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YOUTUBE is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California . The service was created by three former PayPal employees — Chad Hurley , Steve Chen , and Jawed Karim — in February 2005. Google
Google
bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube
YouTube
now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries .

YouTube
YouTube
allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to favorites, report, comment on videos, and subscribe to other users . It uses WebM , H.264/MPEG-4 AVC , and Adobe Flash Video technology to display a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips , TV show clips, music videos , short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers and other content such as video blogging , short original videos, and educational videos . Most of the content on YouTube
YouTube
has been uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS
CBS
, the BBC
BBC
, Vevo , and Hulu
Hulu
offer some of their material via YouTube
YouTube
as part of the YouTube
YouTube
partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed potentially offensive are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.

YouTube
YouTube
earns advertising revenue from Google
Google
AdSense
AdSense
, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Red , a subscription service offering ad-free access to the website and access to exclusive content made in partnership with existing users. As of February 2017 , there are more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube
YouTube
each minute, and one billion hours of content are watched on YouTube
YouTube
every day. As of April 2017 , the website is ranked as the second most popular site in the world by Alexa Internet
Internet
, a web traffic analysis company.

CONTENTS

* 1 Company history

* 2 Features

* 2.1 Video
Video
technology

* 2.1.1 Playback * 2.1.2 Uploading * 2.1.3 Quality and formats * 2.1.4 3D videos * 2.1.5 360° videos

* 2.2 User features

* 2.2.1 Community

* 2.3 Content accessibility

* 2.3.1 Platforms

* 2.4 Localization * 2.5 YouTube Red * 2.6 YouTube
YouTube
TV

* 3 Social impact

* 4 Revenue

* 4.1 Advertisement partnerships * 4.2 Partnership with video creators * 4.3 Revenue to copyright holders

* 5 Community policy

* 5.1 Copyrighted material

* 5.1.1 Content ID

* 5.2 Controversial content * 5.3 User comments * 5.4 View counts

* 6 Censorship and filtering

* 6.1 Music Key licensing

* 7 NSA Prism program * 8 April Fools * 9 See also

* 10 References

* 10.1 Notes * 10.2 Further reading

* 11 External links

COMPANY HISTORY

Main article: History of YouTube From left to right: Chad Hurley , Steve Chen , and Jawed Karim The YouTube
YouTube
homepage as it appeared from April to May 2005

YouTube
YouTube
was founded by Chad Hurley , Steve Chen , and Jawed Karim , who were all early employees of PayPal . Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania , and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign . According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube
YouTube
during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible".

Karim said the inspiration for YouTube
YouTube
first came from Janet Jackson 's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident , when her breast was exposed during her performance, and later from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami . Karim could not easily find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site. Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube
YouTube
was a video version of an online dating service , and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not . _ The YouTube
YouTube
logo from launch until 2011, featuring its former slogan Broadcast Yourself_

YouTube
YouTube
began as a venture capital -funded technology startup , primarily from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California. The domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, and the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube
YouTube
video, titled _ Me at the zoo _, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo
San Diego Zoo
. The video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, and can still be viewed on the site. YouTube
YouTube
offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005. The first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005. Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched officially on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew rapidly, and in July 2006 the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore , YouTube
YouTube
is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010.

In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, and 400 hours every minute in February 2017. The site has 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube
YouTube
consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet
Internet
in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers, Alexa and SimilarWeb , YouTube
YouTube
is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016 ; SimilarWeb also lists YouTube
YouTube
as the top TV and video website globally, attracting more than 15 billion visitors per month.

The choice of the name www.youtube.com led to problems for a similarly named website, www.utube.com. The site's owner, Universal Tube "> YouTube's headquarters in San Bruno, California

In March 2010, YouTube
YouTube
began free streaming of certain content, including 60 cricket matches of the Indian Premier League . According to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event. On March 31, 2010, the YouTube
YouTube
website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface and increasing the time users spend on the site. Google
Google
product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented: "We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter." In May 2010, YouTube
YouTube
videos were watched more than two billion times per day. This increased to three billion in May 2011, and four billion in January 2012. In February 2017, one billion hours of YouTube
YouTube
was watched every day.

In October 2010, Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as chief executive officer of YouTube
YouTube
to take an advisory role, and that Salar Kamangar would take over as head of the company. In April 2011, James Zern, a YouTube
YouTube
software engineer, revealed that 30% of videos accounted for 99% of views on the site. In November 2011, the Google+ social networking site was integrated directly with YouTube
YouTube
and the Chrome web browser, allowing YouTube
YouTube
videos to be viewed from within the Google+
Google+
interface.

In December 2011, YouTube
YouTube
launched a new version of the site interface, with the video channels displayed in a central column on the home page, similar to the news feeds of social networking sites. At the same time, a new version of the YouTube
YouTube
logo was introduced with a darker shade of red, the first change in design since October 2006. In May 2013, YouTube
YouTube
launched a pilot program to begin offering some content providers the ability to charge $0.99 per month or more for certain channels, but the vast majority of its videos would remain free to view.

In February 2015, YouTube
YouTube
released a secondary mobile app known as YouTube Kids . The app is designed to provide an experience optimized for children, and features a simplified user interface, curated selections of channels featuring age-approriate content (including existing channels and entertainment brands), and parental control features. Later on August 26, 2015, YouTube
YouTube
launched YouTube Gaming—a video gaming -oriented sub-site and app that is intended to compete with the Amazon.com -owned Twitch.tv . 2015 also saw the announcement of a premium YouTube
YouTube
service titled YouTube
YouTube
Red, which provides users with both ad-free content as well as the ability to download videos among other features. On August 10, 2015, Google announced that it was creating a new company, Alphabet , to act as the holding company for Google, with the change in financial reporting to begin in the fourth quarter of 2015. YouTube
YouTube
remains as a subsidiary of Google. In January 2016, YouTube
YouTube
expanded its headquarters in San Bruno by purchasing an office park for $215 million. The complex has 554,000 square feet of space and can house up to 2,800 employees.

FEATURES

VIDEO TECHNOLOGY

Playback

Previously, viewing YouTube
YouTube
videos on a personal computer required the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to be installed in the browser. In January 2010, YouTube
YouTube
launched an experimental version of the site that used the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5
HTML5
standard. This allowed videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other plug-in to be installed. The YouTube
YouTube
site had a page that allowed supported browsers to opt into the HTML5
HTML5
trial. Only browsers that supported HTML5
HTML5
Video
Video
using the H.264 or WebM formats could play the videos, and not all videos on the site were available. On January 27, 2015, YouTube
YouTube
announced that HTML5
HTML5
will be the default playback method on supported browsers. Supported browsers include Chrome, Safari 8 , and Internet
Internet
Explorer 11. YouTube
YouTube
experimented with Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH), an adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution optimizing the bitrate and quality for the available network. YouTube
YouTube
uses Adobe Dynamic Streaming for Flash .

Uploading

All YouTube
YouTube
users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration. Users who have a good track record of complying with the site's Community Guidelines may be offered the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, which requires verifying the account, normally through a mobile phone. When YouTube
YouTube
was launched in 2005, it was possible to upload long videos, but a ten-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube
YouTube
found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films. The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010. Videos can be at most 128 GB in size. Video
Video
captions are made using speech recognition technology when uploaded. Such captioning is usually not perfectly accurate, so YouTube
YouTube
provides several options for manually entering the captions for greater accuracy.

YouTube
YouTube
accepts videos that are uploaded in most container formats , including AVI , MP4 , MPEG-PS , QuickTime File
File
Format and FLV . It supports WebM files and also 3GP , allowing videos to be uploaded from mobile phones.

Videos with progressive scanning or interlaced scanning can be uploaded, but for the best video quality, YouTube
YouTube
suggests interlaced videos be deinterlaced before uploading. All the video formats on YouTube
YouTube
use progressive scanning. YouTube's statistics shows that interlaced videos are still being uploaded to YouTube, and there is no sign of that actually dwindling. YouTube
YouTube
attributes this to uploading of made-for-TV content.

Quality And Formats

YouTube
YouTube
originally offered videos at only one quality level, displayed at a resolution of 320×240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec (a variant of H.263 ), with mono MP3 audio. In June 2007, YouTube
YouTube
added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on mobile phones. In March 2008, a high-quality mode was added, which increased the resolution to 480×360 pixels. In November 2008, 720p HD support was added. At the time of the 720p launch, the YouTube
YouTube
player was changed from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9 . With this new feature, YouTube
YouTube
began a switchover to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as its default video compression format. In November 2009, 1080p HD support was added. In July 2010, YouTube
YouTube
announced that it had launched a range of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolution of up to 4096×3072 pixels. In June 2015, support for 8K resolution was added, with the videos playing at 7680×4320 pixels. In November 2016, support for HDR video was added which can be encoded with Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) or Perceptual Quantizer (PQ). HDR video can be encoded with the Rec. 2020 color space.

In June 2014, YouTube
YouTube
introduced videos playing at 60 frames per second , in order to reproduce video games with a frame rate comparable to high-end graphics cards . The videos play back at a resolution of 720p or higher. YouTube
YouTube
videos are available in a range of quality levels. The former names of standard quality (SQ), high quality (HQ), and high definition (HD) have been replaced by numerical values representing the vertical resolution of the video. The default video stream is encoded in the VP9 format with stereo Opus audio; if VP9/ WebM is not supported in the browser/device or the browser's user agent reports Windows XP , then H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video with stereo AAC audio is used instead. Comparison of YouTube
YouTube
media encoding options

NON-DASH

ITAG VALUE DEFAULT CONTAINER VIDEO RESOLUTION VIDEO ENCODING VIDEO PROFILE VIDEO BITRATE (MBIT/S) AUDIO ENCODING AUDIO BITRATE (KBIT/S)

17 3GP 144p MPEG-4 Visual Simple 0.05 AAC 24

36 240p 0.175 32

18 MP4 360p H.264 Baseline 0.5 96

22 720p High 2-3 192

43 WebM 360p VP8 N/A 0.5-0.75 Vorbis 128

DASH (VIDEO ONLY)

ITAG VALUE DEFAULT CONTAINER VIDEO RESOLUTION VIDEO ENCODING VIDEO PROFILE VIDEO BITRATE (MBIT/S)

160 MP4 144p 15-30 fps H.264 Main 0.1–0.12

133 240p 0.2–0.3

134 360p 0.5–0.7

135 480p 0.9–1.2

136 720p 1.8–2.4

298 720p HFR 3–3.5

137 1080p High 2.5–3

299 1080p HFR 5–6

264 1440p 4–4.5

266 2160p 12.5–16

138 4320p 13.5–25

278 WebM 144p 15-30 fps VP9 Profile 0 0.1–0.13

242 240p 0.2–0.3

243 360p 0.4–0.6

244 480p 0.7–1

247 720p 1.5–2

248 1080p 2.5–3

271 1440p 9

313 2160p 13–15

272 4320p 20–25

302 720p HFR 2.5–3

303 1080p HFR 4–5

308 1440p HFR 10

315 2160p HFR 20–25

330 144p HDR , HFR Profile 2 0.08

331 240p HDR , HFR 0.1–0.15

332 360p HDR , HFR 0.25

333 480p HDR , HFR 0.5

334 720p HDR , HFR 1

335 1080p HDR , HFR 1.5–2

336 1440p HDR , HFR 5–7

337 2160p HDR , HFR 12–14

DASH (AUDIO ONLY)

ITAG VALUE DEFAULT CONTAINER AUDIO ENCODING AUDIO BITRATE (KBIT/S)

139 M4A AAC 48

140 128

171 WebM Vorbis

249 Opus 48

250 64

251 160

LIVE STREAMING

ITAG VALUE DEFAULT CONTAINER VIDEO RESOLUTION VIDEO ENCODING VIDEO PROFILE VIDEO BITRATE (MBIT/S) AUDIO ENCODING AUDIO BITRATE (KBIT/S)

91 TS 144p H.264 Main 0.1 AAC 48

92 240p 0.15–0.3

93 360p 0.5–1 128

94 480p 0.8–1.25

95 720p 1.5–3 256

96 1080p High 2.5–6

^ _itag_ is an undocumented parameter used internally by YouTube
YouTube
to differentiate between quality profiles. Until December 2010, there was also a URL parameter known as _fmt_ that allowed a user to force a profile using _itag_ codes.

^ Approximate values based on statistical data; actual bitrate can be higher or lower due to variable encoding rate.

3D Videos

In a video posted on July 21, 2009, YouTube
YouTube
software engineer Peter Bradshaw announced that YouTube
YouTube
users can now upload 3D videos . The videos can be viewed in several different ways, including the common anaglyph (cyan/red lens) method which utilizes glasses worn by the viewer to achieve the 3D effect. The YouTube
YouTube
Flash player can display stereoscopic content interleaved in rows, columns or a checkerboard pattern, side-by-side or anaglyph using a red/cyan, green/magenta or blue/yellow combination. In May 2011, an HTML5 version of the YouTube
YouTube
player began supporting side-by-side 3D footage that is compatible with Nvidia 3D Vision .

360° Videos

In January 2015, Google
Google
announced that 360° videos would be natively supported on YouTube. On March 13, 2015, YouTube
YouTube
enabled 360° videos which can be viewed from Google
Google
Cardboard , a virtual reality system. YouTube
YouTube
360 can also be viewed from all other virtual reality headsets.

USER FEATURES

Community

On September 13, 2016, YouTube
YouTube
launched a public beta of Community, a social media -based feature that allows users to post text, images (including GIFs ), live videos and others in a separate "Community" tab on their channel. Prior to the release, several creators had been consulted to suggest tools Community could incorporate that they would find useful; these YouTubers included Vlogbrothers , AsapScience , Lilly Singh , The Game Theorists , Karmin
Karmin
, The Key of Awesome , The Kloons, Peter Hollens , Rosianna Halse Rojas , Sam Tsui , Threadbanger and Vsauce3.

CONTENT ACCESSIBILITY

YouTube
YouTube
offers users the ability to view its videos on web pages outside their website. Each YouTube
YouTube
video is accompanied by a piece of HTML
HTML
that can be used to embed it on any page on the Web. This functionality is often used to embed YouTube
YouTube
videos in social networking pages and blogs. Users wishing to post a video discussing, inspired by or related to another user's video are able to make a "video response". On August 27, 2013, YouTube
YouTube
announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused feature. Embedding, rating, commenting and response posting can be disabled by the video owner.

YouTube
YouTube
does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends for them to be viewed through its website interface. A small number of videos, such as the weekly addresses by President Barack Obama , can be downloaded as MP4 files. Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube
YouTube
videos. In February 2009, YouTube
YouTube
announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google
Google
Checkout . In June 2012, Google
Google
sent cease and desist letters threatening legal action against several websites offering online download and conversion of YouTube
YouTube
videos. In response, Zamzar removed the ability to download YouTube
YouTube
videos from its site. The default settings when uploading a video to YouTube
YouTube
will retain a copyright on the video for the uploader, but since July 2012, it has been possible to select a Creative Commons
Creative Commons
license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material if it is free of copyright.

Platforms

Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube
YouTube
videos, either within an application or through an optimized website. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, using RTSP streaming for the video. Not all of YouTube's videos are available on the mobile version of the site. Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple
Apple
products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple
Apple
's preferred video standard, H.264 , a process that took several months. YouTube
YouTube
videos can be viewed on devices including Apple
Apple
TV , iPod Touch and the iPhone . In July 2010, the mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5
HTML5
, avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls. The mobile version is also available as an app for the Android platform. In September 2012, YouTube
YouTube
launched its first app for the iPhone, following the decision to drop YouTube
YouTube
as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operating system. According to GlobalWebIndex , YouTube
YouTube
was used by 35% of smartphone users between April and June 2013, making it the third most used app.

A TiVo service update in July 2008 allowed the system to search and play YouTube
YouTube
videos. In January 2009, YouTube
YouTube
launched " YouTube
YouTube
for TV", a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii
Wii
video game consoles . In June 2009, YouTube
YouTube
XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen. YouTube
YouTube
is also available as an app on Xbox Live . On November 15, 2012, Google
Google
launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube
YouTube
videos from the Wii
Wii
channel. An app is also available for Wii
Wii
U and Nintendo 3DS , and videos can be viewed on the Wii
Wii
U Internet
Internet
Browser using HTML5. Google
Google
made YouTube
YouTube
available on the Roku player on December 17, 2013, and, in October 2014, the Sony PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
.

LOCALIZATION

On June 19, 2007, Google
Google
CEO Eric Schmidt was in Paris to launch the new localization system. The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 89 countries, one territory (Hong Kong) and a worldwide version.

COUNTRIES WITH YOUTUBE LOCALIZATION

COUNTRY LANGUAGE(S) LAUNCH DATE

USA (and worldwide launch) English 000000002005-02-15-0000February 15, 2005

Brazil
Brazil
Portuguese 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007

France
France
French , and Basque 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007

Ireland English 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007

Italy
Italy
Italian 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007

Japan
Japan
Japanese 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007

Netherlands
Netherlands
Dutch 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007

Poland
Poland
Polish 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007

Spain
Spain
Spanish , Galician , Catalan , and Basque 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
English 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007

Mexico
Mexico
Spanish 000000002007-10-11-0000October 11, 2007

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Chinese , and English 000000002007-10-17-0000October 17, 2007

Taiwan
Taiwan
Chinese 000000002007-10-18-0000October 18, 2007

Australia
Australia
English 000000002007-10-22-0000October 22, 2007

New Zealand
New Zealand
English 000000002007-10-22-0000October 22, 2007

Canada
Canada
French , and English 000000002007-11-06-0000November 6, 2007

Germany
Germany
German 000000002007-11-08-0000November 8, 2007

Russia
Russia
Russian 000000002007-11-13-0000November 13, 2007

South Korea
South Korea
Korean 000000002008-01-23-0000January 23, 2008

India
India
Hindi , Bengali , English , Gujarati , Kannada , Malayalam , Marathi , Tamil , Telugu , and Urdu
Urdu
000000002008-05-07-0000May 7, 2008

Israel
Israel
Hebrew 000000002008-09-16-0000September 16, 2008

Czech Republic
Czech Republic
Czech 000000002008-10-09-0000October 9, 2008

Sweden
Sweden
Swedish 000000002008-10-22-0000October 22, 2008

South Africa
South Africa
Afrikaans , Zulu , and English 000000002010-05-17-0000May 17, 2010

Argentina
Argentina
Spanish 000000002010-09-08-0000September 8, 2010

Algeria
Algeria
French , and Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011

Egypt
Egypt
Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011

Jordan
Jordan
Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011

Morocco
Morocco
French , and Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011

Tunisia
Tunisia
French , and Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011

Yemen
Yemen
Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011

Kenya
Kenya
Swahili , and English 000000002011-09-01-0000September 1, 2011

Philippines
Philippines
Filipino , and English 000000002011-10-13-0000October 13, 2011

Singapore
Singapore
English , Malay , Chinese , and Tamil 000000002011-10-20-0000October 20, 2011

Belgium
Belgium
French , Dutch , and German 000000002011-11-16-0000November 16, 2011

Colombia
Colombia
Spanish 000000002011-11-30-0000November 30, 2011

Uganda
Uganda
English 000000002011-12-02-0000December 2, 2011

Nigeria
Nigeria
English 000000002011-12-07-0000December 7, 2011

Chile
Chile
Spanish 000000002012-01-20-0000January 20, 2012

Hungary
Hungary
Hungarian 000000002012-02-29-0000February 29, 2012

Malaysia
Malaysia
Malay , and English 000000002012-03-22-0000March 22, 2012

Peru
Peru
Spanish 000000002012-03-25-0000March 25, 2012

United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
Arabic , and English 000000002012-04-01-0000April 1, 2012

Greece
Greece
Greek 000000002012-05-01-0000May 1, 2012

Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesian , and English 000000002012-05-17-0000May 17, 2012

Ghana
Ghana
English 000000002012-06-05-0000June 5, 2012

Senegal
Senegal
French , and English 000000002012-07-04-0000July 4, 2012

Turkey
Turkey
Turkish 000000002012-10-01-0000October 1, 2012

Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukrainian 000000002012-12-13-0000December 13, 2012

Denmark
Denmark
Danish 000000002013-02-01-0000February 1, 2013

Finland
Finland
Finnish , and Swedish 000000002013-02-01-0000February 1, 2013

Norway
Norway
Norwegian 000000002013-02-01-0000February 1, 2013

Switzerland
Switzerland
German , French , and Italian 000000002013-03-29-0000March 29, 2013

Austria
Austria
German 000000002013-03-29-0000March 29, 2013

Romania
Romania
Romanian 000000002013-04-18-0000April 18, 2013

Portugal
Portugal
Portuguese 000000002013-04-25-0000April 25, 2013

Slovakia
Slovakia
Slovak 000000002013-04-25-0000April 25, 2013

Bahrain
Bahrain
Arabic 000000002013-08-16-0000August 16, 2013

Kuwait
Kuwait
Arabic 000000002013-08-16-0000August 16, 2013

Oman
Oman
Arabic 000000002013-08-16-0000August 16, 2013

Qatar
Qatar
Arabic 000000002013-08-16-0000August 16, 2013

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian , Croatian , and Serbian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgarian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

Croatia
Croatia
Croatian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

Estonia
Estonia
Estonian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

Latvia
Latvia
Latvian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuanian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

Macedonia Macedonian , Serbian , and Turkish 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

Montenegro
Montenegro
Serbian , and Croatian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

Serbia
Serbia
Serbian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014

Thailand
Thailand
Thai 000000002014-04-01-0000April 1, 2014

Lebanon
Lebanon
Arabic 000000002014-05-01-0000May 1, 2014

Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Spanish , and English 000000002014-08-23-0000August 23, 2014

Iceland
Iceland
Icelandic ?, 2014

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
French , and German ?, 2014

Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnamese 000000002014-10-01-0000October 1, 2014

Libya
Libya
Arabic 000000002015-02-01-0000February 1, 2015

Tanzania
Tanzania
Swahili , and English 000000002015-06-02-0000June 2, 2015

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
English 000000002015-06-02-0000June 2, 2015

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijani 000000002015-10-12-0000October 12, 2015

Belarus
Belarus
Russian 000000002015-10-12-0000October 12, 2015

Georgia Georgian 000000002015-10-12-0000October 12, 2015

Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakh 000000002015-10-12-0000October 12, 2015

Nepal
Nepal
Nepali 000000002016-01-12-0000January 12, 2016

Pakistan
Pakistan
Urdu
Urdu
, and English 000000002016-01-12-0000January 12, 2016

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sinhala , and Tamil 000000002016-01-12-0000January 12, 2016

Iraq
Iraq
Arabic ?, 2016

Jamaica
Jamaica
English ?, 2016

The YouTube
YouTube
interface suggests which local version should be chosen on the basis of the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content. The interface of the YouTube
YouTube
website is available in 76 language versions, including Amharic, Albanian, Armenian, Bengali, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian and Uzbek, which do not have local channel versions. Access to YouTube
YouTube
was blocked in Turkey
Turkey
between 2008 and 2010, following controversy over the posting of videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims. In October 2012, a local version of YouTube
YouTube
was launched in Turkey, with the domain youtube.com.tr. The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law. In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube
YouTube
and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube
YouTube
users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September 2009. In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.

YOUTUBE RED

Main article: YouTube Red

YouTube Red is YouTube's premium subscription service. It offers advertising-free streaming, access to exclusive content, background and offline video playback on mobile devices, and access to the Google Play Music "All Access" service. YouTube Red was originally announced on November 12, 2014, as "Music Key", a subscription music streaming service, and was intended to integrate with and replace the existing Google
Google
Play Music "All Access" service. On October 28, 2015, the service was re-launched as YouTube
YouTube
Red, offering ad-free streaming of all videos, as well as access to exclusive original content.

As of November 2016 , the service has 1.5 million subscribers, with a further million on a free-trial basis.

YOUTUBE TV

On February 28, 2017, in a press announcement held at YouTube
YouTube
Space Los Angeles, YouTube
YouTube
announced the launch of YouTube
YouTube
TV, an over-the-top MVPD -style subscription service that would be available for $35 per month. Initially launching in five major U.S. markets (New York City , Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, Chicago
Chicago
, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and San Francisco
San Francisco
) on April 5, 2017, the service offers live streams of programming from the five major broadcast networks (ABC , CBS
CBS
, The CW , Fox Broadcasting Company and NBC
NBC
), as well as approximately 40 cable channels owned by the corporate parents of those networks, The Walt Disney Company , CBS
CBS
Corporation , 21st Century Fox , and NBCUniversal (including among others Bravo , USA Network , Syfy , Disney Channel
Disney Channel
, E! , Fox Sports 1 , Freeform , FX and ESPN
ESPN
). Subscribers can also receive Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus as optional add-ons for an extra fee, and can access YouTube Red original content ( YouTube
YouTube
TV does not include a YouTube Red subscription).

SOCIAL IMPACT

Main article: Social impact of YouTube

Both private individuals and large production companies have used YouTube
YouTube
to grow audiences. Independent content creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved problematic. Concurrently, old media celebrities moved into the website at the invitation of a YouTube
YouTube
management that witnessed early content creators accruing substantial followings, and perceived audience sizes potentially larger than that attainable by television. YouTube channels launched by _ The Ellen DeGeneres Show _ and _The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon _ became two of the most subscribed . While YouTube's revenue-sharing "Partner Program" made it possible to earn a substantial living as a video producer—its top five hundred partners each earning more than $100,000 annually and its ten highest-earning channels grossing from $2.5 million to $12 million (the most successful of whom were YouTubers PewDiePie , Smosh , and the Fine Brothers ) —in 2012 CMU business editor characterized YouTube
YouTube
as "a free-to-use... promotional platform for the music labels". In 2013 _ Forbes
Forbes
_' Katheryn Thayer asserted that digital-era artists' work must not only be of high quality, but must elicit reactions on the YouTube
YouTube
platform and social media. Videos of the 2.5% of artists categorized as "mega", "mainstream" and "mid-sized" received 90.3% of the relevant views on YouTube
YouTube
and Vevo in that year, as the Vevo channels of Justin Bieber and Rihanna
Rihanna
became two of the top five most subscribed , and music videos outperformed other content in attracting the most views and the most likes , particularly in the cases of " Gangnam Style " in 2012 and " See You Again " in 2015. By early 2013 _Billboard _ had announced that it was factoring YouTube
YouTube
streaming data into calculation of the _Billboard_ Hot 100 and related genre charts. Jordan
Jordan
Hoffner at the 68th Annual Peabody Awards accepting for YouTube
YouTube

Observing that face-to-face communication of the type that online videos convey has been "fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution", TED curator Chris Anderson referred to several YouTube
YouTube
contributors and asserted that "what Gutenberg did for writing, online video can now do for face-to-face communication". Anderson asserted that it's not far-fetched to say that online video will dramatically accelerate scientific advance, and that video contributors may be about to launch "the biggest learning cycle in human history." In education, for example, the Khan Academy
Khan Academy
grew from YouTube
YouTube
video tutoring sessions for founder Salman Khan's cousin into what _Forbes_' Michael Noer called "the largest school in the world", with technology poised to disrupt how people learn. YouTube
YouTube
was awarded a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award , the website being described as a Speakers\' Corner that "both embodies and promotes democracy." _The Washington Post_ reported that a disproportionate share of YouTube's most subscribed channels feature minorities, contrasting with mainstream television in which the stars are largely white. A Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
study reported the development of "visual journalism", in which citizen eyewitnesses and established news organizations share in content creation. The study also concluded that YouTube
YouTube
was becoming an important platform by which people acquire news.

YouTube
YouTube
has enabled people to more directly engage with government, such as in the CNN/YouTube presidential debates (2007) in which ordinary people submitted questions to U.S. presidential candidates via YouTube
YouTube
video, with a techPresident co-founder saying that Internet
Internet
video was changing the political landscape. Describing the Arab Spring (2010- ), sociologist Philip N. Howard quoted an activist's succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using "Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube
YouTube
to tell the world." In 2012, more than a third of the U.S. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the " Kony 2012 " video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video "will do more to lead to (Kony's) demise than all other action combined." Leading YouTube
YouTube
content creators met at the White House with U.S. President Obama to discuss how government could better connect with the " YouTube
YouTube
generation".

Conversely, YouTube
YouTube
has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House
White House
's official YouTube
YouTube
channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube
YouTube
in 2012 and in 2013 a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson 's YouTube
YouTube
music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) -compliant health insurance. In February 2014, U.S. President Obama held a meeting at the White House with leading YouTube
YouTube
content creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the " YouTube
YouTube
Generation". Whereas YouTube's inherent ability to allow presidents to directly connect with average citizens was noted, the YouTube
YouTube
content creators' new media savvy was perceived necessary to better cope with the website's distracting content and fickle audience.

Some YouTube
YouTube
videos have themselves had a direct effect on world events, such as _ Innocence of Muslims _ (2012) which spurred protests and related anti-American violence internationally. TED curator Chris Anderson described a phenomenon by which geographically distributed individuals in a certain field share their independently developed skills in YouTube
YouTube
videos, thus challenging others to improve their own skills, and spurring invention and evolution in that field. Journalist Virginia Heffernan stated in _The New York Times_ that such videos have "surprising implications" for the dissemination of culture and even the future of classical music.

_ The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers _ and the YouTube
YouTube
Symphony Orchestra selected their membership based on individual video performances. Further, the cybercollaboration charity video "We Are the World
World
25 for Haiti ( YouTube
YouTube
edition) " was formed by mixing performances of 57 globally distributed singers into a single musical work, with _The Tokyo Times_ noting the "We Pray for You" YouTube cyber-collaboration video as an example of a trend to use crowdsourcing for charitable purposes. The anti-bullying It Gets Better Project expanded from a single YouTube
YouTube
video directed to discouraged or suicidal LGBT teens, that within two months drew video responses from hundreds including U.S. President Barack Obama, Vice President Biden, White House
White House
staff, and several cabinet secretaries. Similarly, in response to fifteen-year-old Amanda Todd 's video "My story: Struggling, bullying, suicide, self-harm", legislative action was undertaken almost immediately after her suicide to study the prevalence of bullying and form a national anti-bullying strategy.

REVENUE

Google
Google
does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material " in a regulatory filing. In June 2008, a _Forbes_ magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales. In January 2012, it was estimated that visitors to YouTube
YouTube
spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical U.S. citizen watching television. In 2012, YouTube's revenue from its ads program was estimated at 3.7 billion. In 2013 it nearly doubled and estimated to hit 5.6 billion dollars according to eMarketer, others estimated 4.7 billion, The vast majority of videos on YouTube
YouTube
are free to view and supported by advertising. In May 2013, YouTube
YouTube
introduced a trial scheme of 53 subscription channels with prices ranging from $0.99 to $6.99 a month. The move was seen as an attempt to compete with other providers of online subscription services such as Netflix and Hulu.

ADVERTISEMENT PARTNERSHIPS

YouTube
YouTube
entered into a marketing and advertising partnership with NBC in June 2006. In March 2007, it struck a deal with BBC
BBC
for three channels with BBC
BBC
content, one for news and two for entertainment. In November 2008, YouTube
YouTube
reached an agreement with MGM , Lions Gate Entertainment , and CBS
CBS
, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for US viewers called "Shows". The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox , and Disney . In November 2009, YouTube
YouTube
launched a version of "Shows" available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners. In January 2010, YouTube
YouTube
introduced an online film rentals service, which is available only to users in the US, Canada
Canada
and the UK as of 2010. The service offers over 6,000 films.

PARTNERSHIP WITH VIDEO CREATORS

In May 2007, YouTube
YouTube
launched its Partner Program, a system based on AdSense
AdSense
which allows the uploader of the video to share the revenue produced by advertising on the site. YouTube
YouTube
typically takes 45 percent of the advertising revenue from videos in the Partner Program, with 55 percent going to the uploader. There are over a million members of the YouTube
YouTube
Partner Program. According to TubeMogul , in 2013 a pre-roll advertisement on YouTube
YouTube
(one that is shown before the video starts) cost advertisers on average $7.60 per 1000 views. Usually no more than half of eligible videos have a pre-roll advertisement, due to a lack of interested advertisers. Assuming pre-roll advertisements on half of videos, a YouTube
YouTube
partner would earn 0.5 X $7.60 X 55% = $2.09 per 1000 views in 2013.

REVENUE TO COPYRIGHT HOLDERS

Much of YouTube's revenue goes to the copyright holders of the videos. In 2010, it was reported that nearly a third of the videos with advertisements were uploaded without permission of the copyright holders. YouTube
YouTube
gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for revenue. In May 2013, Nintendo
Nintendo
began enforcing its copyright ownership and claiming the advertising revenue from video creators who posted screenshots of its games. In February 2015, Nintendo
Nintendo
agreed to share the revenue with the video creators.

COMMUNITY POLICY

YouTube
YouTube
has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features. Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos , content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behavior. Despite the guidelines, YouTube
YouTube
has faced criticism from news sources for content in violation of these guidelines.

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

At the time of uploading a video, YouTube
YouTube
users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws. Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material on YouTube. YouTube
YouTube
does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright
Copyright
Infringement Liability Limitation Act . Any successful complaint about copyright infringement results in a YouTube copyright strike . Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted. Organizations including Viacom , Mediaset , and the English Premier League
Premier League
have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material. Viacom, demanding $1 billion in damages, said that it had found more than 150,000 unauthorized clips of its material on YouTube
YouTube
that had been viewed "an astounding 1.5 billion times". YouTube
YouTube
responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works".

During the same court battle, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube
YouTube
to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation , which called the court ruling "a setback to privacy rights". In June 2010, Viacom's lawsuit against Google
Google
was rejected in a summary judgment, with U.S. federal Judge Louis L. Stanton stating that Google
Google
was protected by provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright
Copyright
Act. Viacom announced its intention to appeal the ruling. On April 5, 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reinstated the case, allowing Viacom's lawsuit against Google
Google
to be heard in court again. On March 18, 2014, the lawsuit was settled after seven years with an undisclosed agreement.

In August 2008, a US court ruled in _ Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. _ that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her 13-month-old son dancing to Prince 's song "Let\'s Go Crazy ", and posted the 29-second video on YouTube. In the case of _Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC _, professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright takedown notices on YouTube. He asserted seven causes of action , and four were ruled in Smith's favor.

In April 2012, a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube
YouTube
could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. The performance rights organization GEMA argued that YouTube
YouTube
had not done enough to prevent the uploading of German copyrighted music. YouTube responded by stating:

“ _We remain committed to finding a solution to the music licensing issue in Germany
Germany
that will benefit artists, composers, authors, publishers and record labels, as well as the wider YouTube
YouTube
community_.

On November 1, 2016, the dispute with GEMA was resolved, with Google content ID being used to allow advertisements to be added to videos with content protected by GEMA.

In April 2013, it was reported that Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents content blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the video files a DMCA counter-notice. When a dispute occurs, the uploader of the video has to contact UMG. YouTube's owner Google
Google
announced in November 2015 that they would help cover the legal cost in select cases where they believe "fair use" laws apply.

Content ID

See also: Criticism of Google
Google
§ YouTube
YouTube

In June 2007, YouTube
YouTube
began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. Google
Google
CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom , which alleged that YouTube
YouTube
profited from content that it did not have the right to distribute. The system, which became known as Content ID, creates an ID File
File
for copyrighted audio and video material, and stores it in a database. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found. When this occurs, the content owner has the choice of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video, or adding advertisements to the video. YouTube
YouTube
describes Content ID as "very accurate in finding uploads that look similar to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File". Content ID accounts for over a third of the monetized views on YouTube.

An independent test in 2009 uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube, and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible. The use of Content ID to remove material automatically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a human for fair use. If a YouTube user disagrees with a decision by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision. YouTube
YouTube
has cited the effectiveness of Content ID as one of the reasons why the site's rules were modified in December 2010 to allow some users to upload videos of unlimited length.

CONTROVERSIAL CONTENT

See also: Criticism of Google
Google
§ YouTube
YouTube
, and Censorship by Google § YouTube
YouTube

YouTube
YouTube
has also faced criticism over the offensive content in some of its videos. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is forbidden by YouTube's "Community Guidelines". YouTube
YouTube
relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a YouTube
YouTube
employee will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site's guidelines.

Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster , in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989. In July 2008, the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was "unimpressed" with YouTube's system for policing its videos, and argued that "proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated content". YouTube responded by stating:

We have strict rules on what's allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 review team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube
YouTube
page to make this process as easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly. (July 2008)

In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube
YouTube
to remove from its website videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki . YouTube pulled some of the videos in November 2010, stating they violated the site's guidelines. In December 2010, YouTube
YouTube
added the ability to flag videos for containing terrorism content.

YouTube's policies on "advertiser-friendly content " restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized; this includes strong violence, language, sexual content, and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown", unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain". In September 2016, after introducing an enhanced notification system to inform users of these violations, YouTube's policies were criticized by prominent users, including Phillip DeFranco and Vlogbrothers . DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertising revenue on such videos was "censorship by a different name". A YouTube
YouTube
spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had "improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators."

In March 2017, the government of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremism content. The government demanded assurances that its advertising would "be delivered in a safe and appropriate way". _ The Guardian
The Guardian
_ newspaper, as well as other major British and U.S. brands, similarly suspended their advertising on YouTube
YouTube
in response to their advertising appearing near offensive content. Google
Google
stated that it had "begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear". In early-April 2017, the YouTube
YouTube
channel h3h3Productions presented evidence claiming that a _ Wall Street Journal
Wall Street Journal
_ article had fabricated screenshots showing major brand advertising on an offensive video containing Johnny Rebel music overlaid on a Chief Keef music video, citing that the video itself had not earned any ad revenue for the uploader. The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had actually been triggered by the use of copyrighted content in the video.

On April 6, 2017, YouTube
YouTube
announced that in order to "ensure revenue only flows to creators who are playing by the rules", it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy compliance review, and have at least 10,000 lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program.

USER COMMENTS

See also: Criticism of Google
Google
§ YouTube
YouTube
user comments

Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In 2006, _Time _ praised Web 2.0 for enabling "community and collaboration on a scale never seen before", and added that YouTube "harnesses the stupidity of crowds as well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube
YouTube
make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred". _ The Guardian
The Guardian
_ in 2009 described users' comments on YouTube
YouTube
as:

“ _Juvenile, aggressive, misspelled, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL, YouTube
YouTube
comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance – with the occasional burst of wit shining through_. ”

In September 2008, _ The Daily Telegraph _ commented that YouTube
YouTube
was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube
YouTube
Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts". _ The Huffington Post _ noted in April 2012 that finding comments on YouTube
YouTube
that appear "offensive, stupid and crass" to the "vast majority" of the people is hardly difficult.

On November 6, 2013, Google
Google
implemented a comment system oriented on Google+
Google+
that required all YouTube
YouTube
users to use a Google+
Google+
account in order to comment on videos. The stated motivation for the change was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone. The new system restored the ability to include URLs in comments, which had previously been removed due to problems with abuse. In response, YouTube
YouTube
co-founder Jawed Karim posted the question "why the fuck do I need a google+ account to comment on a video?" on his YouTube
YouTube
channel to express his negative opinion of the change. The official YouTube announcement received 20,097 "thumbs down" votes and generated more than 32,000 comments in two days. Writing in the _Newsday_ blog Silicon Island, Chase Melvin noted that " Google+
Google+
is nowhere near as popular a social media network as Facebook, but it's essentially being forced upon millions of YouTube
YouTube
users who don't want to lose their ability to comment on videos" and "Discussion forums across the Internet
Internet
are already bursting with outcry against the new comment system". In the same article Melvin goes on to say:

“ _Perhaps user complaints are justified, but the idea of revamping the old system isn't so bad._

_Think of the crude, misogynistic and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube
YouTube
without any discernible moderation. Isn't any attempt to curb unidentified libelers worth a shot? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity._ ”

On July 27, 2015, Google
Google
announced in a blog post that it would be removing the requirement to sign up to a Google+
Google+
account to post comments to YouTube.

On November 3, 2016, YouTube
YouTube
announced a trial scheme which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially offensive comments.

VIEW COUNTS

In December 2012, two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by _ The Daily Dot _ that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts. This was disputed by _Billboard_, which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube. On August 5, 2015, YouTube
YouTube
removed the feature which caused a video's view count to freeze at "301" (later "301+") until the actual count was verified to prevent view count fraud . YouTube
YouTube
view counts now update in real time.

CENSORSHIP AND FILTERING

_ This section needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2017)_

Main article: Censorship of YouTube

As of September 2012, countries with standing national bans on YouTube
YouTube
include China, Iran, and Turkmenistan.

YouTube
YouTube
is blocked for a variety of reasons, including:

* Limiting public exposure to content that may ignite social or political unrest; * Preventing criticism of a ruler, government, government officials, religion, or religious leaders;

* Violations of national laws, including:

* Copyright
Copyright
and intellectual property protection laws; * Violations of hate speech, ethics, or morality-based laws; and * National security legislation.

* Preventing access to videos judged to be inappropriate for youth; * Reducing distractions at work or school; and * Reducing the amount of network bandwidth used.

In some countries, YouTube
YouTube
is completely blocked, either through a long term standing ban or for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries. In other countries access to the website as a whole remains open, but access to specific videos is blocked. In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube
YouTube
will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service.

Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to bandwidth limitations and the site's potential for distraction.

Several countries have blocked access to YouTube:

* Iran temporarily blocked access on December 3, 2006, to YouTube and several other sites, after declaring them as violating social and moral codes of conduct. The YouTube
YouTube
block came after a video was posted online that appeared to show an Iranian soap opera star having sex. The block was later lifted and then reinstated after Iran\'s 2009 presidential election . In 2012, Iran reblocked access, along with access to Google, after the controversial film _Innocence of Muslims _ trailer was released on YouTube. * Thailand
Thailand
blocked access between 2006 and 2007 due to offensive videos relating to King Bhumibol Adulyadej
Bhumibol Adulyadej
. * Some Australian state education departments block YouTube
YouTube
citing "an inability to determine what sort of video material might be accessed" and "There's no educational value to it and the content of the material on the site." * China blocked access from October 15, 2007 to March 22, 2008, and again starting on March 24, 2009. Access remains blocked. * Morocco
Morocco
blocked access in May 2007, possibly as a result of videos critical of Morocco's actions in Western Sahara. YouTube
YouTube
became accessible again on May 30, 2007, after _Maroc Telecom_ unofficially announced that the denied access to the website was a mere "technical glitch". * Turkey
Turkey
blocked access between 2008 and 2010 after controversy over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk . In November 2010, a video of the Turkish politician Deniz Baykal caused the site to be blocked again briefly, and the site was threatened with a new shutdown if it did not remove the video. During the two and a half-year block of YouTube, the video-sharing website remained the eighth most-accessed site in Turkey. In 2014, Turkey
Turkey
blocked the access for the second time, after "a high-level intelligence leak." * Pakistan
Pakistan
blocked access on February 23, 2008, because of "offensive material" towards the Islamic faith, including display of the Danish cartoons of Muhammad
Muhammad
. This led to a near global blackout of the YouTube
YouTube
site for around two hours, as the Pakistani block was inadvertently transferred to other countries. On February 26, 2008, the ban was lifted after the website had removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. Many Pakistanis circumvented the three-day block by using virtual private network software. In May 2010, following the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day , Pakistan
Pakistan
again blocked access to YouTube, citing "growing sacrilegious content". The ban was lifted on May 27, 2010, after the website removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. However, individual videos deemed offensive to Muslims posted on YouTube
YouTube
will continue to be blocked. Pakistan again placed a ban on YouTube
YouTube
in September 2012, after the site refused to remove the film _ Innocence of Muslims _, with the ban still in operation as of September 2013. The ban was lifted in January 2016 after YouTube
YouTube
launched a Pakistan-specific version. * Turkmenistan blocked access on December 25, 2009, for unknown reasons. Other websites, such as LiveJournal were also blocked. * Libya
Libya
blocked access on January 24, 2010, because of videos that featured demonstrations in the city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996, and videos of family members of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
at parties. The blocking was criticized by Human Rights Watch . In November 2011, after the Libyan Civil War , YouTube
YouTube
was once again allowed in Libya. * Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Russia, and Sudan blocked access in September 2012 following controversy over a 14-minute trailer for the film _ Innocence of Muslims _ which had been posted on the site. * In Libya
Libya
and Egypt, the _Innocence of Muslims_ trailer was blamed for violent protests in September 2012. YouTube
YouTube
stated that "This video—which is widely available on the Web—is clearly within our guidelines and so will stay on YouTube. However, given the very difficult situation in Libya
Libya
and Egypt
Egypt
we have temporarily restricted access in both countries."

MUSIC KEY LICENSING

In May 2014, before YouTube's subscription-based Music Key service was launched, the independent music trade organization Worldwide Independent Network alleged that YouTube
YouTube
was using non-negotiable contracts with independent labels that were "undervalued" in comparison to other streaming services, and that YouTube
YouTube
would block all music content from labels who do not reach a deal to be included on the paid service. In a statement to the _ Financial Times _ in June 2014, Robert Kyncl confirmed that YouTube
YouTube
would block the content of labels who do not negotiate deals to be included in the paid service "to ensure that all content on the platform is governed by its new contractual terms." Stating that 90% of labels had reached deals, he went on to say that "while we wish that we had 100% success rate, we understand that is not likely an achievable goal and therefore it is our responsibility to our users and the industry to launch the enhanced music experience." The _Financial Times_ later reported that YouTube
YouTube
had reached an aggregate deal with Merlin Network —a trade group representing over 20,000 independent labels, for their inclusion in the service. However, YouTube
YouTube
itself has not confirmed the deal.

NSA PRISM PROGRAM

Following media reports about PRISM , NSA's massive electronic surveillance program, in June 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants, including YouTube. According to leaks of said program, YouTube
YouTube
joined the PRISM program in 2010.

APRIL FOOLS

YouTube
YouTube
featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year from 2008 to 2016.

In 2008, all the links to the videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley
Rick Astley
's music video " Never Gonna Give You Up ", a prank known as " Rickrolling ".

In 2009, when clicking on a video on the main page, the whole page turned upside down. YouTube
YouTube
claimed that this was a "new layout".

In 2010, YouTube
YouTube
temporarily released a "TEXTp" mode, which translated the colors in the videos to random upper case letters. YouTube
YouTube
claimed in a message that this was done in order to reduce bandwidth costs by $1 per second.

In 2011, the site celebrated its "100th anniversary" with a "1911 button" and a range of sepia-toned silent, early 1900s-style films, including "Flugelhorn Feline", a parody of Keyboard Cat .

In 2012, clicking on the image of a DVD next to the site logo led to a video about "The YouTube
YouTube
Collection", a purported option to order every YouTube
YouTube
video for home delivery on DVD, videocassette, LaserDisc , or Betamax tapes. The spoof promotional video touted "the complete YouTube
YouTube
experience completely offline."

In 2013, YouTube
YouTube
teamed up with satirical newspaper company _The Onion _ to claim that the video sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would announce a winner of the contest when the site went back up in 2023. A video of two presenters announcing the nominees streamed live for twelve hours.

In 2014, YouTube
YouTube
announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming memes, such as "Clocking", "Kissing Dad", and "Glub Glub Water Dance".

In 2015, YouTube
YouTube
added a music button to the video bar that played samples from "Sandstorm " by Darude . Additionally, when users searched for a song title, a message would appear saying "Did you mean: Darude – Sandstorm by Darude".

In 2016, YouTube
YouTube
announced "SnoopaVision Beta", telling their users that soon they would have the option to watch every video on the platform in 360-degree mode with Snoop Dogg .

SEE ALSO

LISTEN TO THIS ARTICLE (info/dl )

_ This audio file was created from a revision of the "YouTube" article dated 2011-03-26, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help ) MORE SPOKEN ARTICLES

* Alphabet portal * Companies portal * Google
Google
portal * Internet
Internet
portal * San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area portal * United States
United States
portal

* CNN-YouTube presidential debates * List of most viewed YouTube videos * List of YouTubers * BookTube * Ouellette v. Viacom International Inc. _ * Reply Girls * YouTube Awards * YouTube Instant * YouTube Live * YouTube Multi Channel Network * YouTube Symphony Orchestra * _ Viacom International Inc. v. YouTube, Inc. _

GENERAL

* Alternative media
Alternative media
* Comparison of video hosting services * List of Internet
Internet
phenomena * List of video hosting services

REFERENCES

NOTES

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launches YouTube
YouTube
Chile
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Launches Hungarian YouTube
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FURTHER READING

* Kelsey, Todd (2010). _Social Networking Spaces: From Facebook to Twitter and Everything In Between_. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-1-4302-2596-6 . * Lacy, Sarah (2008). _The Stories of Fa