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Continuum Fingerboard
The CONTINUUM FINGERBOARD or HAKEN CONTINUUM is a music performance controller and synthesizer developed by Lippold Haken, a professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois , and sold by Haken Audio, located in Champaign, Illinois . The Continuum Fingerboard
Continuum Fingerboard
was initially developed from 1983 to 1998 at the CERL Sound Group at the University of Illinois, to control sound-producing algorithms on the Platypus audio signal processor and the Kyma/Capybara workstation. In 1999, the first Continuum Fingerboard
Continuum Fingerboard
was commercially sold. Until 2008, the Continuum Fingerboard
Continuum Fingerboard
provided IEEE-1394 (FireWire) connections to control a Kyma sound design workstation , as well as MIDI
MIDI
connections to control a MIDI
MIDI
synthesizer module. More recently, the Continuum Fingerboard
Continuum Fingerboard
generates audio directly in addition to providing MIDI
MIDI
connections for MIDI
MIDI
modules, software synthesizers , and Kyma (the IEEE-1394 connection that was present on earlier models has been removed). An external control voltage generator permits control of analog modular synthesizers
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Manufacturing
MANUFACTURING is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines , tools , chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech , but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft , household appliances , furniture , sports equipment or automobiles , or sold to wholesalers , who in turn sell them to retailers , who then sell them to end users and consumers . Manufacturing engineering or MANUFACTURING PROCESS are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term _fabrication_ instead. The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design
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Polyphony And Monophony In Instruments
POLYPHONY is a property of musical instruments that means that they can play multiple notes simultaneously. Instruments featuring polyphony are said to be POLYPHONIC. Instruments that are not capable of polyphony are monophonic or paraphonic . CONTENTS* 1 Synthesizer
Synthesizer
* 1.1 Monophonic * 1.2 Duophonic * 1.3 Polyphonic * 1.3.1 Synths using octave divider * 1.3.2 Synths using voice allocation * 1.4 Number of voices * 1.5 Note priority of synthesizer * 2 Other instruments * 2.1 Keyboard instruments * 2.1.1 Acoustic keyboard instruments * 2.1.2 Electric keyboard instruments * 2.2 Stringed instruments * 2.2.1 Classical instruments * 2.2.2 Newer instruments * 2.3 Wind instruments * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography SYNTHESIZER Typical MONOPHONIC SYNTHESIZER: Moog Minimoog
Minimoog
Typical DUOPHONIC SYNTHESIZER: ARP Odyssey See also: Synthesizer
Synthesizer
MONOPHONICA MONOPHONIC SYNTHESIZER or monosynth is a synthesizer that produces only one note at a time, making it smaller and cheaper than a polyphonic synthesizer which can play multiple notes at once. This does not necessarily refer to a synthesizer with a single oscillator ; The Minimoog
Minimoog
, for example, has three oscillators which are settable in arbitrary intervals , but it can play only one note at a time
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MIDI
MIDI
MIDI
(/ˈmɪdi/ ; short for MUSICAL INSTRUMENT DIGITAL INTERFACE) is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol , digital interface and electrical connectors and allows a wide variety of electronic musical instruments , computers and other related music and audio devices to connect and communicate with one another. A single MIDI
MIDI
link can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device. MIDI
MIDI
carries event messages that specify notation , pitch and velocity (loudness or softness), control signals for parameters such as volume, vibrato , audio panning from left to right, cues in theatre, and clock signals that set and synchronize tempo between multiple devices. These messages are sent via a MIDI
MIDI
cable to other devices where they control sound generation and other features. A simple example of a MIDI
MIDI
setup is the use of a MIDI controller such as an electronic musical keyboard to trigger sounds created by a sound module , which is in turn plugged into a keyboard amplifier and speaker. This MIDI
MIDI
data can also be recorded into a hardware or software device called a sequencer , which can be used to edit the data and to play it back at a later time
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AES3
AES3
AES3
(also known as AES/EBU) is a standard for the exchange of digital audio signals between professional audio devices. AES3
AES3
was jointly developed by the Audio Engineering Society (AES) and the European Broadcasting Union (EBU). An AES3
AES3
signal can carry two channels of PCM audio over several transmission media including balanced lines , unbalanced lines , and optical fiber . The standard was first published in 1985 and has been revised in 1992 and 2003. AES3
AES3
has been incorporated into the International Electrotechnical Commission 's standard IEC 60958 , and is available in a consumer-grade variant known as S/PDIF
S/PDIF

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MIDI Controller
A MIDI
MIDI
CONTROLLER is any hardware or software that generates and transmits Musical Instrument Digital Interface ( MIDI
MIDI
) data to electronic or digital MIDI-enabled devices, typically to trigger sounds and control parameters of an electronic music performance. The most commonly used MIDI
MIDI
controller is the electronic musical keyboard MIDI
MIDI
controller, which has keys that can be pressed. When the keys are pressed, the MIDI
MIDI
controller sends MIDI
MIDI
data about the pitch of the note, the velocity and duration, which can be used to trigger sounds from a MIDI-compatible sound module or synthesizer . Other common MIDI
MIDI
controllers are wind controllers , which a musician blows into and presses keys to transmit MIDI
MIDI
data, and electronic drums , which are typically struck with sticks to create MIDI
MIDI
data. MIDI
MIDI
controllers do not usually create or produce musical sounds by themselves. MIDI
MIDI
controllers typically have some type of interface which the performer presses, strikes, blows or touches
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Synthesizer
A SYNTHESIZER (often abbreviated as SYNTH, also spelled SYNTHESISER) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones . Synthesizers may either imitate instruments like piano , Hammond organ
Hammond organ
, flute , vocals ; natural sounds like ocean waves, etc.; or generate new electronic timbres . They are often played with a musical keyboard , but they can be controlled via a variety of other input devices, including music sequencers , instrument controllers , fingerboards , guitar synthesizers , wind controllers , and electronic drums . Synthesizers without built-in controllers are often called _sound modules _, and are controlled via USB
USB
, MIDI
MIDI
or CV/gate using a controller device, often a MIDI
MIDI
keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals (sounds). Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis , additive synthesis , wavetable synthesis , frequency modulation synthesis , phase distortion synthesis , physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis
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University Of Illinois At Urbana–Champaign
The UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN (also known as U OF I, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, UIUC {deprecated }, or simply ILLINOIS) is a public research-intensive university in the U.S. state of Illinois
Illinois
. Founded in 1867 as a land-grant institution in the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana (together known as Champaign-Urbana ), it is the flagship campus of the University of Illinois system and a founding member of the Big Ten Conference . The University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified as a R1 Doctoral Research University under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education , which denotes the highest research activity. In fiscal year 2015, total research expenditures at Illinois
Illinois
totaled $640 million. The campus library system possesses the second-largest university library in the United States after Harvard University . The university also hosts the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and is home to the fastest supercomputer on a university campus. The university comprises 17 colleges that offer more than 150 programs of study
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Champaign, Illinois
CHAMPAIGN (English: /ˌʃæmˈpeɪn/ ) is a city in Champaign County, Illinois
Illinois
, United States. The city is 135 miles (217 km) south of Chicago
Chicago
, 124 miles (200 km) west of Indianapolis
Indianapolis
, Indiana
Indiana
, and 178 mi (286 km) northeast of St. Louis
St. Louis
, Missouri
Missouri
. The United States Census Bureau estimates the city was home to 84,513 people as of July 1, 2014. Champaign is the tenth-most populous city in Illinois, and the state's fourth-most populous city outside of the Chicago metropolitan area . Champaign is notable for sharing the campus of the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign with its sister city of Urbana . Champaign is also the home of Parkland College which serves about 18,000 students during the academic year. Due to the university and a number of well known technology startup companies , it is often referred to as the hub, or a significant landmark, of the Silicon Prairie . Champaign houses offices for Sony
Sony
, and for the Fortune 500 companies Abbott , Archer Daniels Midland
Archer Daniels Midland
(ADM), Caterpillar , Deere max-width:353px"> The Cattle Bank building is the oldest surviving building in Champaign, constructed in 1858
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PLATO (computer System)
PLATO (PROGRAMMED LOGIC FOR AUTOMATIC TEACHING OPERATIONS) was the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system. Starting in 1960, it ran on the University of Illinois ' ILLIAC I
ILLIAC I
computer. By the late 1970s, it supported several thousand graphics terminals distributed worldwide, running on nearly a dozen different networked mainframe computers . Many modern concepts in multi-user computing were developed on PLATO, including forums, message boards, online testing, e-mail , chat rooms, picture languages , instant messaging , remote screen sharing , and multiplayer games . PLATO was designed and built by the University of Illinois and functioned for four decades, offering coursework (elementary through university) to UIUC students, local schools, and other universities. Courses were taught in a range of subjects, including Latin, chemistry, education and primary mathematics. The system included a number of features useful for pedagogy, including text overlaying graphics, contextual assessment of free-text answers, depending on the inclusion of keywords, and feedback designed to respond to alternative answers. Rights to market PLATO as a commercial product were licensed by Control Data Corporation (CDC), the manufacturer on whose mainframe computers the PLATO IV system was built
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IEEE 1394 Interface
IEEE 1394 is an interface standard for a serial bus for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer. It was developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s by Apple , which called it FIREWIRE. The 1394 interface is also known by the brand I.LINK (Sony ), and LYNX ( Texas Instruments ). The copper cable it uses in its most common implementation can be up to 4.5 metres (15 ft) long. Power is also carried over this cable allowing devices with moderate power requirements to operate without a separate power supply. FireWire
FireWire
is also available in wireless, Cat 5
Cat 5
, fiber optic , and coaxial versions. The 1394 interface is comparable to USB
USB
though USB
USB
requires a master controller and has greater market share. IEEE 1394 replaced parallel SCSI
SCSI
in many applications, because of lower implementation costs and a simplified, more adaptable cabling system
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Kyma (sound Design Language)
KYMA is a visual programming language for sound design used by musicians, researchers, and sound designers. In Kyma, a user programs a multiprocessor DSP by graphically connecting modules on the screen of a Macintosh or Windows computer. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 History * 3 Selected filmography * 4 Selected discography * 5 References * 6 External links BACKGROUNDKyma has characteristics of both object-oriented and functional programming languages. The basic unit in Kyma is the "Sound" object, not the "note" of traditional music notation. A Sound is defined as: i) a Sound atom ii) a unary transform T(s) where s is a Sound iii) an n-ary transform T(s1, s2,.., sn), where s1,s2,..sn are Sounds A Sound atom is a source of audio (like a microphone input or a noise generator), a unary transform modifies its argument (for example, a LowpassFilter might take a running average of its input), and an n-ary transform combines two or more Sounds (a Mixer, for example, is defined as the sum of its inputs). HISTORYThe first version of Kyma, which computed digital audio samples on a Macintosh 512K was written in the Smalltalk
Smalltalk
programming language in 1986 by Carla Scaletti in Champaign, Illinois
Champaign, Illinois

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Synthesizer (musical Instrument)
A SYNTHESIZER (often abbreviated as SYNTH, also spelled SYNTHESISER) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones . Synthesizers may either imitate instruments like piano , Hammond organ , flute , vocals ; natural sounds like ocean waves, etc.; or generate new electronic timbres . They are often played with a musical keyboard , but they can be controlled via a variety of other input devices, including music sequencers , instrument controllers , fingerboards , guitar synthesizers , wind controllers , and electronic drums . Synthesizers without built-in controllers are often called sound modules , and are controlled via USB
USB
, MIDI
MIDI
or CV/gate using a controller device, often a MIDI
MIDI
keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals (sounds). Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis , additive synthesis , wavetable synthesis , frequency modulation synthesis , phase distortion synthesis , physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis
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Software Synthesizers
A SOFTWARE SYNTHESIZER, also known as a SOFTSYNTH, is a computer program, or plug-in that generates digital audio , usually for music. Computer software that can create sounds or music is not new, but advances in processing speed are allowing softsynths to accomplish the same tasks that previously required dedicated hardware. Softsynths are usually cheaper and more portable than dedicated hardware, and easier to interface with other music software such as music sequencers . CONTENTS* 1 Types of software synthesizers * 1.1 Software instrument * 2 Plugin compatibility * 3 Comparison of software synthesizers and digital hardware synthesizers * 4 Typical software synthesizers * 4.1 Linux
Linux
synthesizers * 4.2 Microsoft
Microsoft
GS Wavetable SW Synth * 4.3 Mobile Synthesizer
Synthesizer
* 5 List of some of the earlier softsynths for PC * 6 See also * 7 External links * 8 References TYPES OF SOFTWARE SYNTHESIZERS Bristol Mini soft-synth See also: Synthesizer
Synthesizer
§ Sound synthesis Softsynths can cover a range of synthesis methods, including subtractive synthesis (including analog modeling , a subtype), FM synthesis (including the similar phase distortion synthesis ), physical modelling synthesis , additive synthesis (including the related resynthesis ), and sample-based synthesis
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CV/Gate
CV/GATE (an abbreviation of control voltage/gate) is an analog method of controlling synthesizers , drum machines and other similar equipment with external sequencers . The control voltage typically controls pitch and the gate signal controls note on-off. This method was widely used in the epoch of analog modular synthesizers and CV/Gate music sequencers , since the introduction of the Roland MC-8 Microcomposer in 1977 through to the 1980s, when it was eventually superseded by the MIDI
MIDI
protocol (introduced in 1983), which is more feature-rich , easier to configure reliably, and more readily supports polyphony . The advent of digital synthesizers also made it possible to store and retrieve voice "patches" - eliminating patch cables and (for the most part) control voltages. However, numerous companies – including Doepfer , who designed a modular system for Kraftwerk in 1992 Buchla
Buchla
, MOTM , Analogue Systems , and others continue to manufacture modular synthesizers that are increasingly popular and rely primarily on analog CV/gate signals for communication. Additionally, some recent non-modular synthesizers (such as the Alesis Andromeda ) and many effects devices (including the Moogerfooger pedals by Moog as well as many guitar oriented devices) include CV/gate connectivity
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Modular Synthesizer
The MODULAR SYNTHESIZER is a type of synthesizer , which exists in both physical and virtual forms, consisting of separate specialized modules. The specialization is usually in the module being designed to allow the modification or processing of one parameter of a signal, such as the frequency (oscillator), spectrum (filter), or amplitude (amplifier). The modules are not hardwired together but are connected together with patch cords, a matrix patching system, or switches to create a patch . The voltages from the modules may function as (audio) signals, control voltages, or logic conditions. A Moog 55 (c. 1972 to c. 1981) A Doepfer A-100 (1995 to present) EMS Synthi (VCS 3) II Latest Fénix CONTENTS * 1 Types of modules * 2 Function of modules * 3 Historic manufacturers * 4 Modern manufacturers of modular hardware synthesizers (alphabetical) * 5 Technical specifications * 5.1 Form Factors * 5.2 Electrical * 6 Modular software synthesizers (alphabetical) * 7 Semi-modular synthesizers * 7.1 Matrix Systems * 7.2 Patch Override Systems * 7.3 Electronically Reconfigurable Systems * 8 Hybrid modular synthesizers * 9 See also * 10 External links * 11 References * 12 Further reading TYPES OF MODULESThere are two basic kinds of modules: source and processor. The basic modular functions are: signal, control, logic/timing. Outputs are an electric voltage
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