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CUMBRIA (English: /ˈkʌmbriə/ _KUM-bree-ə_ ; locally _KUUM-bree-ə_ ) is a non-metropolitan county in North West England . The county and Cumbria County Council , its local government , came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972 . Cumbria's county town is Carlisle , in the north of the county, and the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the southwestern tip of the county.

The county of Cumbria consists of six districts ( Allerdale , Barrow-in-Furness , Carlisle , Copeland , Eden and South Lakeland ), and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, with 73.4 people per km2 (190/sq mi).

Cumbria is the third largest county in England by area, and is bounded to the north by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders , to the west by the Irish Sea , to the south by Lancashire , to the southeast by North Yorkshire , and to the east by County Durham and Northumberland .

Cumbria is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District and Lake District National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered one of England's most outstanding areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists, writers, and musicians. A large area of the south east of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines AONB . Much of Cumbria is mountainous, and it contains every peak in England over 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level, with Scafell Pike at 3,209 feet (978 m) being the highest point of England. An upland, coastal, and rural area, Cumbria's history is characterised by invasions, migration, and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots. Notable historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle , Furness Abbey , Hardknott Roman Fort , Brough Castle and Hadrian\'s Wall , also a World Heritage Site.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Boundaries and divisions

* 3 Economy

* 3.1 Tourism * 3.2 Economic output

* 4 Politics * 5 Education * 6 Transport * 7 Demography

* 8 Settlements

* 8.1 Town and city twinnings

* 9 Symbols and county emblems

* 10 Sport

* 10.1 Football * 10.2 Rugby league * 10.3 Rugby union * 10.4 Cricket * 10.5 Other

* 11 Media * 12 Places of interest * 13 Notable people * 14 See also * 15 References * 16 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Cumbria The Castlerigg stone circle dates from the late Neolithic age and was constructed by some of the earliest inhabitants of Cumbria

The county of Cumbria was created in April 1974 through an amalgamation of the previous counties of Cumberland and Westmorland and small parts of Lancashire (the part known as Lancashire over the sands ) and West Riding of Yorkshire , which was also abolished at that time.

At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain (c. A.D. 410) the inhabitants of Cumberland were Cumbric -speaking native Romano-Britons who were probably descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii (sometimes considered to be a sub-tribe of the Brigantes) that the Roman Empire had conquered in about A.D. 85. Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria. The names _Cumbria_, _Cymru_ (the native Welsh name for Wales ), _Cambria_, and _Cumberland_ are derived from the name these people gave themselves, _*kombroges_ in Common Brittonic , which originally meant "compatriots".

In the Early Middle Ages , Cumberland formed the core of the Brittonic kingdom of Rheged . For the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Kingdom of Strathclyde and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria . Most of modern-day Cumbria was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland at the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066 and thus was excluded from the Domesday Book survey of 1086. In 1092 Cumberland was invaded by William II and incorporated into England. Nevertheless, the region was dominated by the many Anglo-Scottish Wars of the latter Middle Ages and early modern period and the associated Border Reivers who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region. There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, and two further sieges during the Jacobite risings .

After the Jacobite Risings of the eighteenth century, Cumberland became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England , the Industrial Revolution caused a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington , Millom and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steel mills develop, with Barrow also developing a significant shipbuilding industry. Kendal , Keswick and Carlisle all became mill towns , with textiles, pencils and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The early nineteenth century saw the county gain fame as the Lake Poets and other artists of the Romantic movement , such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge , lived among, and were inspired by, the lakes and mountains of the region. Later, the children's writer Beatrix Potter also wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death. In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951, which remains the largest National Park in England and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county.

The county of Cumbria was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland , the Cumberland County Borough of Carlisle , along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire , usually referred to as " Lancashire North of the Sands", (including the county borough of Barrow-in-Furness ) and, from the West Riding of Yorkshire , the Sedbergh Rural District . It is governed by Cumbria County Council .

Local papers _The Westmorland Gazette _ and _ Cumberland and Westmorland Herald_ continue to use the name of their historic county. Other publications, such as local government promotional material, describe the area as "Cumbria", as do the Lake District National Park Authority and most visitors.

GEOGRAPHY

Topographic map of Cumbria

Cumbria is the most northwesterly county of England. The northernmost and southernmost points in Cumbria are just west of Deadwater, Northumberland and South Walney respectively. Kirkby Stephen (close to Tan Hill, North Yorkshire ) and St Bees Head are the most easterly and westerly points of the county. Most of Cumbria is mountainous, with the majority of the county being situated in the Lake District while the Pennines , consisting of the Yorkshire Dales and the North Pennines, lie at the eastern and south-east areas of the county. At 978 metres (3,209 ft) Scafell Pike is the highest point in Cumbria and in England. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England.

The Lancaster Canal runs from Preston into South Cumbria and is partly in use. The Ulverston Canal which once reached to Morecambe Bay is maintained although it was closed in 1945. The Solway Coast and Arnside and Silverdale AONB\'s lie in the lowland areas of the county, to the north and south respectively.

BOUNDARIES AND DIVISIONS

Cumbria is bordered by the English counties of Northumberland , County Durham , North Yorkshire , Lancashire , and the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders .

The boundaries are along the Irish Sea to Morecambe Bay in the west, and along the Pennines to the east. Cumbria's northern boundary stretches from the Solway Firth from the Solway Plain eastward along the border with Scotland to Northumberland .

It is made up of six districts : Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland. For many administrative purposes Cumbria is divided into three areas — East, West and South. East consists of the districts of Carlisle and Eden, West consists of Allerdale and Copeland, and South consists of Lakeland and Barrow.

In January 2007, Cumbria County Council voted in favour of an official bid to scrap the current two-tier system of county and district councils in favour of a new unitary Cumbria Council, to be submitted for consideration to the Department for Communities and Local Government . This was then rejected.

The county returns six Members of Parliament to the House of Commons , representing the constituencies of Carlisle , Penrith & The Border , Workington , Copeland , Westmorland and Lonsdale and Barrow "> BAE Systems Submarine Solutions in Barrow-in-Furness has a workforce of around 5,000 people.

Many large companies and organisations are based in Cumbria. The county council itself employs around 17,000 individuals, while the largest private employer in Cumbria, the Sellafield nuclear processing site, has a workforce of 10,000. Below is a list of some of the county's largest companies and employers (excluding services such as Cumbria Constabulary , Cumbria Fire and Rescue and the NHS in Cumbria), categorised by district:

* Allerdale

* Associated British Ports Holdings own and operate the port of Silloth . * Plastic film maker Innovia Films has its headquarters and only UK factory in Wigton , which employs almost 1,000 people and is Wigton's biggest employer. * U.S.-based multinational bed maker Sealy Beds UK (which is part of the Silentnight Group) own a factory at Aspatria , which employs around 300 people. * Flour miller Carr's Milling Industries PLC, which is based in Carlisle , owns a large factory at Silloth which makes the 'Carr's Breadmaker' range and Carr's farm feeds. * Window maker WestPort Windows owns a large factory at Maryport , which makes UPVC windows and doors. * World rally company M-Sport has its headquarters at Dovenby Hall, near Cockermouth . * Swedish paper maker Iggesund Paperboard has its only UK factory at Siddick , near Workington * U.S.-based Eastman Chemical Company has a factory at Siddick, near Workington . It makes plastic bottle pellets (PBP) and products for the smoking industry and employs 100 people. * Steel company Tata Steel owns a cast products plant at Workington , which employs 300 people. * Carlisle -based haulage group The Stobart Group owns a large haulage depot at Workington , which was once owned by truck and bus maker Leyland . * Packaging company Amcor owns the former Alcan packaging plant at Salterbeck, Workington . * James Walker Ltd, an international high-performance sealing manufacturer, has a large factory at Cockermouth .

* Barrow-in-Furness

* Barrow\'s shipyard is one of the UK's largest. BAE Systems is the current owner and employs around 5,000. * Associated British Ports Holdings own and operate the port of Barrow . * The only Kimberly-Clark mill in the North of England is located in Barrow. * James Fisher & Sons , a large provider of marine engineering services, is based in Barrow. * One of the largest single-site furniture stores in the UK, Stollers , is located in Barrow.

* Carlisle

* Close to 1,000 people work in one of only two Pirelli tyre plants in the UK. * Carr\'s is a successful foodstuff and agricultural brand that was established in 1831 in Carlisle. * The Stobart Group, which is one of the UK's largest haulage companies, is headquartered in Carlisle. * Nestlé operates a factory on the outskirts of Carlisle. * Cavaghan many West Cumbrians have links to the site.

* Eden

* Center Parcs owns a large resort in Whinfell Forest near Penrith. * Carlisle based haulage giant, The Stobart Group, owns a large transport depot at Penrith * National sawdust, animal bedding and bark suppliers A W Jenkinson is headquartered at Clifton, Penrith

* South Lakeland

* Pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline operates a large factory in Ulverston . * International kitchenware store Lakeland has its headquarters and flagship store in Windermere . * Farley Health Products, a subsidiary of the Heinz Company , runs a factory in Kendal .

TOURISM

The entrance to Whinlatter Forest Park Sizergh Castle Muncaster Castle

The largest and most widespread industry in Cumbria is tourism. The Lake District National Park alone receives some 15.8 million visitors every year. Despite this, fewer than 50,000 people reside permanently within the Lake District – mostly in Ambleside , Bowness-on- Windermere , Coniston , Keswick , Grasmere and Windermere . Over 36,000 Cumbrians are employed in the tourism industry which adds £1.1 billion a year to the county's economy. The Lake District and county as a whole attracts visitors from across the UK, Europe, North America and the Far East (particularly Japan). The tables below show the twenty most-visited attractions in Cumbria in 2009 (please note that not all visitor attractions provided data to Cumbria Tourism who collated the list. Notable examples are Furness Abbey , the Lakes Aquarium and South Lakes Safari Zoo , the latter of which would almost certainly rank within the top five).

RANK ATTRACTION LOCATION VISITORS

1 Windermere Lake Cruises Bowness-on-Windermere 1,313,807

2 Rheged Penrith 439,568

3 Ullswater Steamers Glenridding 348,000

4 Whinlatter Forest Park and Visitor Centre Whinlatter 252,762

5 Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery Carlisle 251,808

6 Grizedale Forest Park and Visitor Centre Grizedale 175,033

7 Carlisle Cathedral Carlisle 166,141

8 Lake District Visitor Centre Brockhole Windermere 135,539

9 Hill Top Hawkshead 103,682

10 Sizergh Castle Sizergh Castle 90,063

RANK ATTRACTION LOCATION VISITORS

11 Cumberland Pencil Museum Keswick 80,100

12 Muncaster Castle Ravenglass 78,474

13 Dock Museum Barrow-in-Furness 73,239

14 The Beacon Whitehaven 71,602

15 Holker Hall Cartmel 58,060

16 Carlisle Castle Carlisle 56,957

17 Beatrix Potter Gallery Hawkshead 47,244

18 Lake District Wildlife Park Bassenthwaite 45,559

19 The Homes of Football Ambleside 49,661

20 Cartmel Priory Cartmel 43,672

ECONOMIC OUTPUT

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of East Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by _Office for National Statistics_ with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YEAR REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SERVICES

1995 2,679 148 902 1,629

2000 2,843 120 809 1,914

2003 3,388 129 924 2,335

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of West Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by _Office for National Statistics_ with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YEAR REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SERVICES

1995 2,246 63 1,294 888

2000 2,415 53 1,212 1,150

2003 2,870 60 1,420 1,390

POLITICS

Main article: List of Parliamentary constituencies in Cumbria

CONSTITUENCY 1983 1987 1992 1997 2001 2005 2010 2015 2017

Barrow and Furness CON Cecil Franks LAB John Hutton LAB JOHN WOODCOCK

Carlisle LAB Ronald Lewis LAB Eric Martlew CON JOHN STEVENSON

Copeland LAB Jack Cunningham LAB Jamie Reed CON TRUDY HARRISON

Penrith and The Border CON David Maclean CON RORY STEWART

Westmorland and Lonsdale CON Michael Jopling CON Tim Collins LD TIM FARRON

Workington LAB Dale Campbell-Savours LAB TONY CUNNINGHAM LAB SUE HAYMAN

GENERAL ELECTION 2015: CUMBRIA

CONSERVATIVE LABOUR LIBERAL DEMOCRATS UKIP GREEN INDEPENDENT _TURNOUT_

104,627 +16,255 76,420 +16,128 34,271 -25,715 32,417 +27,518 8,625 +7,622 446 N/A _256,806_ +36,052

OVERALL NUMBER OF SEATS AS OF 2017

LABOUR CONSERVATIVE LIBERAL DEMOCRATS UKIP GREEN INDEPENDENT

2 3 1 0 0 0

EDUCATION

The University of Cumbria's Fusehill Campus in Carlisle See also: List of schools in Cumbria

Although Cumbria has a comprehensive system almost _in toto_, it has one state grammar school in Penrith. There are 42 state secondary schools and 10 independent schools. The more rural secondary schools tend to have sixth forms (although in Barrow-in-Furness district, no schools have sixth forms) and this is the same for three schools in Allerdale and South Lakeland, and one in the other districts. Chetwynde is also the only school in Barrow to educate children from nursery all the way to sixth form level.

Colleges of further education in Cumbria include Carlisle College , Furness College which includes Barrow Sixth Form College , Kendal College and Lakes College West Cumbria .

The University of Cumbria is one of the UK's newest universities having been established in 2007, it is at present the only university in Cumbria and has campuses across the county, together with Lancaster and London .

TRANSPORT

The M6 motorway and West Coast Main Line near Grayrigg Forest

The M6 is the only motorway that runs through Cumbria. Kendal and Penrith are amongst its primary destinations before it terminates just north of Carlisle . Major A roads within Cumbria include:

* A6 (Luton, Bedfordshire to Carlisle via Kendal and Penrith) * A66 ( Workington to Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire via Keswick, Penrith and Brough) * A69 (Carlisle to Newcastle upon Tyne via Brampton and Hexham) * A590 (M6 Junction 36 to Barrow-in-Furness via Ulverston) * A591 (Sizergh to Bothel via Kendal, Windermere, Ambleside, Grasmere and Keswick) * A592 (M6 Junction 40 to Newby Bridge via Penrith, Windermere and Bowness-on-Windermere) * A595 (Carlisle to Dalton-in- Furness via Whitehaven and Workington) * A596 (Carlisle to Workington)

Several bus companies run services in Cumbria serving the main towns and villages in the county, with some services running to neighbouring areas such as Lancaster . Stagecoach North West is the largest; it has depots in Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Kendal and Workington. Stagecoach's flagship X6 route connects Barrow-in-Furness and Kendal in south Cumbria.

There are only two airports in the county: Carlisle Lake District and Barrow/ Walney Island . Both airports formerly served scheduled passenger flights and both are proposing expansions and renovations to handle domestic and European flights in the near future. The nearest international airports to south Cumbria are Blackpool , Manchester and Liverpool John Lennon . North Cumbria is closer to Newcastle , Glasgow Prestwick and Glasgow International . Barrow-in-Furness is one of the country's largest shipbuilding centres, but the Port of Barrow is only minor, operated by Associated British Ports alongside the Port of Silloth in Allerdale. There are no ferry links from any port or harbour along the Cumbria coast.

The busiest railway stations in Cumbria are Carlisle , Barrow-in-Furness , Penrith and Oxenholme Lake District . The West Coast Main Line runs for 399 miles (642 km) through the Cumbria countryside adjacent to the M6 motorway. The Cumbrian Coast Line connects Barrow-in-Furness to Carlisle and is a vital link in the west of the county. Other railways in Cumbria are the Windermere Branch Line , most of the Furness Line and much of the Settle-Carlisle Railway .

DEMOGRAPHY

CARLISLE BARROW-IN-FURNESS Kendal Whitehaven Workington Penrith Maryport Ulverston The largest settlements in Cumbria Main article: Demography of Cumbria

Cumbria's largest settlement and only city is Carlisle , in the north of the county. The largest town, Barrow-in-Furness , in the south, is slightly smaller. The county's population is largely rural: it has the second-lowest population density among English counties, and has only five towns with a population of over 20,000. Cumbria is also one of the country's most ethnically homogeneous counties, with 95.1% of the population categorised as White British (around 470,900 of the 495,000 Cumbrians). However, the larger towns have ethnic makeups that are closer to the national average. The 2001 census indicated that Christianity was the religion with the most adherents in the county.

2010 ONS estimates placed the number of foreign-born (non-United Kingdom) people living in Cumbria at around 14,000 and foreign nationals at 6,000. The 2001 UK Census showed the following most common countries of birth for Cumbrians that year:

* England – 454,137 * Scotland – 16,628 * Wales – 3,471 * Northern Ireland – 2,289 * Germany – 1,438 * Republic of Ireland – 1,359 * South Africa – 603 * Canada – 581 * Australia – 531 * United States – 493 * India – 476 * Hong Kong – 417 * Italy – 249 * New Zealand – 241 * France – 197 * Poland – 193 * Cyprus – 174 * Netherlands – 167 * Spain – 166 * Singapore – 160

POPULATION TOTALS FOR CUMBRIA

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1801 173,017 —

1811 193,139 +1.11%

1821 225,555 +1.56%

1831 242,320 +0.72%

1841 255,603 +0.54%

1851 274,957 +0.73%

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1861 320,257 +1.54%

1871 365,556 +1.33%

1881 410,856 +1.18%

1891 434,867 +0.57%

1901 437,364 +0.06%

1911 440,485 +0.07%

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1921 441,483 +0.02%

1931 442,693 +0.03%

1941 456,833 +0.31%

1951 471,897 +0.32%

1961 473,706 +0.04%

1971 475,669 +0.04%

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1981 471,693 −0.08%

1991 489,191 +0.36%

2001 487,607 −0.03%

2011 499,900 +0.25%

2014 499,800 −0.01%

Pre-1974 statistics were gathered from local government areas that are now comprised by Cumbria _Source: Great Britain Historical GIS ._

SETTLEMENTS

Main article: List of places in Cumbria

The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.

ADMINISTRATION BOROUGH/DISTRICT CENTRE OF ADMINISTRATION

OTHER TOWNS, VILLAGES AND SETTLEMENTS

Allerdale Workington

Aspatria Cockermouth Harrington Keswick Maryport Silloth Wigton

Barrow-in-Furness Barrow-in-Furness

Askam and Ireleth Dalton-in- Furness Walney Island

Carlisle Carlisle

Brampton Dalston Longtown

Copeland Whitehaven

Arlecdon and Frizington Cleator Moor Egremont Millom St Bees

Eden Penrith

Alston Appleby-in- Westmorland Kirkby Stephen Shap Kirkoswald

South Lakeland Kendal

Ambleside Bowness-on- Windermere Coniston Grasmere Hawkshead Kirkby Lonsdale Milnthorpe Sedbergh Ulverston Windermere

TOWN AND CITY TWINNINGS

SETTLEMENT DISTRICT TWINNED SETTLEMENT

Carlisle Carlisle Flensburg , Germany Słupsk , Poland

Cockermouth Allerdale Marvejols , France

Dalton-in-Furness Barrow-in-Furness Dalton, Pennsylvania , United States

Kendal South Lakeland Killarney , Ireland Rinteln , Germany

Penrith Eden Penrith, New South Wales , Australia

Sedbergh South Lakeland Zreče , Slovenia

Ulverston South Lakeland Albert , France

Whitehaven Copeland Kozloduy , Bulgaria

Windermere South Lakeland Diessen am Ammersee , Germany

Workington Allerdale Selm , Germany Val-de-Reuil , France

SYMBOLS AND COUNTY EMBLEMS

The arms of Cumbria County Council were granted by the College of Arms on 10 October 1974. The arms represent the areas from which the new county council's area was put together; the shield's green border has Parnassus flowers representing Cumberland interspersed with roses; red for Lancashire (the Furness district) on white for Yorkshire ( Sedbergh is from the West Riding ). The crest is a ram's head crest, found in the arms both of Westmorland County Council and Barrow County Borough, with Cumberland's Parnassus flowers again. The supporters are the legendary Dacre Bull (Cumberland) and a red dragon, redolent of Cumbria's Brittonic origin.(Appleby in Westmorland ). They stand on a base compartment representing Hadrian's Wall (in Cumberland), crossed with two red bars (from the Westmorland arms).

The county council motto "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" is Latin , from Psalm 121; ("I shall lift up mine eyes unto the hills").

The county flag of Cumbria is a banner of arms of Cumbria County Council.

SPORT

Brunton Park , the home of Carlisle United Craven Park , home of Barrow Raiders

FOOTBALL

Carlisle United are the only professional football team in Cumbria and currently play in League Two (4th Tier in the English football pyramid). They attract support from across Cumbria and beyond, with many Cumbrian "ex-pats" travelling to see their games, both home and away. Home attendances are usually 3,000 to 4,000 and the away support is often 1,000 to 2,000. This is one of the highest proportions of away-home support in England.

Barrow and Workington A.F.C —who are always known locally as "the reds"—are well-supported non-league teams, having both been relegated from the Football League in the 1970s, with Barrow being one of the best supported non-league football teams in England. Recently Workington A.F.C have made a rapid rise up the non league ladder and in 2007/08 competed with Barrow in the Conference North (Tier 6). Barrow were then promoted to the Blue Square Premier (Tier 5) in 2007/08.

RUGBY LEAGUE

Rugby league is a very popular sport in South and West Cumbria. Barrow , Whitehaven and Workington play in the Rugby League National Leagues and Carlisle in the Rugby League Conference . Amateur teams; Wath Brow Hornets, Askam , Egremont Rangers , Kells , and Millom play in the National Conference .

RUGBY UNION

Rugby union is popular in the east of the county with teams such as Furness RUFC & Hawcoat Park RUFC (South Cumbria), Workington RUFC (West Cumbria), Carlisle RUFC, Aspatria RUFC , Wigton RUFC, Kendal RUFC , Kirkby Lonsdale RUFC, Keswick RUFC, Cockermouth RUFC, Upper Eden RUFC and Penrith RUFC .

CRICKET

Cumberland County Cricket Club is one of the cricket clubs that constitute the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure. The club, based in Carlisle , competes in the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy . The club also play some home matches in Workington , as well as other locations.

Cumbrian club cricket teams play in the North Lancashire and Cumbria League .

OTHER

UPPIES AND DOWNIES Main article: Uppies and Downies

Workington is home to the ball game known as Uppies and Downies, a traditional version of football, with its origins in Medieval football or an even earlier form. Players from outside Workington do take part, especially fellow West Cumbrians from Whitehaven and Maryport .

WRESTLING Main article: Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling

Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling is an ancient and well-practised tradition in the county with a strong resemblance to Scottish Backhold .

In the 21st century Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling along with other aspects of Lakeland culture are practised at the Grasmere Sports and Show, an annual meeting held every year since 1852 on the August Bank Holiday .

The origin of this form of wrestling is a matter of debate, with some describing it as having evolved from Norse wrestling brought over by Viking invaders, while other historians associate it with the Cornish and Gouren styles indicating that it may have developed out of a longer-standing Celtic tradition.

AMERICAN FOOTBALL Cumbria is home to the Walney Terriers and the Carlisle Border Reivers , which are rival amateur American Football teams, despite a relatively low level of interest in the sport throughout the county.

KARTING Cumbria Kart Racing Club is based at the Lakeland Circuit, Rowrah , between Cockermouth and Egremont . The track is currently a venue for rounds of both major UK national karting championships . Formula One world champions Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button both raced karts at Rowrah many times in the formative stages of their motor sport careers , while other F1 drivers, past and present, to have competed there include Johnny Herbert , Anthony Davidson , Allan McNish , Ralph Firman , Paul di Resta and David Coulthard , who hailed from just over the nearby Anglo-Scottish border and regarded Rowrah as his home circuit, becoming Cumbria Kart Racing Club Champion in 1985 in succession to McNish (di Resta also taking the CKRC title subsequently) .

MEDIA

Two evening newspapers are published daily in Cumbria. The _News and Star _ focuses largely on Carlisle and the surrounding areas of north and west Cumbria, and the _ North-West Evening Mail _ is based in Barrow-in-Furness and covers news from across Furness and the South Lakes. The _ Cumberland and Westmorland Herald _ and _The Westmorland Gazette _ are weekly newspapers based in Penrith and Kendal respectively.

Due to the size of Cumbria the county spans two television zones: BBC North East and Cumbria and ITV Tyne Tees ">

KEY

Abbey/Priory/Cathedral

Accessible open space

Amusement/Theme Park

Castle

Country Park

English Heritage

Forestry Commission

Heritage railway

Historic House

Museum (free/not free)

National Trust

Theatre

Zoo

Furness Abbey Lake Windermere Thirlmere

* Abbot Hall Art Gallery * Appleby Castle * Appleby Horse Fair ( Gypsy fair) * Armitt Museum and Library , Ambleside * Bassenthwaite Lake * Bewcastle * Black Combe * Blackwell * Brantwood * Brough Castle * Brougham Castle * Brougham Hall * Broughton in Furness * Brougham Castle * Buttermere * Cartmel Priory * Carlisle Castle * Carlisle Cathedral * Castlerigg Stone Circle * Church of St Olaf, Wasdale * Wainwright's Coast to Coast Walk * Cockermouth , "Gem" Town * Coniston Water * Crummock Water * Cumbria Coastal Way long distance footpath * Cumbria Way long distance footpath * Dales Way long distance footpath * Dalton Castle * Derwent Water * Dock Museum * Dove Cottage * Egremont Castle * Eden Valley Railway * Ennerdale Water * Eskdale * Fell Foot Park * Firbank Fell * Fisher Tarn Reservoir * Furness * Furness Abbey * Grange-Over-Sands * Haig Colliery Mining Museum * Harrison Stickle * Hadrian\'s Wall * Hartley Castle * Haweswater * Hawkshead Grammar School Museum * Hill Top * Hoad Monument * Hodbarrow Nature Reserve

* Holker Hall * Kendal Castle * Kentmere * Killington Reservoir * Kirkby Lonsdale * Lakeside & Haverthwaite Railway * Langwathby railway station * Windermere * Lakeland Wildlife Oasis * Lanercost Priory * Laurel & Hardy Museum * Levens Hall * Millom * Millom Folk Museum * Muncaster Castle * Museum of Lakeland Life * National Nature Reserves in Cumbria * Pennine Way long distance footpath * Penrith Castle * Piel Island * Quaker tapestry * RAF Millom Museum * Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway – heritage railway * Rey Cross * Rheged * Rydal Water * Sea to Sea Cycle Route * Seathwaite Tarn * Sellafield Nuclear Reprocessing Facility * Silecroft * Silloth on Solway * Sizergh Castle -webkit-column-width: 16em; column-width: 16em;">

* Richard Abbot * Abraham Acton * Jack Adams * Aim * Sir John Barrow * Derrick Bird * Bill Birkett * Norman Birkett * Chris Bonington * British Sea Power * Melvyn Bragg * Baron Campbell-Savours * Donald Campbell * Thomas Cape * Fletcher Christian * Lady Anne Clifford * Samuel Taylor Coleridge * Glenn Cornick * Mark Cueto * Wayne Curtis * John Dalton * Thomas DeQuincey * Steve Dixon * Brian Donnelly * Troy Donockley * Francis Dunnery * Margaret Fell * Sheila Fell * Anna Ford * Douglas Ferreira * Kathleen Ferrier * George MacDonald Fraser * Norman Gifford * Edmund Grindal * Ade Gardner * Sarah Hall * Willie Horne * Francis Howgill * Emlyn Hughes * Thomas Henry Ismay * Maurice Flitcroft * Harry Hadley * Brad Kavanagh * Nigel Kneale * Phil Jackson * Stuart Lancaster * Nella Last * Stan Laurel * Jimmy Lewthwaite * Hugh Lowther, 5th Earl of Lonsdale * Ian McDonald * Frank McPherson * Christine McVie * Vic Metcalfe * Dave Myers * Joss Naylor * Norman Nicholson * Saint Ninian * Catherine Parr * Baron Peart * John Peel * Jack Pelter * Beatrix Potter * Peter Purves * Sir James Ramsden * Dame Stella Rimington * Eric Robson * George Romney * Thomas Round * Adam Roynon * John Ruskin * Helen Skelton * Montagu Slater * Richard T. Slone * James Alexander Smith * Robert Southey * Lord Soulsby * Constance Spry * Gary Stevens * Stuart Stockdale * Karen Taylor * Edward Troughton * Keith Tyson * Josefina de Vasconcellos * Alfred Wainwright * Eric Wallace * William Whitelaw * John Wilkinson * Len Wilkinson * Malcolm Wilson * Christopher Wordsworth * Dorothy Wordsworth * William Wordsworth

*

Stan Laurel *

Beatrix Potter *

William Wordsworth

SEE ALSO

* _ Geography portal * Europe portal * United Kingdom portal * England portal * North West England portal * Cumbria portal

* Anglo-Scottish border * Cumbria County Council

* Cumbrian dialect

* Barrovian

* Cumbric language * Cumbrian toponymy * Etymology of Cumbrian Place Names * Healthcare in Cumbria * List of Cumbria-related topics * List of High Sheriffs of Cumbria * List of Lord Lieutenants of Cumbria * Cumbria Constabulary * Cumbria Police and Crime Commissioner * Outline of England _ * Rose Castle

REFERENCES

* ^ " Cumbria 2017/18". High Sheriffs Association. Retrieved 8 June 2017. * ^ "Online Etymological Dictionary \'\'Cymric\'\'". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 25 September 2010. * ^ Davies, John (2007) . _A History of Wales_. London: Penguin Books. pp. 68–69. * ^ "County council votes to pursue a single council for Cumbria". Retrieved 24 February 2007. * ^ "Cumbrian employers supporting staff after multiple shooting". Personneltoday. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ "Port of Silloth". Associated British Ports Holdings. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ " BAE Systems Barrow". BAE Systems. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ "Port of Barrow". Associated British Ports Holdings. Retrieved 18 June 2011. * ^ " Kimberly-Clark Barrow". Kimberly-Clark. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ " James Fisher & Sons Barrow". James Fisher & Sons. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ " Stollers Barrow". Stollers. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ " Pirelli Carlisle". Pirelli. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ "Carr\'s Carlisle". Carr's. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ "Stobart Carlisle". Stobart. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ " Nestlé Carlisle". ukbusinesspark. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ "Sellafield". Sellafield. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ "Center Parcs". Center Parcs. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ " GlaxoSmithKline Ulverston". GlaxoSmithKline. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ "Lakeland Windermere". Lakeland. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ "Heinz Kendal". Applegate. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ " Lake District National Park". Lake District National Park. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ " Lake District National Park". Cumbria Tourism. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ "About Us - Lake District Wildlife Park". Retrieved 14 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding * ^ _A_ _B_ includes hunting and forestry * ^ _A_ _B_ includes energy and construction * ^ _A_ _B_ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured * ^ "Current Estimates – Population Estimates by Ethnic Group Mid-2009 (experimental)". Office for National Statistics . Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011. * ^ "Table 1.3: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, April 2009 to March 2010". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011. * ^ A Vision of Britain through time , _ Cumbria Modern (post 1974) County: Total Population_, retrieved 10 January 2010 * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-19. * ^ Jovchev, Stanimir. "Побратимени градове". Retrieved 14 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _ Cumbria County Council_ (Civic Heraldry) accessed 24 January 2010 * ^ " Cumbria floods remembered at Department for Communities and Local Government - GOV.UK". Retrieved 14 March 2017. * ^ " Cumbria flag flying outside Eland House". Department for Communities and Local Government. 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2013. * ^ " Uppies and Downies website". Retrieved 25 June 2009. * ^ _Origins of Mass ball Games_. Retrieved 25 June 2009. * ^ "Times and Star". Retrieved 25 June 2009. * ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Retrieved 24 February 2007. * ^ "Amateur Wrestling". Retrieved 24 February 2007. * ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Retrieved 24 February 2007.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* _ Media related to Cumbria at Wikimedia Commons * Cumbria travel guide

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