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Colony
In politics and history , a COLONY is a territory under the immediate political control of a state , distinct from the home territory of the sovereign. For colonies in antiquity , city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception. The METROPOLITAN STATE is the state that rules the colony. In Ancient Greece , the city that founded a colony was known as the metropolis . "Mother country" is a reference to the metropolitan state from the point of view of citizens who live in its colony. There is a United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories . Unlike a puppet state or satellite state , a colony has no independent international representation, and its top-level administration is under direct control of the metropolitan state
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Puerto Rico
Coordinates : 18°12′N 66°30′W / 18.2°N 66.5°W / 18.2; -66.5 Commonwealth of Puerto Rico _Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico_ (Spanish ) Flag Seal MOTTO: "Joannes est nomen ejus " (Latin ) "John is his name" ANTHEM: " La Borinqueña " "The Borinquenian" " The Star-Spangled Banner " COAT OF ARMS STATUS Unincorporated territory Capital and largest city San Juan 18°27′N 66°6′W / 18.450°N 66.100°W / 18.450; -66.100 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Spanish (most commonly used) English COMMON LANGUAGES 94.7% Spanish 5.3% English ETHNIC GROUPS 75.8% White 12.4% Black 3.3% Two or more races 0.5% American Indian MARGIN-LEFT:1.2EM;FONT-WEIGHT:NORMAL;">• PRESIDENT Donald Trump (R ) • GOVERNOR Ricky Rosselló (NPP ) • U.S
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Politics
POLITICS (from Greek: Politiká: _Politika_, definition "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state . Furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community (this is usually a hierarchically organized population) as well as the interrelationship(s) between communities. A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting or forcing one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws , and exercising force , including warfare against adversaries
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History
HISTORY (from Greek ἱστορία, _historia_, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory . It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians . History can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present
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Territory (country Subdivision)
A TERRITORY is an administrative division , usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state . In most countries , a territory is an organized division of an area that is controlled by a country but is not formally developed into, or incorporated into, a political unit of the country that is of equal status to other political units that may often be referred to by words such as "provinces" or "states". In international politics , a territory is usually a non-sovereign geographic area which has come under the authority of another government; which has not been granted the powers of self-government normally devolved to secondary territorial divisions; or both
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Sovereign State
A SOVEREIGN STATE is, in international law , a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government , and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states . It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state . The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact . While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states , unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states
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Colonies In Antiquity
COLONIES IN ANTIQUITY were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large. Bonds between a colony and its metropolis remained often close, and took specific forms. However, unlike in the period of European colonialism during the early and late modern era , ancient colonies were usually sovereign and self-governing from their inception. CONTENTS * 1 Egyptian colony * 2 Phoenician colonies * 3 Greek colonies * 3.1 Relations of colony and metropolis * 4 Roman colonies * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Further reading * 8 External links EGYPTIAN COLONYAn Egyptian colony that was stationed in southern Canaan dates to slightly before the First Dynasty . Narmer
Narmer
had Egyptian pottery produced in Canaan and exported back to Egypt
Egypt
, from regions such as Arad , En Besor , Rafiah , and Tel ʿErani
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City-state
A CITY-STATE is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome , Athens
Athens
, Carthage
Carthage
, and the Italian city-states during the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Today only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Singapore , Monaco
Monaco
, and Vatican City
Vatican City
. City states are also sometimes called micro-states which however also includes other configurations of very small countries. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, and therefore are sometimes also cited as modern city-states
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Ancient Greece
ANCIENT GREECE was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece , Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin . This was followed by the period of Classical Greece , an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars , lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia , Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea
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Metropolis
A METROPOLIS (/mᵻˈtrɒpəlɪs, -plɪs/ ) is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic , political , and cultural center for a country or region , and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications. The term is Greek (Greek : μητρόπολη) and means the "mother city" of a colony (in the ancient sense), that is, the city which sent out settlers. This was later generalized to a city regarded as a center of a specified activity, or any large, important city in a nation. A big city belonging to a larger urban agglomeration, but which is not the core of that agglomeration, is not generally considered a metropolis but a part of it. The plural of the word is metropolises, although the Latin plural is "metropoles", from the Greek "metropoleis" (Greek : μητρoπόλεις)
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United Nations List Of Non-Self-Governing Territories
A TERRITORY is an administrative division , usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state . In most countries , a _territory_ is an organized division of an area that is controlled by a country but is not formally developed into, or incorporated into, a political unit of the country that is of equal status to other political units that may often be referred to by words such as "provinces" or "states". In international politics , a _territory_ is usually a non-sovereign geographic area which has come under the authority of another government; which has not been granted the powers of self-government normally devolved to secondary territorial divisions; or both
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Puppet State
A PUPPET STATE is a metaphor of a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power. It is nominally sovereign but effectively controlled by a foreign or otherwise alien power, for reasons such as financial interests. A puppet state preserves the external paraphernalia of independence like a name, flag, anthem, constitution, law codes and motto but in reality is an organ of another state which created or sponsored the government. Puppet states are not recognized as legitimate under international law
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Satellite State
The term SATELLITE STATE designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political , economic and military influence or control from another country. The term was coined by analogy to planetary objects orbiting a larger object, such as smaller moons revolving around larger planets, and is used mainly to refer to Central and Eastern European countries of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War
Cold War
or to Mongolia
Mongolia
between 1924 and 1990, for example. As used for Central and Eastern European countries it implies that the countries in question were "satellites" under the hegemony of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union

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Colonus (person)
A COLONUS was a tenant farmer from the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and Early Middle Ages . Known plurally as coloni or colonate, these farmers were sharecroppers , who paid back landowners with a portion of their crops, in exchange for use of their farmlands. The coloni's tenant-landlord relationship eventually degraded into one of debt and dependence. As a result, the colonus became a new type of land tenancy , in which the occupants were placed in a state between freedom and slavery. CONTENTS * 1 Decline * 2 Taxation * 3 Latifundia and estates * 4 See also * 5 Books * 6 References DECLINEIn Italy, much of the agricultural land was leased to tenants. There was a concept in place that allowed the tenants to have tenure on the land, even though they were not the owners. Tax liabilities went with the sales of a land plot, but most of the taxed public land in Italy was leased rather than owned
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Farmer
A FARMER (also called an AGRICULTURER) is a person engaged in agriculture , raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops , orchards , vineyards , poultry , or other livestock . A farmer might own the farmed land or might work as a labourer on land owned by others, but in advanced economies, a farmer is usually a farm owner, while employees of the farm are known as farm workers, or farmhands. However, in the not so distant past a farmer was a person who promotes or improves the growth of (a plant, crop, etc.) by labor and attention, land or crops or raises animals (as livestock or fish). CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Advancements in technology * 2 Types * 2.1 Techniques * 3 Farming organizations * 4 Income * 5 Occupational hazards * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYFarming has been dated back as far as the Neolithic era
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