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CUMBRIA (English: /ˈkʌmbriə/ KUM-bree-ə ; locally KUUM-bree-ə ) is a non-metropolitan county in North West England
England
. The county and Cumbria County Council , its local government , came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle , in the north of the county, and the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the southwestern tip of the county.

The county of Cumbria
Cumbria
consists of six districts ( Allerdale , Barrow-in-Furness , Carlisle , Copeland , Eden and South Lakeland
South Lakeland
), and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria
Cumbria
is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, with 73.4 people per km2 (190/sq mi).

Cumbria
Cumbria
is the third largest county in England
England
by area, and is bounded to the north by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders
Scottish Borders
, to the west by the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
, to the south by Lancashire
Lancashire
, to the southeast by North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
, and to the east by County Durham
County Durham
and Northumberland .

Cumbria
Cumbria
is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District and Lake District National Park, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
considered one of England's most outstanding areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists, writers, and musicians. A large area of the south east of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines AONB . Much of Cumbria
Cumbria
is mountainous, and it contains every peak in England
England
over 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level, with Scafell Pike
Scafell Pike
at 3,209 feet (978 m) being the highest point of England. An upland, coastal, and rural area, Cumbria's history is characterised by invasions, migration, and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots. Notable historic sites in Cumbria
Cumbria
include Carlisle Castle
Carlisle Castle
, Furness Abbey , Hardknott Roman Fort , Brough Castle and Hadrian\'s Wall , also a World Heritage Site.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Boundaries and divisions

* 3 Economy

* 3.1 Tourism * 3.2 Economic output

* 4 Politics * 5 Education * 6 Transport * 7 Demography

* 8 Settlements

* 8.1 Town and city twinnings

* 9 Symbols and county emblems

* 10 Sport

* 10.1 Football * 10.2 Rugby league
Rugby league
* 10.3 Rugby union
Rugby union
* 10.4 Cricket
Cricket
* 10.5 Other

* 11 Media * 12 Places of interest * 13 Notable people * 14 See also * 15 References * 16 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Cumbria The Castlerigg stone circle dates from the late Neolithic
Neolithic
age and was constructed by some of the earliest inhabitants of Cumbria
Cumbria

The county of Cumbria
Cumbria
was created in April 1974 through an amalgamation of the previous counties of Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland and small parts of Lancashire
Lancashire
(the part known as Lancashire
Lancashire
over the sands ) and West Riding of Yorkshire , which was also abolished at that time.

At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain (c. A.D. 410) the inhabitants of Cumberland
Cumberland
were Cumbric
Cumbric
-speaking native Romano-Britons who were probably descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii (sometimes considered to be a sub-tribe of the Brigantes) that the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
had conquered in about A.D. 85. Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria. The names Cumbria, Cymru (the native Welsh name for Wales
Wales
), Cambria, and Cumberland
Cumberland
are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Common Brittonic , which originally meant "compatriots".

In the Early Middle Ages , Cumberland
Cumberland
formed the core of the Brittonic kingdom of Rheged . For the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria
Cumbria
was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Kingdom of Strathclyde
Kingdom of Strathclyde
and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria . Most of modern-day Cumbria
Cumbria
was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
at the time of the Norman conquest of England
England
in 1066 and thus was excluded from the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
survey of 1086. In 1092 Cumberland
Cumberland
was invaded by William II and incorporated into England. Nevertheless, the region was dominated by the many Anglo-Scottish Wars of the latter Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and early modern period and the associated Border Reivers
Border Reivers
who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region. There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England
England
and Scotland, and two further sieges during the Jacobite risings
Jacobite risings
.

After the Jacobite Risings of the eighteenth century, Cumberland became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England
England
, the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
caused a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington , Millom
Millom
and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steel mills develop, with Barrow also developing a significant shipbuilding industry. Kendal , Keswick and Carlisle all became mill towns , with textiles, pencils and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The early nineteenth century saw the county gain fame as the Lake Poets
Lake Poets
and other artists of the Romantic movement , such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge , lived among, and were inspired by, the lakes and mountains of the region. Later, the children's writer Beatrix Potter also wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death. In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951, which remains the largest National Park in England
England
and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county.

The county of Cumbria
Cumbria
was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland , the Cumberland
Cumberland
County Borough of Carlisle , along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire
Lancashire
, usually referred to as " Lancashire
Lancashire
North of the Sands", (including the county borough of Barrow-in-Furness ) and, from the West Riding of Yorkshire , the Sedbergh Rural District . It is governed by Cumbria County Council .

Local papers The Westmorland Gazette and Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland Herald continue to use the name of their historic county. Other publications, such as local government promotional material, describe the area as "Cumbria", as do the Lake District National Park Authority and most visitors.

GEOGRAPHY

Topographic map of Cumbria
Cumbria

Cumbria
Cumbria
is the most northwesterly county of England. The northernmost and southernmost points in Cumbria
Cumbria
are just west of Deadwater, Northumberland and South Walney respectively. Kirkby Stephen (close to Tan Hill, North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
) and St Bees Head
St Bees Head
are the most easterly and westerly points of the county. Most of Cumbria
Cumbria
is mountainous, with the majority of the county being situated in the Lake District while the Pennines , consisting of the Yorkshire Dales and the North Pennines, lie at the eastern and south-east areas of the county. At 978 metres (3,209 ft) Scafell Pike
Scafell Pike
is the highest point in Cumbria
Cumbria
and in England. Windermere
Windermere
is the largest natural lake in England.

The Lancaster Canal
Lancaster Canal
runs from Preston into South Cumbria
Cumbria
and is partly in use. The Ulverston Canal which once reached to Morecambe Bay is maintained although it was closed in 1945. The Solway Coast and Arnside and Silverdale
Arnside and Silverdale
AONB\'s lie in the lowland areas of the county, to the north and south respectively.

BOUNDARIES AND DIVISIONS

Cumbria
Cumbria
is bordered by the English counties of Northumberland , County Durham
County Durham
, North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
, Lancashire
Lancashire
, and the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders
Scottish Borders
.

The boundaries are along the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to Morecambe Bay
Morecambe Bay
in the west, and along the Pennines to the east. Cumbria's northern boundary stretches from the Solway Firth
Solway Firth
from the Solway Plain eastward along the border with Scotland
Scotland
to Northumberland .

It is made up of six districts : Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland. For many administrative purposes Cumbria
Cumbria
is divided into three areas — East, West and South. East consists of the districts of Carlisle and Eden, West consists of Allerdale and Copeland, and South consists of Lakeland and Barrow.

In January 2007, Cumbria County Council voted in favour of an official bid to scrap the current two-tier system of county and district councils in favour of a new unitary Cumbria
Cumbria
Council, to be submitted for consideration to the Department for Communities and Local Government . This was then rejected.

The county returns six Members of Parliament to the House of Commons , representing the constituencies of Carlisle , Penrith & The Border , Workington , Copeland , Westmorland and Lonsdale and Barrow "> BAE Systems Submarine Solutions in Barrow-in-Furness has a workforce of around 5,000 people.

Many large companies and organisations are based in Cumbria. The county council itself employs around 17,000 individuals, while the largest private employer in Cumbria, the Sellafield nuclear processing site, has a workforce of 10,000. Below is a list of some of the county's largest companies and employers (excluding services such as Cumbria Constabulary , Cumbria
Cumbria
Fire and Rescue and the NHS in Cumbria), categorised by district:

* Allerdale

* Associated British Ports Holdings own and operate the port of Silloth
Silloth
. * Plastic film maker Innovia Films has its headquarters and only UK factory in Wigton
Wigton
, which employs almost 1,000 people and is Wigton's biggest employer. * U.S.-based multinational bed maker Sealy Beds UK (which is part of the Silentnight Group) own a factory at Aspatria , which employs around 300 people. * Flour miller Carr's
Carr's
Milling Industries PLC, which is based in Carlisle , owns a large factory at Silloth
Silloth
which makes the 'Carr's Breadmaker' range and Carr's
Carr's
farm feeds. * Window maker WestPort Windows owns a large factory at Maryport
Maryport
, which makes UPVC windows and doors. * World rally company M-Sport has its headquarters at Dovenby Hall, near Cockermouth . * Swedish paper maker Iggesund Paperboard has its only UK factory at Siddick
Siddick
, near Workington * U.S.-based Eastman Chemical Company has a factory at Siddick, near Workington . It makes plastic bottle pellets (PBP) and products for the smoking industry and employs 100 people. * Steel company Tata Steel
Tata Steel
owns a cast products plant at Workington , which employs 300 people. * Carlisle -based haulage group The Stobart Group owns a large haulage depot at Workington , which was once owned by truck and bus maker Leyland . * Packaging company Amcor owns the former Alcan packaging plant at Salterbeck, Workington . * James Walker Ltd, an international high-performance sealing manufacturer, has a large factory at Cockermouth .

* Barrow-in-Furness

* Barrow\'s shipyard is one of the UK's largest. BAE Systems
BAE Systems
is the current owner and employs around 5,000. * Associated British Ports Holdings own and operate the port of Barrow . * The only Kimberly-Clark
Kimberly-Clark
mill in the North of England
England
is located in Barrow. * James Fisher & Sons , a large provider of marine engineering services, is based in Barrow. * One of the largest single-site furniture stores in the UK, Stollers , is located in Barrow.

* Carlisle

* Close to 1,000 people work in one of only two Pirelli
Pirelli
tyre plants in the UK. * Carr\'s is a successful foodstuff and agricultural brand that was established in 1831 in Carlisle. * The Stobart Group, which is one of the UK's largest haulage companies, is headquartered in Carlisle. * Nestlé
Nestlé
operates a factory on the outskirts of Carlisle. * Cavaghan many West Cumbrians have links to the site.

* Eden

* Center Parcs owns a large resort in Whinfell Forest near Penrith. * Carlisle based haulage giant, The Stobart Group, owns a large transport depot at Penrith * National sawdust, animal bedding and bark suppliers A W Jenkinson is headquartered at Clifton, Penrith

* South Lakeland
South Lakeland

* Pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
operates a large factory in Ulverston
Ulverston
. * International kitchenware store Lakeland has its headquarters and flagship store in Windermere
Windermere
. * Farley Health Products, a subsidiary of the Heinz Company , runs a factory in Kendal .

TOURISM

The entrance to Whinlatter Forest Park Sizergh Castle Muncaster Castle
Muncaster Castle

The largest and most widespread industry in Cumbria
Cumbria
is tourism. The Lake District National Park alone receives some 15.8 million visitors every year. Despite this, fewer than 50,000 people reside permanently within the Lake District – mostly in Ambleside , Bowness-on- Windermere
Windermere
, Coniston , Keswick , Grasmere
Grasmere
and Windermere
Windermere
. Over 36,000 Cumbrians are employed in the tourism industry which adds £1.1 billion a year to the county's economy. The Lake District and county as a whole attracts visitors from across the UK, Europe, North America and the Far East (particularly Japan). The tables below show the twenty most-visited attractions in Cumbria
Cumbria
in 2009 (please note that not all visitor attractions provided data to Cumbria
Cumbria
Tourism who collated the list. Notable examples are Furness Abbey , the Lakes Aquarium and South Lakes Safari Zoo , the latter of which would almost certainly rank within the top five).

RANK ATTRACTION LOCATION VISITORS

1 Windermere
Windermere
Lake Cruises Bowness-on-Windermere 1,313,807

2 Rheged Penrith 439,568

3 Ullswater
Ullswater
Steamers Glenridding 348,000

4 Whinlatter Forest Park and Visitor Centre Whinlatter 252,762

5 Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery Carlisle 251,808

6 Grizedale Forest Park and Visitor Centre Grizedale 175,033

7 Carlisle Cathedral
Carlisle Cathedral
Carlisle 166,141

8 Lake District Visitor Centre Brockhole Windermere 135,539

9 Hill Top Hawkshead 103,682

10 Sizergh Castle Sizergh Castle 90,063

RANK ATTRACTION LOCATION VISITORS

11 Cumberland
Cumberland
Pencil Museum Keswick 80,100

12 Muncaster Castle
Muncaster Castle
Ravenglass 78,474

13 Dock Museum Barrow-in-Furness 73,239

14 The Beacon Whitehaven 71,602

15 Holker Hall Cartmel 58,060

16 Carlisle Castle
Carlisle Castle
Carlisle 56,957

17 Beatrix Potter Gallery Hawkshead 47,244

18 Lake District Wildlife Park Bassenthwaite 45,559

19 The Homes of Football Ambleside 49,661

20 Cartmel Priory Cartmel 43,672

ECONOMIC OUTPUT

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of East Cumbria
Cumbria
at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YEAR REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SERVICES

1995 2,679 148 902 1,629

2000 2,843 120 809 1,914

2003 3,388 129 924 2,335

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of West Cumbria
Cumbria
at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YEAR REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SERVICES

1995 2,246 63 1,294 888

2000 2,415 53 1,212 1,150

2003 2,870 60 1,420 1,390

POLITICS

Main article: List of Parliamentary constituencies in Cumbria

CONSTITUENCY 1983 1987 1992 1997 2001 2005 2010 2015 2017

Barrow and Furness CON Cecil Franks LAB John Hutton LAB JOHN WOODCOCK

Carlisle LAB Ronald Lewis LAB Eric Martlew CON JOHN STEVENSON

Copeland LAB Jack Cunningham LAB Jamie Reed CON TRUDY HARRISON

Penrith and The Border CON David Maclean CON RORY STEWART

Westmorland and Lonsdale CON Michael Jopling CON Tim Collins LD TIM FARRON

Workington LAB Dale Campbell-Savours LAB TONY CUNNINGHAM LAB SUE HAYMAN

GENERAL ELECTION 2015: CUMBRIA

CONSERVATIVE LABOUR LIBERAL DEMOCRATS UKIP GREEN INDEPENDENT TURNOUT

104,627 +16,255 76,420 +16,128 34,271 -25,715 32,417 +27,518 8,625 +7,622 446 N/A 256,806 +36,052

OVERALL NUMBER OF SEATS AS OF 2017

LABOUR CONSERVATIVE LIBERAL DEMOCRATS UKIP GREEN INDEPENDENT

2 3 1 0 0 0

EDUCATION

The University of Cumbria's Fusehill Campus in Carlisle See also: List of schools in Cumbria

Although Cumbria
Cumbria
has a comprehensive system almost in toto, it has one state grammar school in Penrith. There are 42 state secondary schools and 10 independent schools. The more rural secondary schools tend to have sixth forms (although in Barrow-in-Furness district, no schools have sixth forms) and this is the same for three schools in Allerdale and South Lakeland, and one in the other districts. Chetwynde is also the only school in Barrow to educate children from nursery all the way to sixth form level.

Colleges of further education in Cumbria
Cumbria
include Carlisle College , Furness College which includes Barrow Sixth Form College , Kendal College and Lakes College West Cumbria .

The University of Cumbria is one of the UK's newest universities having been established in 2007, it is at present the only university in Cumbria
Cumbria
and has campuses across the county, together with Lancaster and London
London
.

TRANSPORT

The M6 motorway and West Coast Main Line near Grayrigg Forest
Grayrigg Forest

The M6 is the only motorway that runs through Cumbria. Kendal and Penrith are amongst its primary destinations before it terminates just north of Carlisle . Major A roads within Cumbria
Cumbria
include:

* A6 (Luton, Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
to Carlisle via Kendal and Penrith) * A66 ( Workington to Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
via Keswick, Penrith and Brough) * A69 (Carlisle to Newcastle upon Tyne via Brampton and Hexham) * A590 (M6 Junction 36 to Barrow-in-Furness via Ulverston) * A591 (Sizergh to Bothel via Kendal, Windermere, Ambleside, Grasmere
Grasmere
and Keswick) * A592 (M6 Junction 40 to Newby Bridge via Penrith, Windermere
Windermere
and Bowness-on-Windermere) * A595 (Carlisle to Dalton-in- Furness via Whitehaven
Whitehaven
and Workington) * A596 (Carlisle to Workington)

Several bus companies run services in Cumbria
Cumbria
serving the main towns and villages in the county, with some services running to neighbouring areas such as Lancaster . Stagecoach North West is the largest; it has depots in Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Kendal and Workington. Stagecoach's flagship X6 route connects Barrow-in-Furness and Kendal in south Cumbria.

There are only two airports in the county: Carlisle Lake District and Barrow/ Walney Island . Both airports formerly served scheduled passenger flights and both are proposing expansions and renovations to handle domestic and European flights in the near future. The nearest international airports to south Cumbria
Cumbria
are Blackpool
Blackpool
, Manchester
Manchester
and Liverpool
Liverpool
John Lennon . North Cumbria
Cumbria
is closer to Newcastle , Glasgow Prestwick and Glasgow International . Barrow-in-Furness is one of the country's largest shipbuilding centres, but the Port of Barrow is only minor, operated by Associated British Ports alongside the Port of Silloth
Silloth
in Allerdale. There are no ferry links from any port or harbour along the Cumbria
Cumbria
coast.

The busiest railway stations in Cumbria
Cumbria
are Carlisle , Barrow-in-Furness , Penrith and Oxenholme Lake District . The West Coast Main Line runs for 399 miles (642 km) through the Cumbria countryside adjacent to the M6 motorway. The Cumbrian Coast Line connects Barrow-in-Furness to Carlisle and is a vital link in the west of the county. Other railways in Cumbria
Cumbria
are the Windermere
Windermere
Branch Line , most of the Furness Line and much of the Settle-Carlisle Railway .

DEMOGRAPHY

CARLISLE BARROW-IN-FURNESS Kendal Whitehaven
Whitehaven
Workington Penrith Maryport
Maryport
Ulverston
Ulverston
The largest settlements in Cumbria
Cumbria
Main article: Demography of Cumbria

Cumbria's largest settlement and only city is Carlisle , in the north of the county. The largest town, Barrow-in-Furness , in the south, is slightly smaller. The county's population is largely rural: it has the second-lowest population density among English counties, and has only five towns with a population of over 20,000. Cumbria
Cumbria
is also one of the country's most ethnically homogeneous counties, with 95.1% of the population categorised as White British (around 470,900 of the 495,000 Cumbrians). However, the larger towns have ethnic makeups that are closer to the national average. The 2001 census indicated that Christianity was the religion with the most adherents in the county.

2010 ONS estimates placed the number of foreign-born (non-United Kingdom) people living in Cumbria
Cumbria
at around 14,000 and foreign nationals at 6,000. The 2001 UK Census
2001 UK Census
showed the following most common countries of birth for Cumbrians that year:

* England
England
– 454,137 * Scotland
Scotland
– 16,628 * Wales
Wales
– 3,471 * Northern Ireland – 2,289 * Germany
Germany
– 1,438 * Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
– 1,359 * South Africa – 603 * Canada – 581 * Australia
Australia
– 531 * United States
United States
– 493 * India – 476 * Hong Kong – 417 * Italy – 249 * New Zealand – 241 * France
France
– 197 * Poland
Poland
– 193 * Cyprus – 174 * Netherlands – 167 * Spain – 166 * Singapore – 160

POPULATION TOTALS FOR CUMBRIA

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1801 173,017 —

1811 193,139 +1.11%

1821 225,555 +1.56%

1831 242,320 +0.72%

1841 255,603 +0.54%

1851 274,957 +0.73%

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1861 320,257 +1.54%

1871 365,556 +1.33%

1881 410,856 +1.18%

1891 434,867 +0.57%

1901 437,364 +0.06%

1911 440,485 +0.07%

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1921 441,483 +0.02%

1931 442,693 +0.03%

1941 456,833 +0.31%

1951 471,897 +0.32%

1961 473,706 +0.04%

1971 475,669 +0.04%

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1981 471,693 −0.08%

1991 489,191 +0.36%

2001 487,607 −0.03%

2011 499,900 +0.25%

2014 499,800 −0.01%

Pre-1974 statistics were gathered from local government areas that are now comprised by Cumbria Source: Great Britain Historical GIS .

SETTLEMENTS

Main article: List of places in Cumbria

The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.

ADMINISTRATION BOROUGH/DISTRICT CENTRE OF ADMINISTRATION

OTHER TOWNS, VILLAGES AND SETTLEMENTS

Allerdale Workington

Aspatria Cockermouth Harrington Keswick Maryport
Maryport
Silloth
Silloth
Wigton
Wigton

Barrow-in-Furness Barrow-in-Furness

Askam and Ireleth
Askam and Ireleth
Dalton-in- Furness Walney Island

Carlisle Carlisle

Brampton Dalston Longtown

Copeland Whitehaven
Whitehaven

Arlecdon and Frizington Cleator Moor Egremont Millom
Millom
St Bees
St Bees

Eden Penrith

Alston Appleby-in- Westmorland Kirkby Stephen Shap
Shap
Kirkoswald

South Lakeland
South Lakeland
Kendal

Ambleside Bowness-on- Windermere
Windermere
Coniston Grasmere
Grasmere
Hawkshead Kirkby Lonsdale
Kirkby Lonsdale
Milnthorpe
Milnthorpe
Sedbergh
Sedbergh
Ulverston
Ulverston
Windermere
Windermere

TOWN AND CITY TWINNINGS

SETTLEMENT DISTRICT TWINNED SETTLEMENT

Carlisle Carlisle Flensburg
Flensburg
, Germany Słupsk
Słupsk
, Poland
Poland

Cockermouth Allerdale Marvejols
Marvejols
, France

Dalton-in-Furness Barrow-in-Furness Dalton, Pennsylvania , United States

Kendal South Lakeland Killarney
Killarney
, Ireland Rinteln
Rinteln
, Germany
Germany

Penrith Eden Penrith, New South Wales
Wales
, Australia

Sedbergh South Lakeland Zreče , Slovenia

Ulverston South Lakeland Albert , France

Whitehaven Copeland Kozloduy , Bulgaria
Bulgaria

Windermere South Lakeland Diessen am Ammersee , Germany

Workington Allerdale Selm , Germany Val-de-Reuil , France
France

SYMBOLS AND COUNTY EMBLEMS

The arms of Cumbria County Council were granted by the College of Arms on 10 October 1974. The arms represent the areas from which the new county council's area was put together; the shield's green border has Parnassus flowers representing Cumberland
Cumberland
interspersed with roses; red for Lancashire
Lancashire
(the Furness district) on white for Yorkshire ( Sedbergh
Sedbergh
is from the West Riding ). The crest is a ram's head crest, found in the arms both of Westmorland County Council and Barrow County Borough, with Cumberland's Parnassus flowers again. The supporters are the legendary Dacre Bull (Cumberland) and a red dragon, redolent of Cumbria's Brittonic origin.(Appleby in Westmorland ). They stand on a base compartment representing Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
(in Cumberland), crossed with two red bars (from the Westmorland arms).

The county council motto "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" is Latin , from Psalm 121; ("I shall lift up mine eyes unto the hills").

The county flag of Cumbria
Cumbria
is a banner of arms of Cumbria
Cumbria
County Council.

SPORT

Brunton Park , the home of Carlisle United Craven Park , home of Barrow Raiders

FOOTBALL

Carlisle United are the only professional football team in Cumbria and currently play in League Two (4th Tier in the English football pyramid). They attract support from across Cumbria
Cumbria
and beyond, with many Cumbrian "ex-pats" travelling to see their games, both home and away. Home attendances are usually 3,000 to 4,000 and the away support is often 1,000 to 2,000. This is one of the highest proportions of away-home support in England.

Barrow and Workington A.F.C —who are always known locally as "the reds"—are well-supported non-league teams, having both been relegated from the Football League in the 1970s, with Barrow being one of the best supported non-league football teams in England. Recently Workington A.F.C have made a rapid rise up the non league ladder and in 2007/08 competed with Barrow in the Conference North (Tier 6). Barrow were then promoted to the Blue Square Premier (Tier 5) in 2007/08.

RUGBY LEAGUE

Rugby league
Rugby league
is a very popular sport in South and West Cumbria. Barrow , Whitehaven
Whitehaven
and Workington play in the Rugby League National Leagues and Carlisle in the Rugby League Conference
Rugby League Conference
. Amateur teams; Wath Brow Hornets, Askam , Egremont Rangers , Kells , and Millom
Millom
play in the National Conference .

RUGBY UNION

Rugby union
Rugby union
is popular in the east of the county with teams such as Furness RUFC & Hawcoat Park RUFC (South Cumbria), Workington RUFC (West Cumbria), Carlisle RUFC, Aspatria RUFC , Wigton
Wigton
RUFC, Kendal RUFC , Kirkby Lonsdale
Kirkby Lonsdale
RUFC, Keswick RUFC, Cockermouth RUFC, Upper Eden RUFC and Penrith RUFC .

CRICKET

Cumberland
Cumberland
County Cricket
Cricket
Club is one of the cricket clubs that constitute the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure. The club, based in Carlisle , competes in the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy . The club also play some home matches in Workington , as well as other locations.

Cumbrian club cricket teams play in the North Lancashire
Lancashire
and Cumbria League .

OTHER

UPPIES AND DOWNIES Main article: Uppies and Downies

Workington is home to the ball game known as Uppies and Downies, a traditional version of football, with its origins in Medieval football or an even earlier form. Players from outside Workington do take part, especially fellow West Cumbrians from Whitehaven
Whitehaven
and Maryport
Maryport
.

WRESTLING Main article: Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland wrestling

Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland wrestling is an ancient and well-practised tradition in the county with a strong resemblance to Scottish Backhold .

In the 21st century Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland wrestling along with other aspects of Lakeland culture are practised at the Grasmere
Grasmere
Sports and Show, an annual meeting held every year since 1852 on the August Bank Holiday .

The origin of this form of wrestling is a matter of debate, with some describing it as having evolved from Norse wrestling brought over by Viking invaders, while other historians associate it with the Cornish and Gouren
Gouren
styles indicating that it may have developed out of a longer-standing Celtic tradition.

AMERICAN FOOTBALL Cumbria
Cumbria
is home to the Walney Terriers and the Carlisle Border Reivers , which are rival amateur American Football teams, despite a relatively low level of interest in the sport throughout the county.

KARTING Cumbria
Cumbria
Kart Racing Club is based at the Lakeland Circuit, Rowrah , between Cockermouth and Egremont . The track is currently a venue for rounds of both major UK national karting championships . Formula One world champions Lewis Hamilton
Lewis Hamilton
and Jenson Button
Jenson Button
both raced karts at Rowrah many times in the formative stages of their motor sport careers , while other F1 drivers, past and present, to have competed there include Johnny Herbert , Anthony Davidson , Allan McNish
Allan McNish
, Ralph Firman , Paul di Resta
Paul di Resta
and David Coulthard , who hailed from just over the nearby Anglo-Scottish border
Anglo-Scottish border
and regarded Rowrah as his home circuit, becoming Cumbria
Cumbria
Kart Racing Club Champion in 1985 in succession to McNish (di Resta also taking the CKRC title subsequently) .

MEDIA

Two evening newspapers are published daily in Cumbria. The News and Star focuses largely on Carlisle and the surrounding areas of north and west Cumbria, and the North-West Evening Mail is based in Barrow-in-Furness and covers news from across Furness and the South Lakes. The Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland Herald and The Westmorland Gazette are weekly newspapers based in Penrith and Kendal respectively.

Due to the size of Cumbria
Cumbria
the county spans two television zones: BBC North East and Cumbria
Cumbria
and ITV Tyne Tees ">

KEY

Abbey/Priory/Cathedral

Accessible open space

Amusement/Theme Park

Castle

Country Park

English Heritage
English Heritage

Forestry Commission

Heritage railway

Historic House

Museum (free/not free)

National Trust

Theatre

Zoo

Furness Abbey Lake Windermere
Windermere
Thirlmere
Thirlmere

* Abbot Hall Art Gallery * Appleby Castle
Appleby Castle
* Appleby Horse Fair ( Gypsy
Gypsy
fair) * Armitt Museum and Library , Ambleside * Bassenthwaite Lake * Bewcastle * Black Combe * Blackwell * Brantwood * Brough Castle * Brougham Castle * Brougham Hall
Brougham Hall
* Broughton in Furness * Brougham Castle * Buttermere * Cartmel Priory * Carlisle Castle
Carlisle Castle
* Carlisle Cathedral
Carlisle Cathedral
* Castlerigg Stone Circle
Castlerigg Stone Circle
* Church of St Olaf, Wasdale * Wainwright's Coast to Coast Walk * Cockermouth , "Gem" Town * Coniston Water * Crummock Water * Cumbria Coastal Way
Cumbria Coastal Way
long distance footpath * Cumbria Way long distance footpath * Dales Way long distance footpath * Dalton Castle
Dalton Castle
* Derwent Water * Dock Museum * Dove Cottage
Dove Cottage
* Egremont Castle
Egremont Castle
* Eden Valley Railway
Eden Valley Railway
* Ennerdale Water * Eskdale * Fell Foot Park * Firbank Fell * Fisher Tarn Reservoir * Furness * Furness Abbey * Grange-Over-Sands
Grange-Over-Sands
* Haig Colliery Mining Museum * Harrison Stickle * Hadrian\'s Wall * Hartley Castle * Haweswater * Hawkshead Grammar School Museum * Hill Top * Hoad Monument * Hodbarrow Nature Reserve

* Holker Hall * Kendal Castle * Kentmere * Killington Reservoir * Kirkby Lonsdale
Kirkby Lonsdale
* Lakeside & Haverthwaite Railway * Langwathby railway station * Windermere
Windermere
* Lakeland Wildlife Oasis * Lanercost Priory
Lanercost Priory
* Laurel & Hardy Museum * Levens Hall
Levens Hall
* Millom
Millom
* Millom
Millom
Folk Museum * Muncaster Castle
Muncaster Castle
* Museum of Lakeland Life * National Nature Reserves in Cumbria * Pennine Way long distance footpath * Penrith Castle
Penrith Castle
* Piel Island * Quaker tapestry * RAF Millom
Millom
Museum * Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway – heritage railway * Rey Cross * Rheged * Rydal Water * Sea to Sea Cycle Route * Seathwaite Tarn * Sellafield Nuclear Reprocessing Facility * Silecroft * Silloth
Silloth
on Solway * Sizergh Castle -webkit-column-width: 16em; column-width: 16em;">

* Richard Abbot * Abraham Acton * Jack Adams * Aim * Sir John Barrow * Derrick Bird * Bill Birkett * Norman Birkett * Chris Bonington * British Sea Power
British Sea Power
* Melvyn Bragg
Melvyn Bragg
* Baron Campbell-Savours * Donald Campbell
Donald Campbell
* Thomas Cape * Fletcher Christian
Fletcher Christian
* Lady Anne Clifford * Samuel Taylor Coleridge * Glenn Cornick * Mark Cueto
Mark Cueto
* Wayne Curtis * John Dalton
John Dalton
* Thomas DeQuincey * Steve Dixon * Brian Donnelly * Troy Donockley
Troy Donockley
* Francis Dunnery * Margaret Fell * Sheila Fell * Anna Ford * Douglas Ferreira * Kathleen Ferrier
Kathleen Ferrier
* George MacDonald Fraser * Norman Gifford * Edmund Grindal * Ade Gardner * Sarah Hall * Willie Horne * Francis Howgill * Emlyn Hughes * Thomas Henry Ismay * Maurice Flitcroft * Harry Hadley * Brad Kavanagh * Nigel Kneale * Phil Jackson * Stuart Lancaster * Nella Last * Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
* Jimmy Lewthwaite * Hugh Lowther, 5th Earl of Lonsdale * Ian McDonald * Frank McPherson * Christine McVie
Christine McVie
* Vic Metcalfe * Dave Myers * Joss Naylor * Norman Nicholson * Saint Ninian
Saint Ninian
* Catherine Parr
Catherine Parr
* Baron Peart * John Peel * Jack Pelter * Beatrix Potter * Peter Purves
Peter Purves
* Sir James Ramsden * Dame Stella Rimington * Eric Robson * George Romney * Thomas Round * Adam Roynon * John Ruskin * Helen Skelton
Helen Skelton
* Montagu Slater * Richard T. Slone * James Alexander Smith * Robert Southey
Robert Southey
* Lord Soulsby * Constance Spry
Constance Spry
* Gary Stevens * Stuart Stockdale * Karen Taylor * Edward Troughton * Keith Tyson * Josefina de Vasconcellos * Alfred Wainwright
Alfred Wainwright
* Eric Wallace * William Whitelaw * John Wilkinson * Len Wilkinson * Malcolm Wilson * Christopher Wordsworth * Dorothy Wordsworth
Dorothy Wordsworth
* William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth

*

Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
*

Beatrix Potter *

William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Europe portal * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal * England
England
portal * North West England
England
portal * Cumbria
Cumbria
portal

* Anglo-Scottish border
Anglo-Scottish border
* Cumbria County Council

* Cumbrian dialect
Cumbrian dialect

* Barrovian
Barrovian

* Cumbric
Cumbric
language * Cumbrian toponymy * Etymology of Cumbrian Place Names * Healthcare in Cumbria * List of Cumbria-related topics * List of High Sheriffs of Cumbria
Cumbria
* List of Lord Lieutenants of Cumbria
Cumbria
* Cumbria Constabulary * Cumbria Police and Crime Commissioner * Outline of England
England
* Rose Castle
Rose Castle

REFERENCES

* ^ " Cumbria
Cumbria
2017/18". High Sheriffs Association. Retrieved 8 June 2017. * ^ "Online Etymological Dictionary \'\'Cymric\'\'". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 25 September 2010. * ^ Davies, John (2007) . A History of Wales. London: Penguin Books. pp. 68–69. * ^ "County council votes to pursue a single council for Cumbria". Retrieved 24 February 2007. * ^ "Cumbrian employers supporting staff after multiple shooting". Personneltoday. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ "Port of Silloth". Associated British Ports Holdings. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ " BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Barrow". BAE Systems. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ "Port of Barrow". Associated British Ports Holdings. Retrieved 18 June 2011. * ^ " Kimberly-Clark
Kimberly-Clark
Barrow". Kimberly-Clark. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ " James Fisher & Sons Barrow". James Fisher & Sons. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ " Stollers Barrow". Stollers. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ " Pirelli
Pirelli
Carlisle". Pirelli. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ "Carr\'s Carlisle". Carr's. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ "Stobart Carlisle". Stobart. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ " Nestlé
Nestlé
Carlisle". ukbusinesspark. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ "Sellafield". Sellafield. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ "Center Parcs". Center Parcs. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ " GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
Ulverston". GlaxoSmithKline. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ "Lakeland Windermere". Lakeland. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ "Heinz Kendal". Applegate. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ A B C D " Lake District National Park". Lake District National Park. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ " Lake District National Park". Cumbria
Cumbria
Tourism. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ "About Us - Lake District Wildlife Park". Retrieved 14 March 2017. * ^ A B Components may not sum to totals due to rounding * ^ A B includes hunting and forestry * ^ A B includes energy and construction * ^ A B includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured * ^ "Current Estimates – Population Estimates by Ethnic Group Mid-2009 (experimental)". Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011. * ^ "Table 1.3: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, April 2009 to March 2010". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011. * ^ A Vision of Britain through time , Cumbria
Cumbria
Modern (post 1974) County: Total Population, retrieved 10 January 2010 * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-19. * ^ Jovchev, Stanimir. "Побратимени градове". Retrieved 14 March 2017. * ^ A B Cumbria County Council (Civic Heraldry) accessed 24 January 2010 * ^ " Cumbria
Cumbria
floods remembered at Department for Communities and Local Government - GOV.UK". Retrieved 14 March 2017. * ^ " Cumbria
Cumbria
flag flying outside Eland House". Department for Communities and Local Government. 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2013. * ^ " Uppies and Downies website". Retrieved 25 June 2009. * ^ Origins of Mass ball Games. Retrieved 25 June 2009. * ^ "Times and Star". Retrieved 25 June 2009. * ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Retrieved 24 February 2007. * ^ "Amateur Wrestling". Retrieved 24 February 2007. * ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Retrieved 24 February 2007.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to Cumbria
Cumbria
at Wikimedia Commons * Cumbria
Cumbria
travel guide from