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Clothing
CLOTHING (also known as CLOTHES and ATTIRE) is fiber and textile material worn on the body. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of nearly all human societies . The amount and type of clothing worn depends on body type, social, and geographic considerations. Some clothing can be gender-specific. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements , and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking. It protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters, thorns and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions. Further, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing also provides protection from ultraviolet radiation . Wearing clothes is also a social norm , as being deprived of clothing in front of others may be embarrassing , or not wearing clothes in public to the extent that genitals , breasts or buttocks are visible could be seen as indecent exposure
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History Of Clothing And Textiles
The study of the HISTORY OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILES traces the availability and use of textiles and other materials and the development of technology for the making of clothing over human history. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of most human societies. It is not known when humans began wearing clothes but anthropologists believe that animal skins and vegetation were adapted into coverings as protection from cold, heat and rain, especially as humans migrated to new climates. Clothing and textiles have been important in human history and reflect the materials available to a civilization as well as the technologies that had been mastered. The social significance of the finished product reflects their culture . Textiles
Textiles
can be felt or spun fibers made into yarn and subsequently netted , looped, knit or woven to make fabrics, which appeared in the Middle East during the late stone age . From the ancient times to the present day, methods of textile production have continually evolved, and the choices of textiles available have influenced how people carried their possessions, clothed themselves, and decorated their surroundings
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Human Being
Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens Homo
Homo
sapiens population density SYNONYMS Species
Species
synonymy * aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * americanus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * arabicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * aurignacensis Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 * australasicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * cafer Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * capensis Broom, 1917 * columbicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 * drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 * eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911) * grimaldiensis Gregory, 1921 * grimaldii Lapouge, 1906 * hottentotus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * hyperboreus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * indicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * japeticus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * melaninus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * monstrosus Linnaeus, 1758 * neptunianus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * palestinus McCown high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies . Early hominins—particularly the australopithecines , whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes —are less often referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo
Homo

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Societies
A SOCIETY is a group of people involved in persistent social interaction , or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations ) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions ; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent of members. In the social sciences , a larger society often evinces stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups. Insofar as it is collaborative , a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes referred to as a subculture , a term used extensively within criminology . More broadly, and especially within structuralist thought , a society may be illustrated as an economic , social, industrial or cultural infrastructure , made up of, yet distinct from, a varied collection of individuals. In this regard society can mean the objective relationships people have with the material world and with other people, rather than "other people" beyond the individual and their familiar social environment
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Weather
WEATHER is the state of the atmosphere , to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere , just below the stratosphere . Weather
Weather
refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, "weather" is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth
Earth
. Weather
Weather
is driven by air pressure, temperature and moisture differences between one place and another. These differences can occur due to the sun's angle at any particular spot, which varies with latitude . The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric circulations : the Hadley Cell, the Ferrel Cell, the Polar Cell, and the jet stream . Weather
Weather
systems in the mid-latitudes , such as extratropical cyclones , are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Because the Earth's axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. On Earth's surface, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (−40 °F to 100 °F) annually
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Hiking
HIKING is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths ), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" is acceptable to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps
Alps
. The word hiking is also often used in the UK, along with RAMBLING (a slightly old-fashioned term), HILLWALKING , and FELL WALKING (a term mostly used for hillwalking in northern England). The term "bushwalking" is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927. In New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called TRAMPING . It is a popular activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide, and studies suggest that all forms of walking have health benefits. CONTENTS * 1 Related terms * 2 History * 2.1 United Kingdom * 2.2 United States * 3 Significant hiking destinations * 3.1 Long-distance hiking * 4 Equipment * 5 Environmental impact * 6 Etiquette * 7 Hazards * 8 See also * 8.1 Types * 8.2 Trails
Trails
* 8.3 Related activities * 9 Bibliography * 10 References * 11 External links RELATED TERMS Hiking
Hiking
in Argentina
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Insect
See text . INSECTS or INSECTA (from Latin _insectum_, a calque of Greek ἔντομον , "cut into sections") are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum . Definitions and circumscriptions vary; in one approach insects comprise a class within the Phylum Arthopoda. As the term is used here, it is synonymous with ECTOGNATHA. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton , a three-part body (head , thorax and abdomen ), three pairs of jointed legs , compound eyes and one pair of antennae . They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms . The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth. Insects may be found in nearly all environments , although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, a habitat dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans . The life cycles of insects vary but most hatch from eggs . Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts . The immature stages can differ from the adults in structure, habit and habitat, and can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo 4-stage metamorphosis (see holometabolism )
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Thorns, Spines, And Prickles
In plant morphology , THORNS, SPINES, and PRICKLES, and in general SPINOSE STRUCTURES (sometimes called spinose teeth or spinose apical processes), are hard, rigid extensions or modifications of leaves , roots , stems or buds with sharp, stiff ends, and generally serve the same function: physically deterring animals from eating the plant material. In common language the terms are used more or less interchangeably, but in botanical terms, thorns are derived from shoots (so that they may or may not be branched, they may or may not have leaves, and they may or may not arise from a bud), spines are derived from leaves (either the entire leaf or some part of the leaf that has vascular bundles inside, like the petiole or a stipule ), and prickles are derived from epidermis tissue (so that they can be found anywhere on the plant and do not have vascular bundles inside ). Leaf margins may also have teeth, and if those teeth are sharp, they are called spinose teeth on a spinose leaf margin (some authors consider them a kind of spine ). On a leaf apex, if there is an apical process (generally an extension of the midvein), and if it is especially sharp, stiff, and spine-like, it may be referred to as spinose or as a pungent apical process (again, some authors call them a kind of spine )
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Hygienic
HYGIENE is a set of practices performed for the preservation of health . According to the World Health
Health
Organization (WHO), "Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases." Whereas in popular culture and parlance it can often mean mere 'cleanliness', hygiene goes much beyond that to include all circumstances and practices, lifestyle issues, premises and commodities that engender a safe and healthy environment, especially in modern medicine . Some regular hygienic practices may be considered good habits by a society, while the neglect of hygiene can be considered disgusting, disrespectful or even threatening
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Ultraviolet
ULTRAVIOLET (UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays . UV radiation constitutes about 10% of the total light output of the Sun, and is thus present in sunlight . It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps , tanning lamps , and black lights . Although it is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms , long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce . Consequently, the biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan , freckling and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure, along with higher risk of skin cancer . Living things on dry land would be severely damaged by ultraviolet radiation from the Sun
Sun
if most of it were not filtered out by the Earth's atmosphere. More-energetic, shorter-wavelength "extreme" UV below 121 nm ionizes air so strongly that it is absorbed before it reaches the ground. Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
is also responsible for the formation of bone-strengthening vitamin D in most land vertebrates, including humans. The UV spectrum thus has effects both beneficial and harmful to human health
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Dress Code
DRESS CODES are written and, more often, unwritten rules with regard to clothing . Clothing, like other aspects of human physical appearance , has a social significance, with different rules and expectations applying depending on circumstance and occasion. Even within a single day an individual may need to navigate between two or more dress codes: at a minimum those that apply at their place of work and those at home; usually this ability is a result of cultural acclimatization. Different societies and cultures will have different dress norms, although Western styles are widely accepted as valid. The dress code has built in rules or signals indicating the message being given by a person's clothing and how it is worn. This message may include indications of the person's gender, income , occupation and social class , political, ethnic and religious affiliation, attitude towards comfort, fashion, traditions, gender expression, marital status, sexual availability, and sexual orientation, etc. Clothes convey other social messages including the stating or claiming personal or cultural identity , the establishing, maintaining, or defying social group norms , and appreciating comfort and functionality. For example, wearing expensive clothes can communicate wealth , the image of wealth, or to quality clothing. The observer sees the expensive clothes, but may misinterpret the extent to which these factors apply to the wearer
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Embarrassment
EMBARRASSMENT is an emotional state of intense discomfort with oneself, experienced when having a socially unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. Usually some amount of loss of honor or dignity is involved, but how much and the type depends on the embarrassing situation. It is similar to shame , except that shame may be experienced for an act known only to oneself. Also, embarrassment usually carries the connotation of being caused by an act that is merely socially unacceptable, rather than morally wrong. CONTENTS* 1 Causes * 1.1 Professional embarrassment * 1.2 Vicarious embarrassment * 1.3 Types in social psychology * 2 Etymology * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CAUSES Embarrassment can be personal, caused by unwanted attention to private matters or personal flaws or mishaps. Some causes of embarrassment stem from personal actions, such as being caught in a lie or in making a mistake, losing badly in a competition, or being caught performing bodily functions such as flatulence . In many cultures, being seen nude or inappropriately dressed is a particularly stressful form of embarrassment (see modesty )
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Breast
The BREAST is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates . In females, it serves as the mammary gland , which produces and secretes milk and feeds infants . Both females and males develop breasts from the same embryological tissues. At puberty , estrogens , in conjunction with growth hormone , cause breast development . Males do not develop pronounced or physiologically matured breasts because their bodies produce lower levels of estrogens and higher levels of androgens , namely testosterone , which suppress the effects of estrogens in developing breast tissue. The breasts of females are typically far more prominent than those of males. Subcutaneous fat covers and envelops a network of ducts that converge on the nipple , and these tissues give the breast its size and shape. At the ends of the ducts are lobules , or clusters of alveoli , where milk is produced and stored in response to hormonal signals . During pregnancy, the breast responds to a complex interaction of hormones , including estrogens, progesterone , and prolactin , that mediate the completion of its development, namely lobuloalveolar maturation, in preparation of lactation and breastfeeding . Upon childbirth, the alveoli are stimulated to produce and secrete milk for infants. Along with their function in feeding infants, female breasts have social and sexual characteristics
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Buttocks
The BUTTOCKS (singular: BUTTOCK) are two rounded portions of the anatomy, located on the posterior of the pelvic region of primates (including humans ), and many other bipeds or quadrupeds, and comprise a layer of fat superimposed on the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles . Physiologically, the buttocks enable weight to be taken off the feet while sitting. In many cultures, they play a role in sexual attraction . Many cultures have also used the buttocks as a primary target for corporal punishment , as the buttocks' layer of subcutaneous fat offers protection against injury while still allowing for the infliction of pain. There are several connotations of buttocks in art, fashion, culture and humor, and the English language is replete with many popular synonyms that range from polite colloquialisms ("posterior" or "bottom") to vulgar slang ("arse," "bum," "prat"). In humans the buttocks are located between the lower back and the perineum . CONTENTS * 1 Anatomy * 2 Society and culture * 2.1 Connotations * 2.2 Synonyms * 2.3 Related terms * 2.4 Fashion * 2.5 In popular culture * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ANATOMYThe buttocks are formed by the masses of the gluteal muscles or "glutes" (the gluteus maximus muscle and the gluteus medius muscle ) superimposed by a layer of fat . The superior aspect of the buttock ends at the iliac crest , and the lower aspect is outlined by the horizontal gluteal crease
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Indecent Exposure
As a legal expression, INDECENT EXPOSURE is the deliberate exposure in public or in view of the general public by a person of a portion or portions of his or her body, in circumstances where the exposure is contrary to local moral or other standards of appropriate behavior. Social and community attitudes to the exposing of various body parts and laws covering what is referred to as indecent exposure vary significantly in different countries. It ranges from outright prohibition to prohibition of exposure of certain body parts, such as the genital area , buttocks or breasts. Decency is generally judged by the standards of the local community, which are seldom codified in specifics in law. Such standards may be based on religion, morality or tradition, or justified on the basis of "necessary to public order ". Non-sexual exhibitionism or public nudity is sometimes considered indecent exposure. If sexual acts are performed, with or without an element of nudity, this can be considered gross indecency , which is usually a more serious criminal offence. In some countries, exposure of the body in breach of community standards of modesty is also considered to be public indecency. The legal and community standards of what states of undress constitute indecent exposure vary considerably, and depend on the context in which the exposure takes place. These standards have also varied over time, making the definition of indecent exposure itself a complex topic
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Evolution Of Hair
HAIR is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis , or skin. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals . The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin , is covered in follicles which produce thick terminal and fine vellus hair . Most common interest in hair is focused on hair growth , hair types and hair care , but hair is also an important biomaterial primarily composed of protein, notably alpha-keratin . Attitudes towards different hair, such as hairstyles and hair removal , vary widely across different cultures and historical periods, but it is often used to indicate a person's personal beliefs or social position, such as their age, sex, or religion
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