Cumbria (English: /ˈkʌmbriə/ KUM-bree-ə; locally [ˈkʊmbɾiə] KUUM-bree-ə) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county, and the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the southwestern tip of the county.

The county of Cumbria consists of six districts (Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland), and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, with 73.4 people per km2 (190/sq mi).

Cumbria is the third largest county in England by area, and is bounded to the north by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders, to the west by the Irish Sea, to the south by Lancashire, to the southeast by North Yorkshire, and to the east by County Durham and Northumberland.

Cumbria is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District, and Lake District National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered one of England's most outstanding areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists, writers, and musicians. A large area of the south east of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines AONB. Much of Cumbria is mountainous, and it contains every peak in England over 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level, with Scafell Pike at 3,209 feet (978 m) being the highest point of England. An upland, coastal, and rural area, Cumbria's history is characterised by invasions, migration, and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots. Notable historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, Hardknott Roman Fort, Brough Castle and Hadrian's Wall, also a World Heritage Site.


The Castlerigg stone circle dates from the late Neolithic age and was constructed by some of the earliest inhabitants of Cumbria

The county of Cumbria was created in April 1974 through an amalgamation of the previous counties of Cumberland and Westmorland and small parts of Lancashire (the part known as Lancashire over the sands) and West Riding of Yorkshire, which was also abolished at that time.

At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain (c. AD 410) the inhabitants of Cumberland were Cumbric-speaking native Romano-Britons who were probably descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii (sometimes considered to be a sub-tribe of the Brigantes) that the Roman Empire had conquered in about AD 85. Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria. The names Cumbria, Cymru (the native Welsh name for Wales), Cambria, and Cumberland are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Common Brittonic, which originally meant "compatriots".[2][3]

In the Early Middle Ages, Cumberland formed the core of the Brittonic kingdom of Rheged. Known as part of 'The Old North', Yr Hen Ogledd in Welsh history. For the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Celtic Kingdom of Strathclyde and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Most of modern-day Cumbria was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland at the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066 and thus was excluded from the Domesday Book survey of 1086. In 1092 Cumberland was invaded by William II and incorporated into England. Nevertheless, the region was dominated by the many Anglo-Scottish Wars of the latter Middle Ages and early modern period and the associated Border Reivers who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region. There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, and two further sieges during the Jacobite risings.

After the Jacobite Risings of the eighteenth century, Cumberland became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England, the Industrial Revolution caused a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington, Millom and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steel mills develop, with Barrow also developing a significant shipbuilding industry. Kendal, Keswick and Carlisle all became mill towns, with textiles, pencils and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The early nineteenth century saw the county gain fame as the Lake Poets and other artists of the Romantic movement, such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, lived among, and were inspired by, the lakes and mountains of the region. Later, the children's writer Beatrix Potter also wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death. In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951, which remains the largest National Park in England and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county.

The county of Cumbria was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the Cumberland County Borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire, usually referred to as "Lancashire North of the Sands", (including the county borough of Barrow-in-Furness) and, from the West Riding of Yorkshire, the Sedbergh Rural District. It is governed by Cumbria County Council.

Local papers The Westmorland Gazette and Cumberland and Westmorland Herald continue to use the name of their historic county. Other publications, such as local government promotional material, describe the area as "Cumbria", as do the Lake District National Park Authority and most visitors.

Celtic Revival

In Recent times this area has been subject to a minor Celtic revival with many Cumbrian natives stitching up the old Cumbric language with Remains of the language and Old Welsh

Cumbric Phrasebook


Topographic map of Cumbria

Cumbria is the most northwesterly county of England. The northernmost and southernmost points in Cumbria are just west of Deadwater, Northumberland and South Walney respectively. Kirkby Stephen (close to Tan Hill, North Yorkshire) and St Bees Head are the most easterly and westerly points of the county. Most of Cumbria is mountainous, with the majority of the county being situated in the Lake District while the Pennines, consisting of the Yorkshire Dales and the North Pennines, lie at the eastern and south-east areas of the county. At 978 metres (3,209 ft) Scafell Pike is the highest point in Cumbria and in England. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England.

The Lancaster Canal runs from Preston into South Cumbria and is partly in use. The Ulverston Canal which once reached to Morecambe Bay is maintained although it was closed in 1945. The Solway Coast and Arnside and Silverdale AONB's lie in the lowland areas of the county, to the north and south respectively.

Boundaries and divisions

Cumbria is bordered by the English counties of Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders.

The boundaries are along the Irish Sea to Morecambe Bay in the west, and along the Pennines to the east. Cumbria's northern boundary stretches from the Solway Firth from the Solway Plain eastward along the border with Scotland to Northumberland.

It is made up of six districts: Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland. For many administrative purposes Cumbria is divided into three areas — East, West and South. East consists of the districts of Carlisle and Eden, West consists of Allerdale and Copeland, and South consists of Lakeland and Barrow.

In January 2007, Cumbria County Council voted in favour of an official bid to scrap the current two-tier system of county and district councils in favour of a new unitary Cumbria Council, to be submitted for consideration to the Department for Communities and Local Government.[4] This was then rejected.

The county returns six Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, representing the constituencies of Carlisle, Penrith & The Border, Workington, Copeland, Westmorland and Lonsdale and Barrow & Furness.


BAE Systems Submarine Solutions in Barrow-in-Furness has a workforce of around 5,000 people.

Many large companies and organisations are based in Cumbria. The county council itself employs around 17,000 individuals, while the largest private employer in Cumbria, the Sellafield nuclear processing site, has a workforce of 10,000.[5] Below is a list of some of the county's largest companies and employers (excluding services such as Cumbria Constabulary, Cumbria Fire and Rescue and the NHS in Cumbria), categorised by district:

  • Allerdale
    • Associated British Ports Holdings own and operate the port of Silloth.[6]
    • Plastic film maker Innovia Films has its headquarters and only UK factory in Wigton, which employs almost 1,000 people and is Wigton's biggest employer.
    • U.S.-based multinational bed maker Sealy Beds UK (which is part of the Silentnight Group) own a factory at Aspatria, which employs around 300 people.
    • Flour miller Carr's Milling Industries PLC, which is based in Carlisle, owns a large factory at Silloth which makes the 'Carr's Breadmaker' range and Carr's farm feeds.
    • Window maker WestPort Windows owns a large factory at Maryport, which makes UPVC windows and doors.
    • World rally company M-Sport has its headquarters at Dovenby Hall, near Cockermouth.
    • Swedish paper maker Iggesund Paperboard has its only UK factory at Siddick, near Workington
    • U.S.-based Eastman Chemical Company has a factory at Siddick, near Workington. It makes plastic bottle pellets (PBP) and products for the smoking industry and employs 100 people.
    • Steel company Tata Steel owns a cast products plant at Workington, which employs 300 people.
    • Carlisle-based haulage group The Stobart Group owns a large haulage depot at Workington, which was once owned by truck and bus maker Leyland.
    • Packaging company Amcor owns the formerAlcan packaging plant at Salterbeck, Workington.
    • James Walker Ltd, an international high-performance sealing manufacturer, has a large factory at Cockermouth.
  • Barrow-in-Furness
  • Carlisle
    • Close to 1,000 people work in one of only two Pirelli tyre plants in the UK.[12]
    • Carr's is a successful foodstuff and agricultural brand that was established in 1831 in Carlisle.[13]
    • The Stobart Group, which is one of the UK's largest haulage companies, is headquartered in Carlisle.[14]
    • Nestlé operates a factory on the outskirts of Carlisle.[15]
    • Cavaghan & Gray is a food manufacturing business based in Carlisle and a significant employer in the city.
    • Crown Holdings owns two factories in Carlisle, locally known as 'Metal Box'. Both factories make products for the beverage industry.
  • Copeland
    • As stated above, Sellafield is the largest private employer in the county; many West Cumbrians have links to the site.[16]
  • Eden
    • Center Parcs owns a large resort in Whinfell Forest near Penrith.[17]
    • Carlisle based haulage giant, The Stobart Group, owns a large transport depot at Penrith
    • National sawdust, animal bedding and bark suppliers A W Jenkinson is headquartered at Clifton, Penrith
  • South Lakeland


The entrance to Whinlatter Forest Park

The largest and most widespread industry in Cumbria is tourism. The Lake District National Park alone receives some 15.8 million visitors every year.[21] Despite this, fewer than 50,000 people reside permanently within the Lake District – mostly in Ambleside, Bowness-on-Windermere, Coniston, Keswick, Grasmere and Windermere.[21] Over 36,000 Cumbrians are employed in the tourism industry which adds £1.1 billion a year to the county's economy. The Lake District and county as a whole attracts visitors from across the UK,[21] Europe, North America and the Far East (particularly Japan).[21] The tables below show the twenty most-visited attractions in Cumbria in 2009 (please note that not all visitor attractions provided data to Cumbria Tourism who collated the list. Notable examples are Furness Abbey, the Lakes Aquarium and South Lakes Safari Zoo, the latter of which would almost certainly rank within the top five).[22]

Rank Attraction Location Visitors
1 Windermere Lake Cruises Bowness-on-Windermere 1,313,807
2 Rheged Penrith 439,568
3 Ullswater Steamers Glenridding 348,000
4 Whinlatter Forest Park and Visitor Centre Whinlatter 252,762
5 Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery Carlisle 251,808
6 Grizedale Forest Park and Visitor Centre Grizedale 175,033
7 Carlisle Cathedral Carlisle 166,141
8 Lake District Visitor Centre Brockhole Windermere 135,539
9 Hill Top Hawkshead 103,682
10 Sizergh Castle Sizergh Castle 90,063
Rank Attraction Location Visitors
11 Cumberland Pencil Museum Keswick 80,100
12 Muncaster Castle Ravenglass 78,474
13 Dock Museum Barrow-in-Furness 73,239
14 The Beacon Whitehaven 71,602
15 Holker Hall Cartmel 58,060
16 Carlisle Castle Carlisle 56,957
17 Beatrix Potter Gallery Hawkshead 47,244
18 Lake District Wildlife Park[23] Bassenthwaite 45,559
19 The Homes of Football Ambleside 49,661
20 Cartmel Priory Cartmel 43,672

Economic output

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of East Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[24] Agriculture[25] Industry[26] Services[27]
1995 2,679 148 902 1,629
2000 2,843 120 809 1,914
2003 3,388 129 924 2,335

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of West Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[24] Agriculture[25] Industry[26] Services[27]
1995 2,246 63 1,294 888
2000 2,415 53 1,212 1,150
2003 2,870 60 1,420 1,390


Constituency 1983 1987 1992 1997 2001 2005 2010 2015 2017
Barrow and Furness  CON  Cecil Franks  LAB  John Hutton  LAB  John Woodcock
Carlisle  LAB  Ronald Lewis  LAB  Eric Martlew  CON  John Stevenson
Copeland  LAB  Jack Cunningham  LAB  Jamie Reed  CON  Trudy Harrison
Penrith and The Border  CON  David Maclean  CON  Rory Stewart
Westmorland and Lonsdale  CON  Michael Jopling  CON  Tim Collins  LD  Tim Farron
Workington  LAB  Dale Campbell-Savours  LAB  Tony Cunningham  LAB  Sue Hayman
General Election 2015: Cumbria
Conservative Labour Liberal Democrats UKIP Green Independent Turnout
Overall Number of seats as of 2017
Labour Conservative Liberal Democrats UKIP Green Independent
2 3 1 0 0 0


The University of Cumbria's Fusehill Campus in Carlisle

Although Cumbria has a comprehensive system almost in toto, it has one state grammar school in Penrith. There are 42 state secondary schools and 10 independent schools. The more rural secondary schools tend to have sixth forms (although in Barrow-in-Furness district, no schools have sixth forms) and this is the same for three schools in Allerdale and South Lakeland, and one in the other districts. Chetwynde is also the only school in Barrow to educate children from nursery all the way to sixth form level.

Colleges of further education in Cumbria include Carlisle College, Furness College which includes Barrow Sixth Form College, Kendal College and Lakes College West Cumbria.

The University of Cumbria is one of the UK's newest universities having been established in 2007, it is at present the only university in Cumbria and has campuses across the county, together with Lancaster and London.


The M6 is the only motorway that runs through Cumbria. Kendal and Penrith are amongst its primary destinations before it terminates just north of Carlisle. Major A roads within Cumbria include:

  • A6 (Luton, Bedfordshire to Carlisle via Kendal and Penrith)
  • A66 (Workington to Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire via Keswick, Penrith and Brough)
  • A69 (Carlisle to Newcastle upon Tyne via Brampton and Hexham)
  • A590 (M6 Junction 36 to Barrow-in-Furness via Ulverston)
  • A591 (Sizergh to Bothel via Kendal, Windermere, Ambleside, Grasmere and Keswick)
  • A592 (M6 Junction 40 to Newby Bridge via Penrith, Windermere and Bowness-on-Windermere)
  • A595 (Carlisle to Dalton-in-Furness via Whitehaven and Workington)
  • A596 (Carlisle to Workington)

Several bus companies run services in Cumbria serving the main towns and villages in the county, with some services running to neighbouring areas such as Lancaster. Stagecoach North West is the largest; it has depots in Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Kendal and Workington. Stagecoach's flagship X6 route connects Barrow-in-Furness and Kendal in south Cumbria.

There are only two airports in the county: Carlisle Lake District and Barrow/Walney Island. Both airports formerly served scheduled passenger flights and both are proposing expansions and renovations to handle domestic and European flights in the near future. The nearest international airports to south Cumbria are Blackpool, Manchester and Liverpool John Lennon. North Cumbria is closer to Newcastle, Glasgow Prestwick and Glasgow International. Barrow-in-Furness is one of the country's largest shipbuilding centres, but the Port of Barrow is only minor, operated by Associated British Ports alongside the Port of Silloth in Allerdale. There are no ferry links from any port or harbour along the Cumbria coast.

The busiest railway stations in Cumbria are Carlisle, Barrow-in-Furness, Penrith and Oxenholme Lake District. The West Coast Main Line runs for 399 miles (642 km) through the Cumbria countryside adjacent to the M6 motorway. The Cumbrian Coast Line connects Barrow-in-Furness to Carlisle and is a vital link in the west of the county. Other railways in Cumbria are the Windermere Branch Line, most of the Furness Line and much of the Settle-Carlisle Railway.


Cumbria's largest settlement and only city is Carlisle, in the north of the county. The largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, in the south, is slightly smaller. The county's population is largely rural: it has the second-lowest population density among English counties, and has only five towns with a population of over 20,000. Cumbria is also one of the country's most ethnically homogeneous counties, with 95.1% of the population categorised as White British (around 470,900 of the 495,000 Cumbrians).[28] However, the larger towns have ethnic makeups that are closer to the national average. The 2001 census indicated that Christianity was the religion with the most adherents in the county.

2010 ONS estimates placed the number of foreign-born (non-United Kingdom) people living in Cumbria at around 14,000 and foreign nationals at 6,000.[29] The 2001 UK Census showed the following most common countries of birth for Cumbrians that year:

  •  England – 454,137
  •  Scotland – 16,628
  •  Wales – 3,471
  •  Northern Ireland – 2,289
  •  Germany – 1,438
  •  Republic of Ireland – 1,359
  •  South Africa – 603
  •  Canada – 581
  •  Australia – 531
  •  United States – 493
  •  India – 476
  •  Hong Kong – 417
  •  Italy – 249
  •  New Zealand – 241
  •  France – 197
  •  Poland – 193
  •  Cyprus – 174
  •  Netherlands – 167
  •  Spain – 166
  •  Singapore – 160
Population totals for Cumbria
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1801 173,017 —    
1811 193,139 +1.11%
1821 225,555 +1.56%
1831 242,320 +0.72%
1841 255,603 +0.54%
1851 274,957 +0.73%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1861 320,257 +1.54%
1871 365,556 +1.33%
1881 410,856 +1.18%
1891 434,867 +0.57%
1901 437,364 +0.06%
1911 440,485 +0.07%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1921 441,483 +0.02%
1931 442,693 +0.03%
1941 456,833 +0.31%
1951 471,897 +0.32%
1961 473,706 +0.04%
1971 475,669 +0.04%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1981 471,693 −0.08%
1991 489,191 +0.36%
2001 487,607 −0.03%
2011 499,900 +0.25%
2014 499,800 −0.01%
Pre-1974 statistics were gathered from local government areas that are now comprised by Cumbria
Source: Great Britain Historical GIS.[30][31]


The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.

Administration borough/district Centre of administration Other towns, villages and settlements
Allerdale UK locator map.svg
Workington WorkingtonClock.jpg Aspatria
Barrow-in-Furness UK locator map.svg
Barrow-in-Furness Duke Street, Barrow-in-Furness.jpg Askam and Ireleth
Walney Island
Carlisle UK locator map.svg
Carlisle ScotchStreet-Carlisle.jpg Brampton
Copeland UK locator map.svg
Whitehaven Whitehaven - geograph.org.uk - 19798.jpg Arlecdon and Frizington
Cleator Moor
St Bees
Eden UK locator map.svg
Penrith Market Square, Penrith.jpg Alston
Kirkby Stephen
South Lakeland UK locator map.svg
South Lakeland
Kendal Busy street - geograph.org.uk - 406931.jpg Ambleside
Kirkby Lonsdale

Town and city twinnings

Settlement District Twinned settlement
Carlisle Carlisle Germany Flensburg, Germany
Poland Słupsk, Poland
Cockermouth Allerdale France Marvejols, France
Dalton-in-Furness Barrow-in-Furness United States Dalton, Pennsylvania, United States
Kendal South Lakeland Republic of Ireland Killarney, Ireland
Germany Rinteln, Germany
Penrith Eden Australia Penrith, New South Wales, Australia
Sedbergh South Lakeland Slovenia Zreče, Slovenia
Ulverston South Lakeland France Albert, France
Whitehaven Copeland Bulgaria Kozloduy, Bulgaria[32]
Windermere South Lakeland Germany Diessen am Ammersee, Germany
Workington Allerdale Germany Selm, Germany
France Val-de-Reuil, France

Symbols and county emblems

The arms of Cumbria County Council were granted by the College of Arms on 10 October 1974. The arms represent the areas from which the new county council's area was put together; the shield's green border has Parnassus flowers representing Cumberland interspersed with roses; red for Lancashire (the Furness district) on white for Yorkshire (Sedbergh is from the West Riding). The crest is a ram's head crest, found in the arms both of Westmorland County Council and Barrow County Borough, with Cumberland's Parnassus flowers again. The supporters are the legendary Dacre Bull (Cumberland) and a red dragon, redolent of Cumbria's Brittonic origin.(Appleby in Westmorland). They stand on a base compartment representing Hadrian's Wall (in Cumberland), crossed with two red bars (from the Westmorland arms).[33]

The county council motto "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" is Latin, from Psalm 121; ("I shall lift up mine eyes unto the hills").[33]

The county flag of Cumbria is a banner of arms of Cumbria County Council.[34][35]


Brunton Park, the home of Carlisle United
Craven Park, home of Barrow Raiders


Carlisle United are the only professional football team in Cumbria and currently play in League Two (4th Tier in the English football pyramid). They attract support from across Cumbria and beyond, with many Cumbrian "ex-pats" travelling to see their games, both home and away.[citation needed] Home attendances are usually 3,000 to 4,000 and the away support is often 1,000 to 2,000. This is one of the highest proportions of away-home support in England.[citation needed]

Barrow and Workington A.F.C—who are always known locally as "the reds"—are well-supported non-league teams,[citation needed] having both been relegated from the Football League in the 1970s, with Barrow being one of the best supported non-league football teams in England. Recently Workington A.F.C have made a rapid rise up the non league ladder and in 2007/08 competed with Barrow in the Conference North (Tier 6). Barrow were then promoted to the Blue Square Premier (Tier 5) in 2007/08.

Rugby league

Rugby league is a very popular sport in South and West Cumbria. Barrow, Whitehaven and Workington play in the Rugby League National Leagues and Carlisle in the Rugby League Conference. Amateur teams; Wath Brow Hornets, Askam, Egremont Rangers, Kells, and Millom play in the National Conference.

Rugby union

Rugby union is popular in the east of the county with teams such as Furness RUFC & Hawcoat Park RUFC (South Cumbria), Workington RUFC (West Cumbria), Carlisle RUFC, Aspatria RUFC, Wigton RUFC, Kendal RUFC, Kirkby Lonsdale RUFC, Keswick RUFC, Cockermouth RUFC, Upper Eden RUFC and Penrith RUFC.


Cumberland County Cricket Club is one of the cricket clubs that constitute the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure. The club, based in Carlisle, competes in the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy. The club also play some home matches in Workington, as well as other locations.

Cumbrian club cricket teams play in the North Lancashire and Cumbria League.


Uppies and Downies

Workington is home to the ball game known as Uppies and Downies,[36] a traditional version of football, with its origins in Medieval football or an even earlier form.[37] Players from outside Workington do take part, especially fellow West Cumbrians from Whitehaven and Maryport.[38]


Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling is an ancient and well-practised tradition in the county with a strong resemblance to Scottish Backhold.

In the 21st century Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling along with other aspects of Lakeland culture are practised at the Grasmere Sports and Show, an annual meeting held every year since 1852 on the August Bank Holiday.

The origin of this form of wrestling is a matter of debate, with some describing it as having evolved from Norse wrestling brought over by Viking invaders,[39] while other historians associate it with the Cornish and Gouren styles[40] indicating that it may have developed out of a longer-standing Celtic tradition.[41]

American Football
Cumbria is home to the Walney Terriers and the Carlisle Border Reivers, which are rival amateur American Football teams, despite a relatively low level of interest in the sport throughout the county.

Cumbria Kart Racing Club is based at the Lakeland Circuit, Rowrah, between Cockermouth and Egremont [1]. The track is currently a venue for rounds of both major UK national karting championships [2]. Formula One world champions Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button both raced karts at Rowrah many times in the formative stages of their motor sport careers [3], while other F1 drivers, past and present, to have competed there include Johnny Herbert, Anthony Davidson, Allan McNish, Ralph Firman, Paul di Resta and David Coulthard, who hailed from just over the nearby Anglo-Scottish border and regarded Rowrah as his home circuit, becoming Cumbria Kart Racing Club Champion in 1985 in succession to McNish (di Resta also taking the CKRC title subsequently) [4].

Dialect Influences


  • Cumbria – Celtic speaking until Viking invasion, if not later (Cymry) [42]
  • little English spoken in Cumberland, relatively sparsely populated until 12th/13th century [43]
  • Successful routing of indigenous Celtic peoples to Western highlands of Cumbria, Wales and Cornwall by the invading Angles and Saxons, with little linguistic consequence, apart from scattering of residual place-names
  • North- West – possibility of direct influence from Irish Gaelic across Irish Sea via Whitehaven until 10th century [44]
  • Celtic influence/ kingdoms may have confirmed perception of difference between the North/South [42]
  • linguistic interaction between Celts and English underrated, effectively Celtic influence marked the beginnings of a linguistic divide between English and other West-Germanic dialects [45]
  • Lexis - Celtic influence left specifically on the sound pattern of sheep-scoring numerals of Cumbrian and West Yorkshire [42]
  • Loss of inflections may be explained by contact with Celtic tribes and inter-marriage [42]

Anglo-Saxon/ Viking

  • Earliest Anglo-Saxon settlements in the east of England. Took over 200 years to establish a frontier in the west where the displaced British had settled[46]
  • Morphology – Old Northumbrian (little evidence) signs of loss of inflexions long before southern dialects below the Humber, precede Viking settlements and dialect contact situation [42]

Scandinavian/ Norse/ Dane

  • Lack of extent of Old English written evidence [42]
  • Main attacks/ raids on the North-East coast at Lindisfarne and Jarrow in 793/ 794. [42]
  • Settlement patterns (Danes) contributed to emerging differences over time between Northumberland. Durham and Yorkshire dialects [42]
  • Norwegian settlers via Ireland to Isle of Man, Mersey estuary (901) and the Cumbrian/ Lancashire coasts (900-50) – dialectal differences (Danes/ Norwegians) often lumped together in standard histories – MUST have confirmed emerging dialectal differences east and west of the Pennines [42]
  • Danelaw – land of north and east of land ruled under Danish law and Danish customs (978-1016) [42]
  • Scandinavian influences vocabulary common words gradually diffused/ entered word stock (borrowings) which survive in regional use – ‘fell’ hillside, ‘lug’ ear, ‘loup’ jump, ‘aye’ yes
  • Influence on grammatical structure - Middle English texts reveal that present participle form ‘-and’, and possible that use of ‘at’ and ‘as’ as relative pronouns from Cumbria to East Yorkshire [42]
  • phonetically /g/, /k/ and cluster /sk/ have a northern/ Norse pronunciation /j/, /ʧ/ and /ʃ/ which are West Saxon – hard vs. soft consonants of North/South dialects – e.g. ‘give/ rigg’ ridge, ‘skrike’ shriek, ‘kist’ chest and ‘ik’ [42]
  • ‘interdialect forms’ in Danelaw area (diffuse > focussed situation) - no clear idea about what language they were speaking – mixture of Old English and Norse e.g. ‘she’ (3rd person pronoun) is claimed by both languages [42] [47]
  • ‘bilingualism was norm in areas under Danelaw (plausible) [42]
  • Norse runic inscriptions survive from 11th century in Cumbria therefore may only been after Norman Conquest that ‘Norse as a living language died out’ [48]
  • Norse surviving longest in closed communities, as in the Lake District [49]


  • Jewell (1994: 20) - Northumbria retained relative independence until 13th century – effective government of North by Normans ‘petered-out’ at Lake District and North of Tees (not recorded in Domesday Book) [50]
  • Carlisle retaken by Scots in 1136 [42]


  • Early 10th century - all of the north-west of England occupied by a mixture of newcomers from Ireland of mixed Vikings and Gaelic. The grip from Northumbrian on the former territory of Rheged was that of Britons of Strathcylde reoccupied south-west Scotland and north-west England as far south as Derwent and Penrith [51] which was held until Carlisle retaken by Scots in 1136 [42]
  • Cumbric perhaps survived but faded into the early 12th century throughout Cumbria [52]
  • Cumbric score – counting sheep – Welsh correspondence Welsh (un, dau, tri) – Cumberland (yan, tyan, tethera) – Westmorland (yan, than, teddera) – Lancashire (yan, taen, tedderte) – West Yorkshire (yain, tain, eddero) [51] survived 7-8 century’s after the language itself had died – Brittonic origin
  • Not one single complete phrase in cambric survives, evidence to suggest strong literary tradition, probably oral, some of this early material is known in a Welsh version[51]


Two evening newspapers are published daily in Cumbria. The News and Star focuses largely on Carlisle and the surrounding areas of north and west Cumbria, and the North-West Evening Mail is based in Barrow-in-Furness and covers news from across Furness and the South Lakes. The Cumberland and Westmorland Herald and The Westmorland Gazette are weekly newspapers based in Penrith and Kendal respectively.

Due to the size of Cumbria the county spans two television zones: BBC North East and Cumbria and ITV Tyne Tees & Border in the north and BBC North West and ITV Granada in the south. The Bay, CFM Radio and Lakeland Radio are the most popular local radio stations throughout the county, with BBC Radio Cumbria being the only station that is aimed at Cumbria as a whole.

Guillermo del Toro's Crimson Peak (2015) is probably set in Cumbria. In one scene, the protagonist discovers the motto "Ad montes oculos levavi" over the fireplace of her manor.

The Australian-New Zealand feature film, The Navigator: A Medieval Odyssey (1988), is set in Cumbria during the onset of the Black Death in 14th Century Europe.

Places of interest

AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
Accessible open space Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country Park Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry Commission
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic house Historic House
Museum (free)
Museum (free/not free)
National Trust National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo
Furness Abbey
Lake Windermere

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ "Cumbria 2017/18". High Sheriffs Association. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  2. ^ "Cymric". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  3. ^ Davies, John (2007) [1990]. A History of Wales. Penguin Books. pp. 68–69. 
  4. ^ "County council votes to pursue a single council for Cumbria". Retrieved 24 February 2007. 
  5. ^ "Cumbrian employers supporting staff after multiple shooting". Personneltoday. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  6. ^ "Port of Silloth". Associated British Ports Holdings. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  7. ^ "BAE Systems Barrow". BAE Systems. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  8. ^ "Port of Barrow". Associated British Ports Holdings. Retrieved 18 June 2011. 
  9. ^ "Kimberly-Clark Barrow". Kimberly-Clark. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  10. ^ "James Fisher & Sons Barrow". James Fisher & Sons. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  11. ^ "Stollers Barrow". Stollers. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  12. ^ "Pirelli Carlisle". Pirelli. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  13. ^ "Carr's Carlisle". Carr's. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  14. ^ "Stobart Carlisle". Stobart. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  15. ^ "Nestlé Carlisle". ukbusinesspark. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  16. ^ "Sellafield". Sellafield. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  17. ^ "Center Parcs". Center Parcs. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  18. ^ "GlaxoSmithKline Ulverston". GlaxoSmithKline. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  19. ^ "Lakeland Windermere". Lakeland. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  20. ^ "Heinz Kendal". Applegate. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  21. ^ a b c d "Lake District National Park". Lake District National Park. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  22. ^ "Lake District National Park". Cumbria Tourism. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  23. ^ "About Us - Lake District Wildlife Park". Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  24. ^ a b Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  25. ^ a b includes hunting and forestry
  26. ^ a b includes energy and construction
  27. ^ a b includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  28. ^ "Current Estimates – Population Estimates by Ethnic Group Mid-2009 (experimental)". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  29. ^ "Table 1.3: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, April 2009 to March 2010". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  30. ^ A Vision of Britain through time, Cumbria Modern (post 1974) County: Total Population, retrieved 10 January 2010 
  31. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-19. 
  32. ^ Jovchev, Stanimir. "Побратимени градове". Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  33. ^ a b Cumbria County Council (Civic Heraldry) accessed 24 January 2010
  34. ^ "Cumbria floods remembered at Department for Communities and Local Government - GOV.UK". Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  35. ^ "Cumbria flag flying outside Eland House". Department for Communities and Local Government. 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  36. ^ "Uppies and Downies website". Retrieved 25 June 2009. [dead link]
  37. ^ Origins of Mass ball Games. Retrieved 25 June 2009. 
  38. ^ "Times and Star". Retrieved 25 June 2009. 
  39. ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Retrieved 24 February 2007. 
  40. ^ "Amateur Wrestling". Retrieved 24 February 2007. 
  41. ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Retrieved 24 February 2007. 
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Wales, Katie (2006). Northern English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 62. 
  43. ^ Strang, Barbara M, H (1970). A History of English. London: Methuen. p. 256. 
  44. ^ Elmes, Simon (1999). The Routes of English. London: BBC. p. 27. 
  45. ^ Tristram, Hildegard (2000). "Introduction: languages in contact; layer cake model or otherwise?". The Celtic Languages. 2: 1–8. 
  46. ^ Leith, Dick (1983). A Social History of English. London: Routledge. p. 106. 
  47. ^ Trudgill, Peter (1974). "Linguistic change and diffusion: description and explanation in sociolinguistic dialect geography". Language in Society. 3: 215–2246. doi:10.1017/s0047404500004358. 
  48. ^ Werner, Otmar (1991). "The incorporation of Old Norse pronouns in Middle English: suppletion by loan". Language Contact in the British Isles: 369–401. 
  49. ^ Gordon, E, V (1923). "Scandinavian Influence in Yorkshire Dialects". Transactions of the Yorkshire Dialect Society. 4: 5–22. 
  50. ^ Jewell, Helen (1994). The North-South Divide: The Origins of Northern Consciousness in England. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 20. 
  51. ^ a b c Price, G (2000). Languages in Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 125. 
  52. ^ Jackson, Peter (1989). Maps of Meaning: An Introduction to Cultural Geography. London: Unwin Hyman. p. 72. 

External links

  • Media related to Cumbria at Wikimedia Commons
  • Cumbria travel guide from Wikivoyage