old English written evidence [42] Main attacks/ raids on the North-East coast at Lindisfarne and Jarrow in 793/ 794. [42] Settlement patterns (Danes) contributed to emerging differences over time between Northumberland. Durham and Yorkshire dialects [42] Norwegian settlers via Ireland to Isle of Man, Mersey estuary (901) and the Cumbrian/ Lancashire
Lancashire
coasts (900-50) – dialectal differences (Danes/ Norwegians) often lumped together in standard histories – MUST have confirmed emerging dialectal differences east and west of the Pennines
Pennines
[42] Danelaw – land of north and east of land ruled under Danish law and Danish customs (978-1016) [42] Scandinavian influences vocabulary – common words gradually diffused/ entered word stock (borrowings) which survive in regional use – ‘fell’ hillside, ‘lug’ ear, ‘loup’ jump, ‘aye’ yes Influence on grammatical structure - Middle English texts reveal that present participle form ‘-and’, and possible that use of ‘at’ and ‘as’ as relative pronouns from Cumbria
Cumbria
to East Yorkshire [42] phonetically /g/, /k/ and cluster /sk/ have a northern/ Norse pronunciation /j/, /ʧ/ and /ʃ/ which are West Saxon – hard vs. soft consonants of North/South dialects – e.g. ‘give/ rigg’ ridge, ‘skrike’ shriek, ‘kist’ chest and ‘ik’ [42] ‘interdialect forms’ in Danelaw area (diffuse > focussed situation) - no clear idea about what language they were speaking – mixture of Old English and Norse e.g. ‘she’ (3rd person pronoun) is claimed by both languages [42] [47] ‘bilingualism was norm in areas under Danelaw (plausible) [42] Norse runic inscriptions survive from 11th century in Cumbria
Cumbria
– therefore may only been after Norman Conquest that ‘Norse as a living language died out’ [48] Norse surviving longest in closed communities, as in the Lake District [49]

Normans

Jewell (1994: 20) - Northumbria retained relative independence until 13th century – effective government of North by Normans ‘petered-out’ at Lake District
Lake District
and North of Tees (not recorded in Domesday Book) [50] Carlisle retaken by Scots in 1136 [42]

Cumbric

Early 10th century - all of the north-west of England
England
occupied by a mixture of newcomers from Ireland of mixed Vikings and Gaelic. The grip from Northumbrian on the former territory of Rheged
Rheged
was that of Britons of Strathcylde reoccupied south-west Scotland
Scotland
and north-west England
England
as far south as Derwent and Penrith [51] which was held until Carlisle retaken by Scots in 1136 [42] Cumbric
Cumbric
perhaps survived but faded into the early 12th century throughout Cumbria
Cumbria
[52] Cumbric
Cumbric
score – counting sheep – Welsh correspondence Welsh (un, dau, tri) – Cumberland
Cumberland
(yan, tyan, tethera) – Westmorland
Westmorland
(yan, than, teddera) – Lancashire
Lancashire
(yan, taen, tedderte) – West Yorkshire (yain, tain, eddero) [51] – survived 7-8 century’s after the language itself had died – Brittonic origin Not one single complete phrase in cambric survives, evidence to suggest strong literary tradition, probably oral, some of this early material is known in a Welsh version[51]

Media[edit] Two evening newspapers are published daily in Cumbria. The News and Star focuses largely on Carlisle and the surrounding areas of north and west Cumbria, and the North-West Evening Mail
North-West Evening Mail
is based in Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
and covers news from across Furness
Furness
and the South Lakes. The Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland
Westmorland
Herald and The Westmorland Gazette are weekly newspapers based in Penrith and Kendal respectively. Due to the size of Cumbria
Cumbria
the county spans two television zones: BBC North East and Cumbria
Cumbria
and ITV Tyne Tees & Border in the north and BBC North West
BBC North West
and ITV Granada
ITV Granada
in the south. The Bay, CFM Radio
CFM Radio
and Lakeland Radio are the most popular local radio stations throughout the county, with BBC Radio Cumbria
BBC Radio Cumbria
being the only station that is aimed at Cumbria
Cumbria
as a whole. Guillermo del Toro's Crimson Peak (2015) is probably set in Cumbria. In one scene, the protagonist discovers the motto "Ad montes oculos levavi" over the fireplace of her manor. The Australian-New Zealand feature film, The Navigator: A Medieval Odyssey (1988), is set in Cumbria
Cumbria
during the onset of the Black Death in 14th Century Europe. Places of interest[edit]

Key

Abbey/Priory/Cathedral

Accessible open space

Amusement/Theme Park

Castle

Country Park

English Heritage

Forestry Commission

Heritage railway

Historic House

Museum (free/not free)

National Trust

Theatre

Zoo

Furness
Furness
Abbey

Lake Windermere

Thirlmere

Abbot Hall Art Gallery
Abbot Hall Art Gallery
Appleby Castle
Appleby Castle
Appleby Horse Fair
Appleby Horse Fair
( Gypsy
Gypsy
fair) Armitt Museum and Library, Ambleside Bassenthwaite Lake Bewcastle Black Combe Blackwell Brantwood
Brantwood
Brough Castle
Brough Castle
Brougham Castle
Brougham Castle
Brougham Hall Broughton in Furness Brougham Castle Buttermere Cartmel Priory
Cartmel Priory
Carlisle Castle
Carlisle Castle
Carlisle Cathedral
Carlisle Cathedral
Castlerigg Stone Circle Church of St Olaf, Wasdale Wainwright's Coast to Coast Walk Cockermouth, "Gem" Town Coniston Water Crummock Water Cumbria Coastal Way
Cumbria Coastal Way
long distance footpath Cumbria Way
Cumbria Way
long distance footpath Dales Way
Dales Way
long distance footpath Dalton Castle
Dalton Castle
Derwent Water Dock Museum
Dock Museum
Dove Cottage Egremont Castle
Egremont Castle
Eden Valley Railway Ennerdale Water Eskdale Fell Foot Park
Fell Foot Park
Firbank Fell Fisher Tarn Reservoir Furness Furness Abbey
Furness Abbey
Grange-Over-Sands Haig Colliery Mining Museum Harrison Stickle Hadrian's Wall Hartley Castle Haweswater Hawkshead
Hawkshead
Grammar School Museum Hill Top Hoad Monument Hodbarrow Nature Reserve

Holker Hall
Holker Hall
Kendal
Kendal
Castle Kentmere Killington Reservoir Kirkby Lonsdale Lakeside & Haverthwaite Railway Langwathby railway station Windermere Lakeland Wildlife Oasis Lanercost Priory
Lanercost Priory
Laurel & Hardy Museum Levens Hall
Levens Hall
Millom Millom
Millom
Folk Museum Muncaster Castle
Muncaster Castle
Museum of Lakeland Life National Nature Reserves in Cumbria Pennine Way
Pennine Way
long distance footpath Penrith Castle
Penrith Castle
Piel Island
Piel Island
Quaker tapestry RAF Millom
Millom
Museum Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway – heritage railway Rey Cross Rheged Rydal Water Sea to Sea Cycle Route Seathwaite Tarn Sellafield
Sellafield
Nuclear Reprocessing Facility Silecroft Silloth
Silloth
on Solway Sizergh Castle & Garden Skelton Transmitting Station
Skelton Transmitting Station
(U.Ks. tallest structure) South Lakes Safari Zoo
South Lakes Safari Zoo
St Bees St Bees
St Bees
Priory St Bees
St Bees
Head Staveley Stott Park Bobbin Mill Swarthmoor Hall Thirlmere Ullswater Ulverston Vickerstown Wasdale Head Wast Water Whitehaven Whinfell Forest Windermere
Windermere
Steamboat Museum

Notable people[edit] See also: List of people from Carlisle, List of people from Barrow-in-Furness, List of people from Kendal

Richard Abbot Abraham Acton Jack Adams Aim Sir John Barrow Derrick Bird Bill Birkett Norman Birkett Chris Bonington British Sea Power Melvyn Bragg Baron Campbell-Savours Donald Campbell Thomas Cape Fletcher Christian Lady Anne Clifford Samuel Taylor Coleridge Glenn Cornick Mark Cueto Wayne Curtis John Dalton Thomas DeQuincey Steve Dixon Brian Donnelly Troy Donockley Francis Dunnery Margaret Fell Sheila Fell Anna Ford Douglas Ferreira Kathleen Ferrier George MacDonald Fraser Norman Gifford Edmund Grindal Ade Gardner Sarah Hall Willie Horne Francis Howgill Emlyn Hughes Thomas Henry Ismay Maurice Flitcroft Harry Hadley Brad Kavanagh Nigel Kneale Phil Jackson Stuart Lancaster Nella Last Stan Laurel Jimmy Lewthwaite Hugh Lowther, 5th Earl of Lonsdale Ian McDonald Frank McPherson Christine McVie Vic Metcalfe Dave Myers Joss Naylor Norman Nicholson Saint Ninian Catherine Parr Baron Peart John Peel Jack Pelter Beatrix Potter Peter Purves Sir James Ramsden Dame Stella Rimington Eric Robson George Romney Thomas Round Adam Roynon John Ruskin Helen Skelton Montagu Slater Richard T. Slone James Alexander Smith Robert Southey Lord Soulsby Constance Spry Gary Stevens Stuart Stockdale Karen Taylor Edward Troughton Keith Tyson Josefina de Vasconcellos Alfred Wainwright Eric Wallace William Whitelaw John Wilkinson Len Wilkinson Malcolm Wilson Christopher Wordsworth Dorothy Wordsworth William Wordsworth

Stan Laurel

Beatrix Potter

William Wordsworth

See also[edit]

Geography portal Europe portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal England
England
portal North West England
England
portal Cumbria
Cumbria
portal

Anglo-Scottish border Cumbria
Cumbria
County Council Cumbrian dialect

Barrovian

Cumbric
Cumbric
language Cumbrian toponymy Etymology of Cumbrian Place Names Healthcare in Cumbria List of Cumbria-related topics List of High Sheriffs of Cumbria List of Lord Lieutenants of Cumbria Cumbria
Cumbria
Constabulary Cumbria
Cumbria
Police and Crime Commissioner Outline of England Rose Castle

References[edit]

^ " Cumbria
Cumbria
2017/18". High Sheriffs Association. Retrieved 8 June 2017.  ^ "Cymric". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ Davies, John (2007) [1990]. A History of Wales. Penguin Books. pp. 68–69.  ^ "County council votes to pursue a single council for Cumbria". Retrieved 24 February 2007.  ^ "Cumbrian employers supporting staff after multiple shooting". Personneltoday. Retrieved 15 July 2010.  ^ "Port of Silloth". Associated British Ports
Associated British Ports
Holdings. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  ^ " BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Barrow". BAE Systems. Retrieved 15 July 2010.  ^ "Port of Barrow". Associated British Ports
Associated British Ports
Holdings. Retrieved 18 June 2011.  ^ " Kimberly-Clark
Kimberly-Clark
Barrow". Kimberly-Clark. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010.  ^ "James Fisher & Sons Barrow". James Fisher & Sons. Retrieved 15 July 2010.  ^ " Stollers
Stollers
Barrow". Stollers. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  ^ " Pirelli
Pirelli
Carlisle". Pirelli. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2010.  ^ " Carr's
Carr's
Carlisle". Carr's. Retrieved 15 July 2010.  ^ "Stobart Carlisle". Stobart. Retrieved 15 July 2010.  ^ " Nestlé
Nestlé
Carlisle". ukbusinesspark. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010.  ^ "Sellafield". Sellafield. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  ^ "Center Parcs". Center Parcs. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  ^ " GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
Ulverston". GlaxoSmithKline. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  ^ "Lakeland Windermere". Lakeland. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  ^ "Heinz Kendal". Applegate. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  ^ a b c d " Lake District
Lake District
National Park". Lake District
Lake District
National Park. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  ^ " Lake District
Lake District
National Park". Cumbria
Cumbria
Tourism. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  ^ "About Us - Lake District
Lake District
Wildlife Park". Retrieved 14 March 2017.  ^ a b Components may not sum to totals due to rounding ^ a b includes hunting and forestry ^ a b includes energy and construction ^ a b includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured ^ "Current Estimates – Population Estimates by Ethnic Group Mid-2009 (experimental)". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011.  ^ "Table 1.3: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, April 2009 to March 2010". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.  ^ A Vision of Britain through time, Cumbria
Cumbria
Modern (post 1974) County: Total Population, retrieved 10 January 2010  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-19.  ^ Jovchev, Stanimir. "Побратимени градове". Retrieved 14 March 2017.  ^ a b Cumbria County Council
Cumbria County Council
(Civic Heraldry) accessed 24 January 2010 ^ " Cumbria
Cumbria
floods remembered at Department for Communities and Local Government - GOV.UK". Retrieved 14 March 2017.  ^ " Cumbria
Cumbria
flag flying outside Eland House". Department for Communities and Local Government. 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2013.  ^ " Uppies and Downies website". Retrieved 25 June 2009. [dead link] ^ Origins of Mass ball Games. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ "Times and Star". Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Retrieved 24 February 2007.  ^ "Amateur Wrestling". Retrieved 24 February 2007.  ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Retrieved 24 February 2007.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Wales, Katie (2006). Northern English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 62.  ^ Strang, Barbara M, H (1970). A History of English. London: Methuen. p. 256.  ^ Elmes, Simon (1999). The Routes of English. London: BBC. p. 27.  ^ Tristram, Hildegard (2000). "Introduction: languages in contact; layer cake model or otherwise?". The Celtic Languages. 2: 1–8.  ^ Leith, Dick (1983). A Social History of English. London: Routledge. p. 106.  ^ Trudgill, Peter (1974). "Linguistic change and diffusion: description and explanation in sociolinguistic dialect geography". Language in Society. 3: 215–2246. doi:10.1017/s0047404500004358.  ^ Werner, Otmar (1991). "The incorporation of Old Norse pronouns in Middle English: suppletion by loan". Language Contact in the British Isles: 369–401.  ^ Gordon, E, V (1923). "Scandinavian Influence in Yorkshire Dialects". Transactions of the Yorkshire Dialect Society. 4: 5–22.  ^ Jewell, Helen (1994). The North-South Divide: The Origins of Northern Consciousness in England. Manchester: Manchester
Manchester
University Press. p. 20.  ^ a b c Price, G (2000). Languages in Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 125.  ^ Jackson, Peter (1989). Maps of Meaning: An Introduction to Cultural Geography. London: Unwin Hyman. p. 72. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Cumbria
Cumbria
at Wikimedia Commons Cumbria
Cumbria
travel guide from Wikivoyage

v t e

Ceremonial county of Cumbria

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Cumbria
Portal

Boroughs or districts

City of Carlisle Borough of Allerdale Borough of Barrow-in-Furness Borough of Copeland District of Eden District of South Lakeland

Major settlements

Alston Ambleside Appleby-in-Westmorland Aspatria Barrow-in-Furness Bowness-on-Windermere Brampton Broughton-in-Furness Carlisle Cleator Moor Cockermouth Dalton-in-Furness Egremont Grange-over-Sands Harrington Kendal Keswick Kirkby Lonsdale Kirkby Stephen Longtown Maryport Millom Penrith Sedbergh Silloth Ulverston Whitehaven Wigton Windermere Workington See also: List of civil parishes in Cumbria

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