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Commelinids
In plant taxonomy, COMMELINIDS (originally COMMELINOIDS ) (plural, not capitalised) is a name used by the APG IV system for a clade within the monocots , which in its turn is a clade within the angiosperms . The commelinids are the only clade that the APG has informally named within the monocots. The remaining monocots are a paraphyletic unit. Also known as the COMMELINID MONOCOTS it forms one of three groupings within the monocots, and the final branch, the other two groups being the alismatid monocots and the lilioid monocots . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Subdivision * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONMembers of the commelinid clade have cell walls containing UV -fluorescent ferulic acid . TAXONOMYThe commelinids were first recognized as a formal group in 1967 by Armen Takhtajan , who named them the Commelinidae and assigned them to a subclass of the monocots
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UV
ULTRAVIOLET (UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays . UV radiation constitutes about 10% of the total light output of the Sun, and is thus present in sunlight . It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps , tanning lamps , and black lights . Although it's not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms , long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce . Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan , freckling and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure, along with higher risk of skin cancer
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Cell Wall
A CELL WALL is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells , situated outside the cell membrane . It can be tough, flexible, and sometimes rigid. It provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. Cell walls are present in most prokaryotes (except mycoplasma bacteria), in algae , plants and fungi but rarely in other eukaryotes including animals. A major function is to act as pressure vessels, preventing over-expansion of the cell when water enters. The composition of cell walls varies between species and may depend on cell type and developmental stage. The primary cell wall of land plants is composed of the polysaccharides cellulose , hemicellulose and pectin . Often, other polymers such as lignin , suberin or cutin are anchored to or embedded in plant cell walls
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the ISO
ISO
. An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata
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Botanical Journal Of The Linnean Society
The BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY is a scientific journal publishing original papers relating to the taxonomy of all plant groups and fungi , including anatomy , biosystematics , cytology , ecology , ethnobotany , electron microscopy , morphogenesis , palaeobotany , palynology and phytochemistry . The journal is published by the Linnean Society
Linnean Society
of London and is available in both print and searchable online formats. Like the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
Linnean Society
(published since 1858), the journal evolved from the Society's original journal Transactions, which covered early papers by Darwin and Wallace , becoming an essential, contemporary publication for all those currently working in the field of botany
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Fluorescence
FLUORESCENCE is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation . It is a form of luminescence . In most cases, the emitted light has a longer wavelength , and therefore lower energy, than the absorbed radiation. The most striking example of fluorescence occurs when the absorbed radiation is in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum , and thus invisible to the human eye, while the emitted light is in the visible region, which gives the fluorescent substance a distinct color that can only be seen when exposed to UV light
UV light
. Fluorescent materials cease to glow immediately when the radiation source stops, unlike phosphorescence , where it continues to emit light for some time after
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Armen Takhtajan
ARMEN LEONOVICH TAKHTAJAN or TAKHTAJIAN (Armenian : Արմեն Լևոնի Թախտաջյան; Russian : Армен Леонович Тахтаджян; surname also transliterated Takhtadjan, Takhtadzhi︠a︡n or Takhtadzhian, pronounced TAHK-tuh-jahn) (June 10, 1910 – November 13, 2009), was a Soviet -Armenian botanist , one of the most important figures in 20th century plant evolution and systematics and biogeography . His other interests included morphology of flowering plants , paleobotany , and the flora of the Caucasus
Caucasus
. He was born in Shusha . He was one of the most influential taxonomists of the latter twentieth century
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APG System
The APG SYSTEM (ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP SYSTEM) of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular -based, system of plant taxonomy . Published in 1998 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group , it was replaced by the improved APG II in 2003, APG III system in 2009 and APG IV system in 2016. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Groups * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe original APG system is unusual in being based, not on total evidence, but on the cladistic analysis of the DNA sequences of three genes, two chloroplast genes and one gene coding for ribosomes. Although based on molecular evidence only, its constituent groups prove to be supported by other evidence as well, for example pollen morphology supports the split between the eudicots and the rest of the former dicotyledons
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Phylogenetics
In biology , PHYLOGENETICS /ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, -lə-/ (Greek : φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon = tribe, clan, race + γενετικός - genetikós = origin, source, birth) is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms (e.g. species , or populations ). These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA
DNA
sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits. The result of these analyses is a phylogeny (also known as a phylogenetic tree ) – a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, and represent the "end," or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. Phylogenetic analyses have become central to understanding biodiversity, evolution, ecology, and genomes
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Annals Of The Missouri Botanical Garden
The ANNALS OF THE MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN is a long-established major peer-reviewed journal of botany, established in 1914 by the Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
, under the directorship of botanist and phycologist, George Thomas Moore , and still published quarterly as of 2010 by the Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
Press . The standardized abbreviation for the citation of the journal is ANN. MISSOURI BOT. GARD. REFERENCES * ^ Kleinman, K. (April 2010). "George Thomas MOORE: botanist (phycologist), administrator.". Archives of natural history. 37: 173–174
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor ; short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals , it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals. As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR; most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Content * 3 Access * 3.1 Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
incident * 3.2 Limitations * 3.3 Increasing public access * 4 Use * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORY William G. Bowen , president of Princeton University
Princeton University
from 1972 to 1988, founded JSTOR
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Paraphyly
In taxonomy , a group is PARAPHYLETIC if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a PARAPHYLY. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology ) and in linguistics . The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like reptiles (Reptilia) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids —except for mammals and birds . Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish , monkeys and lizards . If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
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Douglas E. Soltis
DOUGLAS SOLTIS is a Distinguished Professor in the Laboratory of Molecular Systematics ">p.s. Soltis, d.e. Soltis. 2004. The origin and diversification of angiosperms. Am. J. of Botany 91: 1614-1626 * s. Kim, v.a. Albert, m-j. Yoo, j.s. Farris, p.s. Soltis, d.e. Soltis. 2004. Pre-angiosperm duplication of floral genes and regulatory tinkering at the base of angiosperms. Am. J. of Botany 91: 2102-2118 * j.c. Pires, k.y. Lim, a. Kovarík, r. Matyásek, a. Boyd, a.r. Leitch, i.j. Leitch, m.d. Bennett, p.s. Soltis, d.e. Soltis. 2004. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of recently evolved Tragopogon ( Asteraceae
Asteraceae
) allopolyploids reveal a karyotype that is additive of the diploid progenitors. Am. J. of Botany 91: 1022-1035 * t.j. Davies, t.g. Barraclough, m.w. Chase, p.s. Soltis, d.e. Soltis, v. Savolainen. 2004. Darwin's abominable mystery: Insights from a supertree of the angiosperms
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Wikispecies
WIKISPECIES is a wiki -based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation . Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species ; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies
Wikispecies
is available under the GNU Free Documentation License
GNU Free Documentation License
and CC BY-SA 3.0 . Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to articles on individual species by April 2005
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National Center For Biotechnology Information
The NATIONAL CENTER FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY INFORMATION (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988 through legislation sponsored by Senator Claude Pepper . The NCBI houses a series of databases relevant to biotechnology and biomedicine and is an important resource for bioinformatics tools and services. Major databases include GenBank
GenBank
for DNA
DNA
sequences and PubMed , a bibliographic database for the biomedical literature. Other databases include the NCBI Epigenomics database. All these databases are available online through the Entrez search engine