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YouTube
YouTube
is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. The service was created by three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—in February 2005. Google
Google
bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube
YouTube
now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries. YouTube
YouTube
allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to favorites, report, comment on videos, and subscribe to other users. It offers a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show
TV show
clips, music videos, short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, and other content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube
YouTube
is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Vevo, and Hulu
Hulu
offer some of their material via YouTube
YouTube
as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed potentially inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old. YouTube
YouTube
earns advertising revenue from Google
Google
AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Red, a subscription service offering ad-free access to the website and access to exclusive content made in partnership with existing users. As of February 2017[update], there are more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube
YouTube
each minute, and one billion hours of content are watched on YouTube
YouTube
every day. As of August 2017[update], the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world by Alexa Internet, a web traffic analysis company.[1]

Contents

1 Company history 2 Features

2.1 Video
Video
technology

2.1.1 Playback 2.1.2 Uploading 2.1.3 Quality and formats 2.1.4 Live streaming 2.1.5 3D videos 2.1.6 360° videos

2.2 User features

2.2.1 Community

2.3 Content accessibility

2.3.1 Platforms

2.4 Localization 2.5 YouTube
YouTube
Red 2.6 YouTube
YouTube
TV 2.7 YouTube
YouTube
Go 2.8 April Fools

3 Social impact 4 Revenue

4.1 Advertisement partnerships 4.2 Partnership with video creators 4.3 Revenue to copyright holders

5 Community policy

5.1 Copyrighted material

5.1.1 Content ID

5.2 Controversial content

5.2.1 Child protection

5.3 User comments 5.4 View counts

6 Censorship and filtering 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Notes 8.2 Further reading

9 External links

Company history Main article: History of YouTube

From left to right: Chad Hurley, Steve Chen
Steve Chen
and Jawed Karim

YouTube
YouTube
was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen
Steve Chen
and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal.[6] Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.[7] According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube
YouTube
during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible".[8] Karim said the inspiration for YouTube
YouTube
first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, and later from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not easily find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.[9] Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube
YouTube
was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not.[8][10]

The YouTube
YouTube
logo from launch until 2011, featuring its former slogan Broadcast Yourself

YouTube
YouTube
began as a venture capital-funded technology startup, primarily from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital between November 2005 and April 2006.[11] YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California.[12] The domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, and the website was developed over the subsequent months.[13] The first YouTube
YouTube
video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim
Jawed Karim
at the San Diego Zoo.[14] The video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, and can still be viewed on the site.[15] YouTube
YouTube
offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005. The first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho
Ronaldinho
in November 2005.[16][17] Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital
Sequoia Capital
in November, the site launched officially on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day.[18][19] The site grew rapidly and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day.[20] According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube
YouTube
is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010.[21] In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute,[22] which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012,[22] 100 hours every minute in May 2013,[23][24] 300 hours every minute in November 2014,[25] and 400 hours every minute in February 2017.[26][27] The site has 800 million unique users a month.[28] It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube
YouTube
consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet
Internet
in 2000.[29] According to third-party web analytics providers, Alexa and SimilarWeb, YouTube
YouTube
is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016[update]; SimilarWeb
SimilarWeb
also lists YouTube
YouTube
as the top TV and video website globally, attracting more than 15 billion visitors per month.[1][30][31] The choice of the name www.youtube.com led to problems for a similarly named website, www.utube.com. The site's owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube
YouTube
in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website to www.utubeonline.com.[32][33] In October 2006, Google
Google
Inc. announced that it had acquired YouTube
YouTube
for $1.65 billion in Google stock,[34][35] and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006.[36][37]

YouTube's headquarters in San Bruno, California

In March 2010, YouTube
YouTube
began free streaming of certain content, including 60 cricket matches of the Indian Premier League. According to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event.[38] On March 31, 2010, the YouTube
YouTube
website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface and increasing the time users spend on the site. Google
Google
product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented: "We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter."[39] In May 2010, YouTube
YouTube
videos were watched more than two billion times per day.[40][41][42] This increased to three billion in May 2011,[43][44][45] and four billion in January 2012.[22][46] In February 2017, one billion hours of YouTube
YouTube
was watched every day.[47][48][49] In October 2010, Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as chief executive officer of YouTube
YouTube
to take an advisory role, and that Salar Kamangar
Salar Kamangar
would take over as head of the company.[50] In April 2011, James Zern, a YouTube
YouTube
software engineer, revealed that 30% of videos accounted for 99% of views on the site.[51] In November 2011, the Google+
Google+
social networking site was integrated directly with YouTube
YouTube
and the Chrome web browser, allowing YouTube
YouTube
videos to be viewed from within the Google+
Google+
interface.[52]

YouTube
YouTube
logo from 2015 until 2017

In December 2011, YouTube
YouTube
launched a new version of the site interface, with the video channels displayed in a central column on the home page, similar to the news feeds of social networking sites.[53] At the same time, a new version of the YouTube
YouTube
logo was introduced with a darker shade of red, the first change in design since October 2006.[54] In May 2013, YouTube
YouTube
launched a pilot program to begin offering some content providers the ability to charge $0.99 per month or more for certain channels, but the vast majority of its videos would remain free to view.[55][56] In February 2014, Susan Wojcicki was appointed CEO of YouTube.[57] In February 2015, YouTube
YouTube
released a secondary mobile app known as YouTube
YouTube
Kids. The app is designed to provide an experience optimized for children. It features a simplified user interface, curated selections of channels featuring age-approriate content (including existing channels and entertainment brands), and parental control features.[58] Later on August 26, 2015, YouTube
YouTube
launched YouTube Gaming—a video gaming-oriented sub-site and app that is intended to compete with the Amazon.com-owned Twitch.tv.[59] 2015 also saw the announcement of a premium YouTube
YouTube
service titled YouTube
YouTube
Red, which provides users with both ad-free content as well as the ability to download videos among other features.[60] On August 10, 2015, Google announced that it was creating a new company, Alphabet, to act as the holding company for Google, with the change in financial reporting to begin in the fourth quarter of 2015. YouTube
YouTube
remains as a subsidiary of Google.[61] In January 2016, YouTube
YouTube
expanded its headquarters in San Bruno by purchasing an office park for $215 million. The complex has 554,000 square feet of space and can house up to 2,800 employees.[62] On August 29, 2017, YouTube
YouTube
launched a new logo, typeface, color scheme and other changes to the appearance of its desktop and mobile app.[63] On April 3, 2018, a shooting took place at YouTube
YouTube
headquarters in San Bruno, California.[64] Features

It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Features of YouTube. (Discuss) (February 2018)

Video
Video
technology YouTube
YouTube
primarily uses the VP9
VP9
and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
video formats, and the Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP protocol. Playback Previously, viewing YouTube
YouTube
videos on a personal computer required the Adobe Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player
plug-in to be installed in the browser.[65] In January 2010, YouTube
YouTube
launched an experimental version of the site that used the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5
HTML5
standard.[66] This allowed videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player
or any other plug-in to be installed.[67][68] The YouTube
YouTube
site had a page that allowed supported browsers to opt into the HTML5
HTML5
trial. Only browsers that supported HTML5
HTML5
Video
Video
using the MP4 (with H.264 video) or WebM
WebM
(with VP8
VP8
video) formats could play the videos, and not all videos on the site were available.[69][70] On January 27, 2015, YouTube
YouTube
announced that HTML5
HTML5
would be the default playback method on supported browsers. YouTube
YouTube
used to employ Adobe Dynamic Streaming for Flash,[71] but with the switch to HTML5
HTML5
video now streams video using Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH), an adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution optimizing the bitrate and quality for the available network.[72] Uploading All YouTube
YouTube
users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration. Users who have a good track record of complying with the site's Community Guidelines may be offered the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, as well as live streams, which requires verifying the account, normally through a mobile phone.[73][74] When YouTube
YouTube
was launched in 2005, it was possible to upload longer videos, but a ten-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube
YouTube
found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films.[75] The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010.[76] In the past, it was possible to upload videos longer than 12 hours. Videos can be at most 128 GB in size.[73] Video
Video
captions are made using speech recognition technology when uploaded. Such captioning is usually not perfectly accurate, so YouTube
YouTube
provides several options for manually entering the captions for greater accuracy.[77] YouTube
YouTube
accepts videos that are uploaded in most container formats, including AVI, MP4, MPEG-PS, QuickTime File
File
Format and FLV. It supports WebM
WebM
files and also 3GP, allowing videos to be uploaded from mobile phones.[78] Videos with progressive scanning or interlaced scanning can be uploaded, but for the best video quality, YouTube
YouTube
suggests interlaced videos be deinterlaced before uploading. All the video formats on YouTube
YouTube
use progressive scanning.[79] YouTube's statistics shows that interlaced videos are still being uploaded to YouTube, and there is no sign of that actually dwindling. YouTube
YouTube
attributes this to uploading of made-for-TV content.[80] Quality and formats YouTube
YouTube
originally offered videos at only one quality level, displayed at a resolution of 320×240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec (a variant of H.263),[81][82] with mono MP3 audio.[83] In June 2007, YouTube
YouTube
added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on mobile phones.[84] In March 2008, a high-quality mode was added, which increased the resolution to 480×360 pixels.[85] In November 2008, 720p
720p
HD support was added. At the time of the 720p
720p
launch, the YouTube player was changed from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9.[86] With this new feature, YouTube
YouTube
began a switchover to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as its default video compression format. In November 2009, 1080p
1080p
HD support was added. In July 2010, YouTube
YouTube
announced that it had launched a range of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolution of up to 4096×3072 pixels.[87][88] In June 2015, support for 8K resolution was added, with the videos playing at 7680×4320 pixels.[89] In November 2016, support for HDR video was added which can be encoded with Hybrid Log-Gamma
Hybrid Log-Gamma
(HLG) or Perceptual Quantizer (PQ).[90] HDR video can be encoded with the Rec. 2020
Rec. 2020
color space.[91] In June 2014, YouTube
YouTube
introduced videos playing at 60 frames per second, in order to reproduce video games with a frame rate comparable to high-end graphics cards.[92][93] The videos play back at a resolution of 720p
720p
or higher.[94] YouTube
YouTube
videos are available in a range of quality levels. The former names of standard quality (SQ), high quality (HQ), and high definition (HD) have been replaced by numerical values representing the vertical resolution of the video. The default video stream is encoded in the VP9
VP9
format with stereo Opus audio; if VP9/ WebM
WebM
is not supported in the browser/device or the browser's user agent reports Windows XP, then H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
video with stereo AAC audio is used instead.[95] Live streaming YouTube
YouTube
carried out early experiments with live streaming, including a concert by U2 in 2009, and a question-and-answer session with US President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in February 2010.[96] These tests had relied on technology from 3rd-party partners, but in September 2010, YouTube began testing its own live streaming infrastructure.[97] In April 2011, YouTube
YouTube
announced the rollout of YouTube
YouTube
Live, with a portal page at the URL "www.youtube.com/live". The creation of live streams was initially limited to select partners.[98] It was used for real-time broadcasting of events such as the 2012 Olympics in London.[99] In October 2012, more than 8 million people watched Felix Baumgartner's jump from the edge of space as a live stream on YouTube.[100] In May 2013, creation of live streams was opened to verified users with at least 1,000 subscribers; in August of that year the number was reduced to 100 subscribers,[101] and in December the limit was removed.[102] In February 2017, a live streaming feature was introduced to the official YouTube
YouTube
mobile app. Live streaming
Live streaming
via mobile was initially restricted to users with at least 10,000 subscribers,[103] but as of mid-2017 it has been reduced to 100 subscribers.[104] Live streams
Live streams
can be up to 4K resolution
4K resolution
at 60 fps, and also support 360° video.[105] 3D videos In a video posted on July 21, 2009,[106] YouTube
YouTube
software engineer Peter Bradshaw announced that YouTube
YouTube
users can now upload 3D videos. The videos can be viewed in several different ways, including the common anaglyph (cyan/red lens) method which utilizes glasses worn by the viewer to achieve the 3D effect.[107][108][109] The YouTube
YouTube
Flash player can display stereoscopic content interleaved in rows, columns or a checkerboard pattern, side-by-side or anaglyph using a red/cyan, green/magenta or blue/yellow combination. In May 2011, an HTML5 version of the YouTube
YouTube
player began supporting side-by-side 3D footage that is compatible with Nvidia 3D Vision.[110] 360° videos In January 2015, Google
Google
announced that 360° videos would be natively supported on YouTube. On March 13, 2015, YouTube
YouTube
enabled 360° videos which can be viewed from Google
Google
Cardboard, a virtual reality system. YouTube
YouTube
360 can also be viewed from all other virtual reality headsets.[111] Live streaming
Live streaming
of 360° video at up to 4K resolution
4K resolution
is also supported.[105] User features Community On September 13, 2016, YouTube
YouTube
launched a public beta of Community, a social media-based feature that allows users to post text, images (including GIFs), live videos and others in a separate "Community" tab on their channel.[112] Prior to the release, several creators had been consulted to suggest tools Community could incorporate that they would find useful; these YouTubers included Vlogbrothers, AsapScience, Lilly Singh, The Game Theorists, Karmin, The Key of Awesome, The Kloons, Peter Hollens, Rosianna Halse Rojas, Sam Tsui, Threadbanger and Vsauce3.[113] Content accessibility YouTube
YouTube
offers users the ability to view its videos on web pages outside their website. Each YouTube
YouTube
video is accompanied by a piece of HTML
HTML
that can be used to embed it on any page on the Web.[114] This functionality is often used to embed YouTube
YouTube
videos in social networking pages and blogs. Users wishing to post a video discussing, inspired by or related to another user's video are able to make a "video response". On August 27, 2013, YouTube
YouTube
announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused feature.[115] Embedding, rating, commenting and response posting can be disabled by the video owner.[116] YouTube
YouTube
does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends for them to be viewed through its website interface.[117] A small number of videos, can be downloaded as MP4 files.[118] Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube
YouTube
videos.[119] In February 2009, YouTube
YouTube
announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google
Google
Checkout.[120] In June 2012, Google sent cease and desist letters threatening legal action against several websites offering online download and conversion of YouTube videos.[121] In response, Zamzar removed the ability to download YouTube
YouTube
videos from its site.[122] Users retain copyright of their own work, but have the option to grant certain usage rights under any public copyright license they choose. Since July 2012, it has been possible to select a Creative Commons license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material.[123] Platforms Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube
YouTube
videos, either within an application or through an optimized website. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, using RTSP streaming for the video.[124] Not all of YouTube's videos are available on the mobile version of the site.[125] Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H.264, a process that took several months. YouTube
YouTube
videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TV, iPod Touch and the iPhone.[126] In July 2010, the mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5, avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls.[127] The mobile version is also available as an app for the Android platform.[128][129] In September 2012, YouTube
YouTube
launched its first app for the iPhone, following the decision to drop YouTube
YouTube
as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operating system.[130] According to GlobalWebIndex, YouTube
YouTube
was used by 35% of smartphone users between April and June 2013, making it the third-most used app.[131] A TiVo
TiVo
service update in July 2008 allowed the system to search and play YouTube
YouTube
videos.[132] In January 2009, YouTube
YouTube
launched "YouTube for TV", a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3
PlayStation 3
and Wii
Wii
video game consoles.[133][134] In June 2009, YouTube
YouTube
XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen.[135] YouTube
YouTube
is also available as an app on Xbox Live.[136] On November 15, 2012, Google
Google
launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube
YouTube
videos from the Wii
Wii
channel.[137] An app is also available for Wii
Wii
U and Nintendo
Nintendo
3DS, and videos can be viewed on the Wii
Wii
U Internet
Internet
Browser using HTML5.[138] Google
Google
made YouTube
YouTube
available on the Roku
Roku
player on December 17, 2013,[139] and, in October 2014, the Sony PlayStation 4.[140] Localization On June 19, 2007, Google
Google
CEO Eric Schmidt
Eric Schmidt
was in Paris to launch the new localization system.[141] The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 89 countries, one territory (Hong Kong) and a worldwide version.[142]

Countries with YouTube
YouTube
localization

Country Language(s) Launch date

 USA (and worldwide launch) English 000000002005-02-15-0000February 15, 2005[141]

 Brazil Portuguese 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]

 France French, and Basque 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]

 Ireland English 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]

 Italy Italian 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]

 Japan Japanese 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]

 Netherlands Dutch 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]

 Poland Polish 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]

 Spain Spanish, Galician, Catalan, and Basque 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]

 United Kingdom English 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]

 Mexico Spanish 000000002007-10-11-0000October 11, 2007[143]

 Hong Kong Chinese, and English 000000002007-10-17-0000October 17, 2007[144]

 Taiwan Chinese 000000002007-10-18-0000October 18, 2007[145]

 Australia English 000000002007-10-22-0000October 22, 2007[146]

 New Zealand English 000000002007-10-22-0000October 22, 2007[146]

 Canada French, and English 000000002007-11-06-0000November 6, 2007[147]

 Germany German 000000002007-11-08-0000November 8, 2007[148]

 Russia Russian 000000002007-11-13-0000November 13, 2007[149]

 South Korea Korean 000000002008-01-23-0000January 23, 2008[150]

 India Hindi, Bengali, English, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu 000000002008-05-07-0000May 7, 2008[151]

 Israel Hebrew 000000002008-09-16-0000September 16, 2008

 Czech Republic Czech 000000002008-10-09-0000October 9, 2008[152]

 Sweden Swedish 000000002008-10-22-0000October 22, 2008[153]

 South Africa Afrikaans, Zulu, and English 000000002010-05-17-0000May 17, 2010[141]

 Argentina Spanish 000000002010-09-08-0000September 8, 2010[154]

 Algeria French, and Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]

 Egypt Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]

 Jordan Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]

 Morocco French, and Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]

 Saudi Arabia Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]

 Tunisia French, and Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]

 Yemen Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]

 Kenya Swahili, and English 000000002011-09-01-0000September 1, 2011[156]

 Philippines Filipino, and English 000000002011-10-13-0000October 13, 2011[157]

 Singapore English, Malay, Chinese, and Tamil 000000002011-10-20-0000October 20, 2011[158]

 Belgium French, Dutch, and German 000000002011-11-16-0000November 16, 2011[141]

 Colombia Spanish 000000002011-11-30-0000November 30, 2011[159]

 Uganda English 000000002011-12-02-0000December 2, 2011[160]

 Nigeria English 000000002011-12-07-0000December 7, 2011[161]

 Chile Spanish 000000002012-01-20-0000January 20, 2012[162]

 Hungary Hungarian 000000002012-02-29-0000February 29, 2012[163]

 Malaysia Malay, and English 000000002012-03-22-0000March 22, 2012[164]

 Peru Spanish 000000002012-03-25-0000March 25, 2012[165]

 United Arab Emirates Arabic, and English 000000002012-04-01-0000April 1, 2012[166]

 Greece Greek 000000002012-05-01-0000May 1, 2012

 Indonesia Indonesian, and English 000000002012-05-17-0000May 17, 2012[167]

 Ghana English 000000002012-06-05-0000June 5, 2012[168]

 Senegal French, and English 000000002012-07-04-0000July 4, 2012[169]

 Turkey Turkish 000000002012-10-01-0000October 1, 2012[170]

 Ukraine Ukrainian 000000002012-12-13-0000December 13, 2012[171]

 Denmark Danish 000000002013-02-01-0000February 1, 2013[172]

 Finland Finnish, and Swedish 000000002013-02-01-0000February 1, 2013[173]

 Norway Norwegian 000000002013-02-01-0000February 1, 2013[174]

  Switzerland German, French, and Italian 000000002013-03-29-0000March 29, 2013[175]

 Austria German 000000002013-03-29-0000March 29, 2013[176]

 Romania Romanian 000000002013-04-18-0000April 18, 2013[177]

 Portugal Portuguese 000000002013-04-25-0000April 25, 2013[178]

 Slovakia Slovak 000000002013-04-25-0000April 25, 2013[179]

 Bahrain Arabic 000000002013-08-16-0000August 16, 2013[180]

 Kuwait Arabic 000000002013-08-16-0000August 16, 2013[180]

 Oman Arabic 000000002013-08-16-0000August 16, 2013[180]

 Qatar Arabic 000000002013-08-16-0000August 16, 2013[180]

 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

 Bulgaria Bulgarian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014[181]

 Croatia Croatian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014[182]

 Estonia Estonian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014[183]

 Latvia Latvian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014[184]

 Lithuania Lithuanian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

 Macedonia Macedonian, Serbian, and Turkish 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

 Montenegro Serbian, and Croatian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

 Serbia Serbian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

 Slovenia Slovenian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014[185]

 Thailand Thai 000000002014-04-01-0000April 1, 2014[186]

 Lebanon Arabic 000000002014-05-01-0000May 1, 2014[180]

 Puerto Rico Spanish, and English 000000002014-08-23-0000August 23, 2014

 Iceland Icelandic ?, 2014

 Luxembourg French, and German ?, 2014

 Vietnam Vietnamese 000000002014-10-01-0000October 1, 2014

 Libya Arabic 000000002015-02-01-0000February 1, 2015

 Tanzania Swahili, and English 000000002015-06-02-0000June 2, 2015

 Zimbabwe English 000000002015-06-02-0000June 2, 2015

 Azerbaijan Azerbaijani 000000002015-10-12-0000October 12, 2015[187]

 Belarus Russian 000000002015-10-12-0000October 12, 2015[187]

 Georgia Georgian 000000002015-10-12-0000October 12, 2015[187]

 Kazakhstan Kazakh 000000002015-10-12-0000October 12, 2015[187]

   Nepal Nepali 000000002016-01-12-0000January 12, 2016[188]

 Pakistan Urdu, and English 000000002016-01-12-0000January 12, 2016[189]

 Sri Lanka Sinhala, and Tamil 000000002016-01-12-0000January 12, 2016[188]

 Iraq Arabic ?, 2016[citation needed]

 Jamaica English ?, 2016[citation needed]

The YouTube
YouTube
interface suggests which local version should be chosen on the basis of the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content.[190] The interface of the YouTube
YouTube
website is available in 76 language versions, including Amharic, Albanian, Armenian, Bengali, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian and Uzbek, which do not have local channel versions.[191] Access to YouTube
YouTube
was blocked in Turkey
Turkey
between 2008 and 2010, following controversy over the posting of videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
and some material offensive to Muslims.[192][193] In October 2012, a local version of YouTube
YouTube
was launched in Turkey, with the domain youtube.com.tr. The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law.[194] In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube
YouTube
and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music
PRS for Music
led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube
YouTube
users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September 2009.[195] In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.[196] YouTube
YouTube
Red Main article: YouTube
YouTube
Red YouTube Red
YouTube Red
is YouTube's premium subscription service. It offers advertising-free streaming, access to exclusive content, background and offline video playback on mobile devices, and access to the Google Play Music "All Access" service.[197] YouTube Red
YouTube Red
was originally announced on November 12, 2014, as "Music Key", a subscription music streaming service, and was intended to integrate with and replace the existing Google
Google
Play Music "All Access" service.[198][199][200] On October 28, 2015, the service was re-launched as YouTube
YouTube
Red, offering ad-free streaming of all videos, as well as access to exclusive original content.[201][202][203] As of November 2016[update], the service has 1.5 million subscribers, with a further million on a free-trial basis.[204] As of June 2017[update], the first season of YouTube Red
YouTube Red
Originals had gotten 250 million views in total.[205] In May 2014, before Music Key service was launched, the independent music trade organization Worldwide Independent Network alleged that YouTube
YouTube
was using non-negotiable contracts with independent labels that were "undervalued" in comparison to other streaming services, and that YouTube
YouTube
would block all music content from labels who do not reach a deal to be included on the paid service. In a statement to the Financial Times
Financial Times
in June 2014, Robert Kyncl
Robert Kyncl
confirmed that YouTube would block the content of labels who do not negotiate deals to be included in the paid service "to ensure that all content on the platform is governed by its new contractual terms." Stating that 90% of labels had reached deals, he went on to say that "while we wish that we had [a] 100% success rate, we understand that is not likely an achievable goal and therefore it is our responsibility to our users and the industry to launch the enhanced music experience."[206][207][208][209] The Financial Times
Financial Times
later reported that YouTube
YouTube
had reached an aggregate deal with Merlin Network—a trade group representing over 20,000 independent labels, for their inclusion in the service. However, YouTube
YouTube
itself has not confirmed the deal.[200] On September 28, 2016, YouTube
YouTube
named Lyor Cohen, the co-founder of 300 Entertainment and former Warner Music Group
Warner Music Group
executive, the Global Head of Music.[210] In early 2018, Cohen began hinting at the possible launch of YouTube's new subscription music streaming service, a platform that would compete with other services such as Spotify
Spotify
and Apple Music.[211] The service is expected to be launched in March 2018. YouTube
YouTube
TV Main article: YouTube
YouTube
TV On February 28, 2017, in a press announcement held at YouTube
YouTube
Space Los Angeles, YouTube
YouTube
announced the launch of YouTube
YouTube
TV, an over-the-top MVPD-style subscription service that would be available for United States
United States
customers at a price of US$35 per month. Initially launching in five major markets (New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and San Francisco) on April 5, 2017,[212][213] the service offers live streams of programming from the five major broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox and NBC), as well as approximately 40 cable channels owned by the corporate parents of those networks, The Walt Disney Company, CBS
CBS
Corporation, 21st Century Fox, NBCUniversal
NBCUniversal
and Turner Broadcasting System
Turner Broadcasting System
(including among others Bravo, USA Network, Syfy, Disney Channel, CNN, Cartoon Network, E!, Fox Sports 1, Freeform, FX and ESPN). Subscribers can also receive Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus
Fox Soccer Plus
as optional add-ons for an extra fee, and can access YouTube Red
YouTube Red
original content ( YouTube TV
YouTube TV
does not include a YouTube Red
YouTube Red
subscription).[214][215] During the 2017 World
World
Series (in which it was the presenting sponsor), YouTube TV
YouTube TV
ads were placed behind the home plate. The trademarked red play button logo appeared at the center of the screen, mimicking YouTube's interface.[216] YouTube
YouTube
Go YouTube
YouTube
Go is an Android app aimed at making YouTube
YouTube
easier to access on mobile devices in emerging markets. It is distinct from the company's main Android app and allows videos to be downloaded and shared with other users. It also allows users to preview videos, share downloaded videos through Bluetooth, and offers more options for mobile data control and video resolution.[217] YouTube
YouTube
announced the project in September 2016 at an event in India.[218] It was launched in India
India
in February 2017, and expanded in November 2017 to 14 other countries, including Nigeria, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Kenya, and South Africa.[219][220] It was rolled out in 130 countries worldwide, including Brazil, Mexico, Turkey, and Iraq
Iraq
on February 1, 2018. The app is available to around 60% of the world's population.[221][222] April Fools YouTube
YouTube
featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year. In 2008, all links to videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley's music video "Never Gonna Give You Up", a prank known as "rickrolling".[223][224] The next year, when clicking on a video on the main page, the whole page turned upside down, which YouTube claimed was a "new layout".[225] In 2010, YouTube
YouTube
temporarily released a "TEXTp" mode which transformed colors in videos to random uppercase letters "in order to reduce bandwidth costs by $1 per second."[226] The next year, the site celebrated its "100th anniversary" with a range of sepia-toned silent, early 1900s-style films, including a parody of Keyboard Cat.[227] In 2012, clicking on the image of a DVD next to the site logo led to a video about a purported option to order every YouTube
YouTube
video for home delivery on DVD.[228] In 2013, YouTube teamed up with satirical newspaper company The Onion
The Onion
to claim that the video sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would announce a winner of the contest when the site went back up in 2023.[229] In 2014, YouTube
YouTube
announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming internet memes, such as "Clocking", "Kissing Dad", and "Glub Glub Water Dance".[230] The next year, YouTube
YouTube
added a music button to the video bar that played samples from "Sandstorm" by Darude.[231] In 2016, YouTube
YouTube
introduced an option to watch every video on the platform in 360-degree mode with Snoop Dogg.[232] Social impact Main article: Social impact of YouTube Both private individuals[233] and large production companies[234] have used YouTube
YouTube
to grow audiences. Independent content creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved problematic.[233] Concurrently, old media celebrities moved into the website at the invitation of a YouTube
YouTube
management that witnessed early content creators accruing substantial followings, and perceived audience sizes potentially larger than that attainable by television.[234] While YouTube's revenue-sharing "Partner Program" made it possible to earn a substantial living as a video producer—its top five hundred partners each earning more than $100,000 annually[235] and its ten highest-earning channels grossing from $2.5 million to $12 million[236]—in 2012 CMU business editor characterized YouTube
YouTube
as "a free-to-use... promotional platform for the music labels".[237] In 2013 Forbes' Katheryn Thayer asserted that digital-era artists' work must not only be of high quality, but must elicit reactions on the YouTube
YouTube
platform and social media.[238] Videos of the 2.5% of artists categorized as "mega", "mainstream" and "mid-sized" received 90.3% of the relevant views on YouTube
YouTube
and Vevo in that year.[239] By early 2013 Billboard had announced that it was factoring YouTube
YouTube
streaming data into calculation of the Billboard Hot 100 and related genre charts.[240]

Jordan
Jordan
Hoffner at the 68th Annual Peabody Awards
Peabody Awards
accepting for YouTube

Observing that face-to-face communication of the type that online videos convey has been "fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution", TED curator Chris Anderson referred to several YouTube
YouTube
contributors and asserted that "what Gutenberg did for writing, online video can now do for face-to-face communication".[241] Anderson asserted that it's not far-fetched to say that online video will dramatically accelerate scientific advance, and that video contributors may be about to launch "the biggest learning cycle in human history."[241] In education, for example, the Khan Academy
Khan Academy
grew from YouTube
YouTube
video tutoring sessions for founder Salman Khan's cousin into what Forbes'  Michael Noer called "the largest school in the world", with technology poised to disrupt how people learn.[242] YouTube
YouTube
was awarded a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award,[243] the website being described as a Speakers' Corner
Speakers' Corner
that "both embodies and promotes democracy."[244] The Washington Post
The Washington Post
reported that a disproportionate share of YouTube's most subscribed channels feature minorities, contrasting with mainstream television in which the stars are largely white.[245] A Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
study reported the development of "visual journalism", in which citizen eyewitnesses and established news organizations share in content creation.[246] The study also concluded that YouTube
YouTube
was becoming an important platform by which people acquire news.[247] YouTube
YouTube
has enabled people to more directly engage with government, such as in the CNN/YouTube presidential debates
CNN/YouTube presidential debates
(2007) in which ordinary people submitted questions to U.S. presidential candidates via YouTube
YouTube
video, with a techPresident co-founder saying that Internet
Internet
video was changing the political landscape.[248] Describing the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
(2010– ), sociologist Philip N. Howard quoted an activist's succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using "Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube
YouTube
to tell the world."[249] In 2012, more than a third of the U.S. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the "Kony 2012" video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video "will do more to lead to (Kony's) demise than all other action combined."[250]

Leading YouTube
YouTube
content creators met at the White House
White House
with U.S. President Obama to discuss how government could better connect with the " YouTube
YouTube
generation".[251][252]

Conversely, YouTube
YouTube
has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House's official YouTube
YouTube
channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube
YouTube
in 2012[253] and in 2013 a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson's YouTube
YouTube
music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)-compliant health insurance.[254] In February 2014, U.S. President Obama held a meeting at the White House
White House
with leading YouTube
YouTube
content creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare[255] but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the " YouTube
YouTube
Generation".[251] Whereas YouTube's inherent ability to allow presidents to directly connect with average citizens was noted, the YouTube
YouTube
content creators' new media savvy was perceived necessary to better cope with the website's distracting content and fickle audience.[251] Some YouTube
YouTube
videos have themselves had a direct effect on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims
Innocence of Muslims
(2012) which spurred protests and related anti-American violence internationally.[256] TED curator Chris Anderson described a phenomenon by which geographically distributed individuals in a certain field share their independently developed skills in YouTube
YouTube
videos, thus challenging others to improve their own skills, and spurring invention and evolution in that field.[241] Journalist Virginia Heffernan
Virginia Heffernan
stated in The New York Times
The New York Times
that such videos have "surprising implications" for the dissemination of culture and even the future of classical music.[257] The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers[258] and the YouTube
YouTube
Symphony Orchestra[259] selected their membership based on individual video performances.[241][259] Further, the cybercollaboration charity video "We Are the World
World
25 for Haiti ( YouTube
YouTube
edition)" was formed by mixing performances of 57 globally distributed singers into a single musical work,[260] with The Tokyo Times noting the "We Pray for You" YouTube cyber-collaboration video as an example of a trend to use crowdsourcing for charitable purposes.[261] The anti-bullying It Gets Better Project expanded from a single YouTube
YouTube
video directed to discouraged or suicidal LGBT teens,[262] that within two months drew video responses from hundreds including U.S. President Barack Obama, Vice President Biden, White House
White House
staff, and several cabinet secretaries.[263] Similarly, in response to fifteen-year-old Amanda Todd's video "My story: Struggling, bullying, suicide, self-harm", legislative action was undertaken almost immediately after her suicide to study the prevalence of bullying and form a national anti-bullying strategy.[264] Revenue Google
Google
does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing.[265] In June 2008, a Forbes
Forbes
magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales.[266] In January 2012, it was estimated that visitors to YouTube
YouTube
spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical US citizen watching television.[28] In 2012, YouTube's revenue from its ads program was estimated at $3.7 billion.[267] In 2013 it nearly doubled and estimated to hit $5.6 billion according to eMarketer,[267][268][269] others estimated 4.7 billion,[267] The vast majority of videos on YouTube
YouTube
are free to view and supported by advertising.[55] In May 2013, YouTube
YouTube
introduced a trial scheme of 53 subscription channels with prices ranging from $0.99 to $6.99 a month.[270] The move was seen as an attempt to compete with other providers of online subscription services such as Netflix
Netflix
and Hulu.[55] In 2017, viewers on average watch YouTube
YouTube
on mobile devices for more than an hour every day.[271] Advertisement partnerships YouTube
YouTube
entered into a marketing and advertising partnership with NBC in June 2006.[272] In March 2007, it struck a deal with BBC
BBC
for three channels with BBC
BBC
content, one for news and two for entertainment.[273] In November 2008, YouTube
YouTube
reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for U.S. viewers called "Shows". The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox, and Disney.[274][275] In November 2009, YouTube
YouTube
launched a version of "Shows" available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners.[276] In January 2010, YouTube introduced an online film rentals service,[277] which is only available to users in the United States, Canada, and the UK as of 2010.[278][279] The service offers over 6,000 films.[280] Partnership with video creators In May 2007, YouTube
YouTube
launched its Partner Program, a system based on AdSense
AdSense
which allows the uploader of the video to share the revenue produced by advertising on the site.[281] YouTube
YouTube
typically takes 45 percent of the advertising revenue from videos in the Partner Program, with 55 percent going to the uploader.[282][283] There are over a million members of the YouTube
YouTube
Partner Program.[284] According to TubeMogul, in 2013 a pre-roll advertisement on YouTube
YouTube
(one that is shown before the video starts) cost advertisers on average $7.60 per 1000 views. Usually no more than half of eligible videos have a pre-roll advertisement, due to a lack of interested advertisers.[285] In 2013, YouTube
YouTube
introduced an option for channels with at least a thousand subscribers to require a paid subscription in order for viewers to watch videos.[286][287] In April 2017, YouTube
YouTube
set an eligibility requirement of 10,000 lifetime views for a paid subscription.[288] On January 16, 2018, the eligibility requirement for monetization was changed to 4,000 hours of watchtime within the past 12 months and 1,000 subscribers.[288] The move was seen as an attempt to ensure that videos being monetized did not lead to controversy, but was criticized for penalizing smaller YouTube channels.[289] YouTube
YouTube
Play Buttons, a part of the YouTube
YouTube
Creator Rewards, are a recognition by YouTube
YouTube
of its most popular channels.[290] The trophies made of nickel plated copper-nickel alloy, golden plated brass, silver plated metal and ruby are given to channels with at least one hundred thousand, a million, ten million and fifty million subscribers, respectively.[291][292] Revenue to copyright holders Further information: § Copyrighted material Much of YouTube's revenue goes to the copyright holders of the videos.[269] In 2010, it was reported that nearly a third of the videos with advertisements were uploaded without permission of the copyright holders. YouTube
YouTube
gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for revenue.[293] In May 2013, Nintendo
Nintendo
began enforcing its copyright ownership and claiming the advertising revenue from video creators who posted screenshots of its games.[294] In February 2015, Nintendo agreed to share the revenue with the video creators.[295][296][297] Community policy YouTube
YouTube
has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features. Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos, content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behavior.[298] Despite the guidelines, YouTube
YouTube
has faced criticism from news sources for content in violation of these guidelines. Copyrighted material At the time of uploading a video, YouTube
YouTube
users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws.[299] Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material on YouTube. YouTube
YouTube
does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act. Any successful complaint about copyright infringement results in a YouTube
YouTube
copyright strike. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted.[300][301] Organizations including Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material.[302][303][304] Viacom, demanding $1 billion in damages, said that it had found more than 150,000 unauthorized clips of its material on YouTube
YouTube
that had been viewed "an astounding 1.5 billion times". YouTube
YouTube
responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works".[305] During the same court battle, Viacom
Viacom
won a court ruling requiring YouTube
YouTube
to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which called the court ruling "a setback to privacy rights".[306][307] In June 2010, Viacom's lawsuit against Google
Google
was rejected in a summary judgment, with U.S. federal Judge Louis L. Stanton stating that Google
Google
was protected by provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Viacom
Viacom
announced its intention to appeal the ruling.[308] On April 5, 2012, the United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reinstated the case, allowing Viacom's lawsuit against Google
Google
to be heard in court again.[309] On March 18, 2014, the lawsuit was settled after seven years with an undisclosed agreement.[310] In August 2008, a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp.
Lenz v. Universal Music Corp.
that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her 13-month-old son dancing to Prince's song "Let's Go Crazy", and posted the 29-second video on YouTube.[311] In the case of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright takedown notices on YouTube.[312] He asserted seven causes of action, and four were ruled in Smith's favor.[313] In April 2012, a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube
YouTube
could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. The performance rights organization GEMA argued that YouTube
YouTube
had not done enough to prevent the uploading of German copyrighted music. YouTube responded by stating:

“ We remain committed to finding a solution to the music licensing issue in Germany
Germany
that will benefit artists, composers, authors, publishers and record labels, as well as the wider YouTube
YouTube
community.[314] ”

On November 1, 2016, the dispute with GEMA was resolved, with Google content ID being used to allow advertisements to be added to videos with content protected by GEMA.[315] In April 2013, it was reported that Universal Music Group
Universal Music Group
and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents content blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the video files a DMCA counter-notice. When a dispute occurs, the uploader of the video has to contact UMG.[316][317] YouTube's owner Google announced in November 2015 that they would help cover the legal cost in select cases where they believe "fair use" laws apply.[318] Content ID See also: Criticism of Google
Google
§ YouTube In June 2007, YouTube
YouTube
began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. Google
Google
CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom, which alleged that YouTube
YouTube
profited from content that it did not have the right to distribute.[319] The system, which became known as Content ID,[320] creates an ID File
File
for copyrighted audio and video material, and stores it in a database. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found.[321] When this occurs, the content owner has the choice of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video, or adding advertisements to the video. YouTube
YouTube
describes Content ID as "very accurate in finding uploads that look similar to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File".[321] Content ID accounts for over a third of the monetized views on YouTube.[322] An independent test in 2009 uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube, and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible.[323] The use of Content ID to remove material automatically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a human for fair use.[324] If a YouTube
YouTube
user disagrees with a decision by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision.[325] Prior to 2016, videos weren't monetized until the dispute was resolved. Since April 2016, videos continue to be monetized while the dispute is in progress, and the money goes to whoever won the dispute.[326] Should the uploader want to monetize the video again, they may remove the disputed audio in the " Video
Video
Manager".[327] YouTube
YouTube
has cited the effectiveness of Content ID as one of the reasons why the site's rules were modified in December 2010 to allow some users to upload videos of unlimited length.[328] Controversial content See also: Criticism of Google
Google
§ YouTube, and Censorship by Google
Google
§ YouTube YouTube
YouTube
has also faced criticism over the handling of offensive content in some of its videos. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is forbidden by YouTube's "Community Guidelines".[298] YouTube
YouTube
relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a YouTube
YouTube
employee will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site's guidelines.[298] Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989.[329][330] In July 2008, the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was "unimpressed" with YouTube's system for policing its videos, and argued that "proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated content". YouTube
YouTube
responded by stating:

We have strict rules on what's allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 review team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube
YouTube
page to make this process as easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly.[331] (July 2008)

In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner
Anthony Weiner
urged YouTube
YouTube
to remove from its website videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki.[332] YouTube pulled some of the videos in November 2010, stating they violated the site's guidelines.[333] In December 2010, YouTube
YouTube
added the ability to flag videos for containing terrorism content.[334] Following media reports about PRISM, NSA's massive electronic surveillance program, in June 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants, including YouTube. According to leaks of said program, YouTube
YouTube
joined the PRISM program in 2010.[335] YouTube's policies on "advertiser-friendly content" restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized; this includes strong violence, language, sexual content, and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown", unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain".[336] In September 2016, after introducing an enhanced notification system to inform users of these violations, YouTube's policies were criticized by prominent users, including Phillip DeFranco
Phillip DeFranco
and Vlogbrothers. DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertising revenue on such videos was "censorship by a different name". A YouTube
YouTube
spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had "improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators".[337][338][339] In March 2017, the government of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremism content. The government demanded assurances that its advertising would "be delivered in a safe and appropriate way". The Guardian
The Guardian
newspaper, as well as other major British and U.S. brands, similarly suspended their advertising on YouTube
YouTube
in response to their advertising appearing near offensive content. Google
Google
stated that it had "begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear".[340][341] In early-April 2017, the YouTube
YouTube
channel h3h3Productions presented evidence claiming that a Wall Street Journal article had fabricated screenshots showing major brand advertising on an offensive video containing Johnny Rebel music overlaid on a Chief Keef music video, citing that the video itself had not earned any ad revenue for the uploader. The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had actually been triggered by the use of copyrighted content in the video.[342][343] On April 6, 2017, YouTube
YouTube
announced that in order to "ensure revenue only flows to creators who are playing by the rules", it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy compliance review, and have at least 10,000 lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program.[344] Child protection See also: DaddyOFive and Elsagate In 2017, YouTube
YouTube
was associated with several controversies related to child safety. During Q2, the owners of popular channel DaddyOFive, which featured themselves playing "pranks" on their children, were accused of child abuse. Their videos were eventually deleted, and two of their children were removed from their custody.[345][346][347][348] Later that year, YouTube
YouTube
came under criticism for showing inappropriate videos targeted at children and often featuring popular characters in violent, sexual or otherwise disturbing situations, many of which appeared on YouTube Kids
YouTube Kids
and attracted millions of views. The term "Elsagate" was coined on the Internet
Internet
and then used by various news outlets to refer to this controversy.[349][350][351][352] On November 11, 2017, YouTube
YouTube
announced it was strengthening site security to protect children from unsuitable content. Later that month, the company started to mass delete videos and channels that made improper use of family friendly characters. As part as a broader concern regarding child safety on YouTube, the wave of deletions also targeted channels which showed children taking part in inappropriate or dangerous activities under the guidance of adults. Most notably, the company removed Toy Freaks, a channel with over 8.5 million subscribers, that featured a father and his two daughters in odd and upsetting situations.[353][354][355][353][356][357] According to analytics specialist SocialBlade, it earned up to £8.7 million annually prior to its deletion.[358] Also in November 2017, it was revealed in the media that many videos featuring children – often uploaded by the minors themselves, and showing innocent content – were attracting comments from pedophiles[359][360] and circulating on the dark web, with predators finding the videos by typing in certain keywords in Russian.[360] As a result of the controversy, which added to the concern about "Elsagate", several major advertisers whose ads had been running against such videos froze spending on YouTube.[361][352] User comments See also: Criticism of Google
Google
§  YouTube
YouTube
user comments Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In 2006, Time praised Web 2.0
Web 2.0
for enabling "community and collaboration on a scale never seen before", and added that YouTube
YouTube
"harnesses the stupidity of crowds as well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube
YouTube
make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred".[362] The Guardian in 2009 described users' comments on YouTube
YouTube
as:[363]

Juvenile, aggressive, misspelled, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL, YouTube
YouTube
comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance – with the occasional burst of wit shining through.

In September 2008, The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
commented that YouTube
YouTube
was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube
YouTube
Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts".[364] The Huffington Post
The Huffington Post
noted in April 2012 that finding comments on YouTube
YouTube
that appear "offensive, stupid and crass" to the "vast majority" of the people is hardly difficult.[365] On November 6, 2013, Google
Google
implemented a comment system oriented on Google+
Google+
that required all YouTube
YouTube
users to use a Google+
Google+
account in order to comment on videos. The stated motivation for the change was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone.[366] The new system restored the ability to include URLs in comments, which had previously been removed due to problems with abuse.[367][368] In response, YouTube
YouTube
co-founder Jawed Karim
Jawed Karim
posted the question "why the fuck do I need a google+ account to comment on a video?" on his YouTube
YouTube
channel to express his negative opinion of the change.[369] The official YouTube
YouTube
announcement[370] received 20,097 "thumbs down" votes and generated more than 32,000 comments in two days.[371] Writing in the Newsday blog Silicon Island, Chase Melvin noted that " Google+
Google+
is nowhere near as popular a social media network as Facebook, but it's essentially being forced upon millions of YouTube users who don't want to lose their ability to comment on videos" and "Discussion forums across the Internet
Internet
are already bursting with outcry against the new comment system". In the same article Melvin goes on to say:[372]

Perhaps user complaints are justified, but the idea of revamping the old system isn't so bad. Think of the crude, misogynistic and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube
YouTube
without any discernible moderation. Isn't any attempt to curb unidentified libelers worth a shot? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity.

On July 27, 2015, Google
Google
announced in a blog post that it would be removing the requirement to sign up to a Google+
Google+
account to post comments to YouTube.[373] On November 3, 2016, YouTube
YouTube
announced a trial scheme which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially offensive comments.[374] Creators may also choose to keep or delete comments with links or hashtags in order to combat spam. They can also allow other users to moderate their comments.[375] View counts In December 2012, two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot
The Daily Dot
that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts. This was disputed by Billboard, which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube.[376][377] On August 5, 2015, YouTube removed the feature which caused a video's view count to freeze at "301" (later "301+") until the actual count was verified to prevent view count fraud.[378] YouTube
YouTube
view counts once again updated in real time.[379] Censorship and filtering Main article: Censorship of YouTube As of 2017[update], countries with standing national bans on YouTube are China
China
and North Korea, while Iran
Iran
blocks YouTube
YouTube
on only one internet service provider. YouTube
YouTube
may be blocked for a variety of reasons, including:[380]

Limiting public exposure to content that may ignite social or political unrest; Preventing criticism of a ruler (e.g. in North Korea), government (e.g. in China) or its actions (e.g. in Morocco), government officials (e.g. in Turkey
Turkey
and Libya), or religion (e.g. in Pakistan); Violations of national laws, including:

Copyright and intellectual property protection laws, for example in Germany; Violations of hate speech, ethics, or morality-based laws, e.g. in Iran; and

Preventing access to videos judged to be inappropriate for youth,[381] which is also done by YouTube
YouTube
with the YouTube Kids
YouTube Kids
app and with "Restricted mode";[382] Reducing distractions at work or school,[383] e.g. in Australia; and Reducing the amount of network bandwidth used.[384][385][386]

In some countries, YouTube
YouTube
is completely blocked, either through a long term standing ban or for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries. In other countries access to the website as a whole remains open, but access to specific videos is blocked. In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube
YouTube
will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service. Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to bandwidth limitations and the site's potential for distraction.[380] Several countries have previously blocked access to YouTube:

Iran
Iran
temporarily blocked access on December 3, 2006, to YouTube
YouTube
and several other sites, after declaring them as violating social and moral codes of conduct. The YouTube
YouTube
block came after a video was posted online that appeared to show an Iranian soap opera star having sex.[387] The block was later lifted and then reinstated after Iran's 2009 presidential election.[388] In 2012, Iran
Iran
reblocked access, along with access to Google, after the controversial film Innocence of Muslims trailer was released on YouTube.[389] Thailand
Thailand
blocked access between 2006 and 2007 due to offensive videos relating to King Bhumibol Adulyadej.[390][391] Some Australian state education departments block YouTube
YouTube
citing "an inability to determine what sort of video material might be accessed" and "There's no educational value to it and the content of the material on the site."[392] China
China
blocked access from October 15, 2007 to March 22, 2008, and again starting on March 24, 2009. Access remains blocked.[393][394][395][396] Morocco
Morocco
blocked access in May 2007, possibly as a result of videos critical of Morocco's actions in Western Sahara.[397] YouTube
YouTube
became accessible again on May 30, 2007, after Maroc Telecom unofficially announced that the denied access to the website was a mere "technical glitch".[398] Turkey
Turkey
blocked access between 2008 and 2010 after controversy over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.[399][400][401] In November 2010, a video of the Turkish politician Deniz Baykal
Deniz Baykal
caused the site to be blocked again briefly, and the site was threatened with a new shutdown if it did not remove the video.[402] During the two and a half-year block of YouTube, the video-sharing website remained the eighth-most-accessed site in Turkey.[403][404] In 2014, Turkey
Turkey
blocked the access for the second time, after "a high-level intelligence leak."[405][406][407] Pakistan
Pakistan
blocked access on February 23, 2008, because of "offensive material" towards the Islamic faith, including display of the Danish cartoons of Muhammad.[408] This led to a near global blackout of the YouTube
YouTube
site for around two hours, as the Pakistani block was inadvertently transferred to other countries. On February 26, 2008, the ban was lifted after the website had removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government.[409][410] Many Pakistanis circumvented the three-day block by using virtual private network software.[411] In May 2010, following the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, Pakistan
Pakistan
again blocked access to YouTube, citing "growing sacrilegious content".[412] The ban was lifted on May 27, 2010, after the website removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. However, individual videos deemed offensive to Muslims posted on YouTube
YouTube
will continue to be blocked.[413][414] Pakistan
Pakistan
again placed a ban on YouTube
YouTube
in September 2012, after the site refused to remove the film Innocence of Muslims, with the ban still in operation as of September 2013.[415] The ban was lifted in January 2016 after YouTube
YouTube
launched a Pakistan-specific version.[416] Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
blocked access on December 25, 2009, for unknown reasons. Other websites, such as LiveJournal
LiveJournal
were also blocked.[417] Libya
Libya
blocked access on January 24, 2010, because of videos that featured demonstrations in the city of Benghazi
Benghazi
by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim prison
Abu Salim prison
in 1996, and videos of family members of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
at parties. The blocking was criticized by Human Rights Watch.[418] In November 2011, after the Libyan Civil War, YouTube
YouTube
was once again allowed in Libya.[419] Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Russia, and Sudan
Sudan
blocked access in September 2012 following controversy over a 14-minute trailer for the film Innocence of Muslims
Innocence of Muslims
which had been posted on the site.[420][421][422][423][424][425] In Libya
Libya
and Egypt, the Innocence of Muslims
Innocence of Muslims
trailer was blamed[by whom?] for violent protests in September 2012. YouTube
YouTube
stated that "This video—which is widely available on the Web—is clearly within our guidelines and so will stay on YouTube. However, given the very difficult situation in Libya
Libya
and Egypt
Egypt
we have temporarily restricted access in both countries."[426][427]

See also

Listen to this article (info/dl)

This audio file was created from a revision of the article "YouTube" dated 2011-03-26, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles

Alphabet portal Companies portal Google
Google
portal Internet
Internet
portal San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area portal United States
United States
portal

List of most-viewed YouTube
YouTube
videos

List of most-liked YouTube
YouTube
videos List of most-disliked YouTube
YouTube
videos

List of YouTubers

List of most-subscribed YouTube
YouTube
channels

BookTube Ouellette v. Viacom
Viacom
International Inc. Reply Girls YouTube
YouTube
Awards YouTube
YouTube
Instant YouTube
YouTube
Live YouTube
YouTube
Multi Channel Network CNN- YouTube
YouTube
presidential debates YouTube
YouTube
Symphony Orchestra Viacom
Viacom
International Inc. v. YouTube, Inc.

General

Alternative media Comparison of video hosting services List of Internet
Internet
phenomena List of video hosting services List of most viewed online videos in the first 24 hours

List of most viewed online trailers in the first 24 hours

References Notes

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Google
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YouTube
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YouTube
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YouTube
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CBS
Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ " Google
Google
Ad Crisis Spreads as Biggest Marketers Halt Spending". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 23, 2017.  ^ "YouTube: UK government suspends ads amid extremism concerns". BBC News. Retrieved March 23, 2017.  ^ "A YouTube
YouTube
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YouTube
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YouTube
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YouTube
family who pulled disturbing pranks on their own kids". The Washington Post.  ^ Cresci, Elena (May 7, 2017). "Mean stream: how YouTube
YouTube
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YouTube
Star DaddyOFive Loses Custody of 2 Children Shown in 'Prank' Videos". Time. Retrieved July 9, 2017.  ^ Ben Popper, Adults dressed as superheroes is YouTube’s new, strange, and massively popular genre, The Verge, February 4, 2017 ^ Staff, Web (March 31, 2017). "Report: Thousands of videos mimicking popular cartoons on YouTube Kids
YouTube Kids
contain inappropriate content". NEWS10 ABC. Retrieved April 30, 2017.  ^ Sapna Maheshwari, On YouTube
YouTube
Kids, Startling Videos Slip Past Filters, The New York Times, November 4, 2017 ^ a b Dani Di Placido, YouTube's "Elsagate" Illuminates The Unintended Horrors Of The Digital Age, Forbes, November 28, 2017 ^ a b Todd Spangler, YouTube
YouTube
Terminates Toy Freaks Channel Amid Broader Crackdown on Disturbing Kids’ Content, Variety, November 17, 2017 ^ Popper, Ben (November 9, 2017). " YouTube
YouTube
says it will crack down on bizarre videos targeting children". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. In August of this year, YouTube announced that it would no longer allow creators to monetize videos which "made inappropriate use of family friendly characters." Today it's taking another step to try and police this genre.  ^ Sarah Templeton, Disturbing 'ElsaGate', 'Toy Freaks' videos removed from YouTube
YouTube
after abuse allegations, Newshub, November 22, 2017 ^ YouTube
YouTube
to crack down on videos showing child endangerment, ABC News, November 22, 2017 ^ Charlie Warzel, YouTube
YouTube
Is Addressing Its Massive Child Exploitation Problem BuzzFeed, November 22, 2017 ^ Bridge, Mark; Mostrous, Alexi (November 18, 2017). " Child abuse
Child abuse
on YouTube". The Times. Retrieved November 28, 2017. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ YouTube
YouTube
videos of children are plagued by sexual comments, The Verge, November 15, 2017 ^ a b Mostrous, Alexi; Bridge, Mark; Gibbons, Katie (November 24, 2017). " YouTube
YouTube
adverts fund paedophile habits". The Times. Retrieved November 28, 2017. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Todd Spangler, YouTube
YouTube
Faces Advertiser Boycott Over Videos With Kids That Attracted Sexual Predators, Variety, November 25, 2017 ^ Grossman, Lev (December 25, 2006). "You – Yes, You – Are TIME's Person of the Year". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Owen, Paul (November 3, 2009). "Our top 10 funniest YouTube
YouTube
comments – what are yours?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved March 13, 2014.  ^ Moore, Matthew (September 2, 2008). "YouTube's worst comments blocked by filter". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Rundle, Michael (April 7, 2012). "Policing Racism Online: Liam Stacey, YouTube
YouTube
And The Law Of Big Numbers". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 1, 2012.  ^ " YouTube
YouTube
aims to tame the trolls with changes to its comments section", Stuart Dredge, The Guardian, November 7, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013. ^ "No more links in comments?". Google
Google
product forums. 2009. Retrieved August 28, 2013.  ^ "View and post comments". Google
Google
Support. 2013. Archived from the original on November 17, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.  ^ Hern, Alex (November 8, 2013). " YouTube
YouTube
co-founder hurls abuse at Google
Google
over new YouTube
YouTube
comments". The Guardian. London. Retrieved November 11, 2013.  ^ "Meet the new YouTube
YouTube
comments" on YouTube, November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013. ^ " YouTube
YouTube
Founder Blasts New YouTube
YouTube
Comments: Jawed Karim
Jawed Karim
Outraged At Google
Google
Plus Requirement", Ryan W. Neal, International Business Times, November 8, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013. ^ Chase, Melvin (November 20, 2013). " YouTube
YouTube
comments require Google+ account, Google
Google
faces uproar". Newsday.  (subscription required) Alternate link Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. ^ " Google
Google
unlinking Google+
Google+
from YouTube". BBC
BBC
News. London. July 28, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015.  ^ E. Solsman, Joan (November 3, 2016). " YouTube
YouTube
helps creators blast trolls from comments". CNET. CBS
CBS
Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Jotham, Immanuel (July 24, 2017). "New YouTube
YouTube
feature allows creators to automatically block spam". International Business Times UK. Retrieved September 17, 2017.  ^ " YouTube
YouTube
strips Universal and Sony of 2 billion fake views". The Daily Dot. December 21, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2014.  ^ "Two billion YouTube
YouTube
music video views disappear … or just migrate?". The Guardian. December 28, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2014.  ^ Haran, Brady (June 22, 2012). Why do YouTube
YouTube
views freeze at 301?. Numberphile.  ^ Snyder, Benjamin (August 6, 2015). " YouTube
YouTube
Finally Fixed This Annoying Feature". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ a b " YouTube
YouTube
Censored: A Recent History", OpenNet Initiative. Retrieved September 23, 2012. ^ "The disturbing YouTube
YouTube
videos that are tricking children". BBC News. March 27, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Shu, Catherine. " YouTube
YouTube
responds to complaints that its Restricted Mode censors LGBT videos". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Strom, Stephanie (March 9, 2012). " YouTube
YouTube
Finds a Way Off Schools' Banned List". The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ David Meerman Scott. "Facebook and YouTube
YouTube
blocked by paranoid corporations at their own peril". Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Marks, Gene. " Netflix
Netflix
and YouTube
YouTube
Now Consume 50% Of The Internet
Internet
As The Argument For Net Neutrality Weakens". Forbes. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Hannaford, Kat. "US Military Bans YouTube, Amazon and 11 Other Websites to Free Up Bandwidth for Japan
Japan
Crisis". Gizmodo. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Tait, Robert (November 4, 2006). "Censorship fears rise as Iran blocks access to top websites". The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 17, 2006.  ^ "Mobile phones, Facebook, YouTube
YouTube
cut in Iran". American Free Press. Google. July 13, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.  ^ " Iran
Iran
blocks YouTube, Google
Google
over Mohammed video". CNN.com. September 24, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012.  ^ " Thailand
Thailand
blocks access to YouTube". BBC. April 4, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2008.  ^ "Ban on YouTube
YouTube
lifted after deal". The Nation. August 31, 2007. Archived from the original on September 3, 2007.  ^ States still hold out on YouTube
YouTube
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Youku
Transcends YouTube
YouTube
as China
China
Becomes Center of Internet". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved September 22, 2015.  ^ Sommerville, Quentin (March 24, 2009). " China
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'blocks YouTube
YouTube
video site'". BBC
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News. Retrieved March 24, 2009.  ^ "YouTube遭中國封鎖?". Now News. October 19, 2007. Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.  ^ " China
China
Blocks YouTube". PC World. October 18, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2013.  ^ " YouTube
YouTube
site 'blocked' in Morocco". BBC
BBC
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YouTube
again accessible via Maroc Telecom". Reporters Without Borders. May 30, 2007. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2007.  ^ Rosen, Jeffrey (November 28, 2008). "Google's Gatekeepers". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ " Turkey
Turkey
goes into battle with Google". BBC
BBC
News. July 2, 2010. Retrieved July 3, 2010.  ^ " Turkey
Turkey
lifts two-year ban on YouTube". BBC
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News. October 30, 2010. Retrieved October 31, 2010.  ^ Champion, Marc (November 2, 2010). " Turkey
Turkey
Reinstates YouTube
YouTube
Ban". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 2, 2010.  ^ " Turkey
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YouTube
Blocked in Turkey
Turkey
Amid High-Level Intelligence Leak". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ " Turkey
Turkey
moves to block YouTube
YouTube
access after 'audio leak'". BBC. March 27, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2014.  ^ Wagstaff, Keith (March 27, 2014). " YouTube
YouTube
Banned in Turkey". NBC News. Retrieved March 27, 2014.  ^ " Pakistan
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blocks YouTube
YouTube
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Pakistan
lifts YouTube
YouTube
ban". ABC News
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(Australia). AFP. February 26, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2008.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
lifts the ban on YouTube". BBC. February 26, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
web users get round YouTube
YouTube
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blocks access to YouTube
YouTube
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News. May 20, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2010.  ^ " YouTube
YouTube
ban lifted by Pakistan
Pakistan
authorities", Joanne McCabe, Metro (Associated Newspapers Limited, UK), May 27, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2012 ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
lifts ban on YouTube", The Times of India, May 27, 2010 ^ Pakistan
Pakistan
ban on YouTube
YouTube
stays even after one year The Economic Times, September 17, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013. ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
unblocks access to YouTube". BBC
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Turkmenistan
blocks access to YouTube, LJ". rt.com. Retrieved October 5, 2017.  ^ "Watchdog urges Libya
Libya
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Afghanistan
to unblock YouTube
YouTube
Afghanistan
Afghanistan
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Afghanistan
bans YouTube
YouTube
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Reuters
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YouTube
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Bangladesh
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YouTube
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Bangladesh
Block YouTube
YouTube
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YouTube
restricts video access over Libyan violence". CNN. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 

Further reading

Kelsey, Todd (2010). Social Networking Spaces: From Facebook to Twitter and Everything In Between. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-1-4302-2596-6.  Lacy, Sarah (2008). The Stories of Facebook, YouTube
YouTube
and MySpace: The People, the Hype and the Deals Behind the Giants of Web 2.0. Richmond: Crimson. ISBN 978-1-85458-453-3.  Walker, Rob (June 28, 2012). "On YouTube, Amateur Is the New Pro". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017. 

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