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Clothing
CLOTHING (also known as CLOTHES and ATTIRE) is fiber and textile material worn on the body. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of nearly all human societies . The amount and type of clothing worn depends on body type, social, and geographic considerations. Some clothing can be gender-specific. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements , and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking. It protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters, thorns and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions. Further, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing
Clothing
also provides protection from ultraviolet radiation
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Wind
WIND is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In outer space , solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the Sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale , their speed , the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, and their effect. The strongest observed winds on a planet in the Solar System occur on Neptune
Neptune
and Saturn
Saturn
. Winds have various aspects, an important one being its velocity (wind speed ); another the density of the gas involved; another its energy content or wind energy . In meteorology , winds are often referred to according to their strength, and the direction from which the wind is blowing. Short bursts of high speed wind are termed gusts
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Before Present
BEFORE PRESENT (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past. Because the "present" time changes, standard practice is to use 1 January 1950 as the commencement date of the age scale, reflecting the fact that radiocarbon dating became practical in the 1950s. The abbreviation "BP", with the same meaning, has also been interpreted as "Before Physics"; that is, before nuclear weapons testing artificially altered the proportion of the carbon isotopes in the atmosphere, making dating after that time likely to be unreliable. CONTENTS * 1 Usage of "BP" * 2 Radiocarbon dating * 3 Radiocarbon calibration * 4 Other dating conventions * 5 References USAGE OF "BP"The BP scale is sometimes used for dates established by means other than radiocarbon dating, such as stratigraphy
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Weapons
A WEAPON, ARM, or ARMAMENT is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm to living beings, structures, or systems. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting , crime , law enforcement , self-defense , and warfare . In a broader context, weapons may be construed to include anything used to gain a strategic, material or mental advantage over an adversary. While just about any ordinary objects such as sticks, stones, cars, or pencils can be used as weapons, many are expressly designed for the purpose – ranging from simple implements such as clubs , swords and guns , to complicated modern intercontinental ballistic missiles , biological and cyberweapons . Something that has been re-purposed, converted, or enhanced to become a weapon of war is termed WEAPONIZED, such as a weaponized virus or weaponized lasers
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Environment (biophysical)
The BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT is the biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population , and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution. The biophysical environment can vary in scale from microscopic to global in extent. It can also be subdivided according to its attributes. Examples include the marine environment , the atmospheric environment and the terrestrial environment . The number of biophysical environments is countless, given that each living organism has its own environment. The term environment is often used as a short form for the biophysical environment, e.g. the UK's Environment Agency
Environment Agency
. The expression "the environment" often refers to a singular global environment in relation to humanity
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Religion
RELIGION is any cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views , texts , sanctified places , ethics , or organizations , that relate humanity to the supernatural or transcendental . Religions relate humanity to what anthropologist Clifford Geertz has referred to as a cosmic "order of existence". However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine , sacred things , faith , a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals , sermons , commemoration or veneration (of deities ), sacrifices , festivals , feasts , trances , initiations , funerary services , matrimonial services , meditation , prayer , music , art , dance , public service , or other aspects of human culture
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Infant
An INFANT (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "BABY", the very young offspring of a human or other animal. A NEWBORN is, in colloquial use, an infant who is only hours, days, or up to one month old. In medical contexts, newborn or NEONATE (from Latin, neonatus, newborn) refers to an infant in the first 28 days after birth; the term applies to premature , full term , and postmature infants; before birth, the term "fetus " is used. The term "infant" is typically applied to young children between one month and one year of age; however, definitions may vary and may include children up to two years of age. When a human child learns to walk, the term "toddler " may be used instead. In British English
British English
, "infant" is a term that can be applied to school children aged between four and seven . As a legal term, "infancy" continues from birth until age 18
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Winter
WINTER is the coldest season of the year in polar and temperate climates , between autumn and spring . Winter
Winter
is caused by the axis of the Earth in that hemisphere being oriented away from the Sun
Sun
. Different cultures define different dates as the start of winter, and some use a definition based on weather. When it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
, it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
, and vice versa. In many regions, winter is associated with snow and freezing temperatures. The moment of winter solstice is when the sun's elevation with respect to the North or South Pole is at its most negative value (that is, the sun is at its farthest below the horizon as measured from the pole), meaning this day will have the shortest day and the longest night
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Air Conditioned Clothing
AIR CONDITIONED CLOTHING is a term for clothing that actively cools down the wearer. It has primarily been used by workers in areas where air conditioning systems cannot be easily installed, such as tunnels and underground construction sites. Air-conditioned clothing on the market does not operate by actually cooling down the air, as a room AC unit does. Instead, it increases the natural body cooling of the wearer by blowing air and sometimes water vapor around the body, decreasing skin temperature by the evaporation of sweat and vapor. Patents for air conditioned clothing have been around for years, but few products have actually made it to market. The company that brought air conditioned shirts to market is Octocool, which is the largest online distributor of air conditioned clothes. Attached to the clothing are two lightweight fans that help draw in air and help vaporize sweat
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Armor
An ARMOUR ( British English
British English
) or ARMOR ( American English
American English
; see spelling differences ) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles , usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or action (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals . Vehicle armour is used on warships and armoured fighting vehicles . A second use of the term ARMOUR describes armoured forces , armoured weapons , and their role in combat. After the evolution of armoured warfare , mechanised infantry and their weapons came to be referred to collectively as "armour"
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Cap
A CAP is a form of headgear . Caps have crowns that fit very close to the head and have no brim or only a visor . They are typically designed for warmth and, when including a visor, blocking sunlight from the eyes. They come in many shapes and sizes. TYPES Baseball cap
Baseball cap
German M43-style field cap of the "Bundesgrenzschutz" (BGS), the German Federal Police A propeller hat, also known as a propeller beanie
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Headband
A HEADBAND is a clothing accessory worn in the hair or around the forehead, usually to hold hair away from the face or eyes. Headbands generally consist of a loop of elastic material or a horseshoe-shaped piece of flexible plastic or metal. They come in assorted shapes and sizes and are used for both fashion and practical or utilitarian purposes. In the UK , Horseshoe-shaped headbands are sometimes called "Alice bands " after the headbands that Alice is often depicted wearing in Through the Looking-Glass
Through the Looking-Glass
. Tartessian gold headband from the Iron Age
Iron Age
CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Greeks and Romans * 1.2 Jews * 1.3 Sikhs * 1.4 Early 20th century * 1.5 1960s * 1.6 1970s * 1.7 1980s * 2 Symbolism * 3 Fashion * 3.1 Materials and uses * 4 Utilitarian uses * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYGREEKS AND ROMANS This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES
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Space Suits
A SPACE SUIT is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space , vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure , and are necessary for extravehicular activity (EVA), work done outside spacecraft. Space suits have been worn for such work in Earth orbit, on the surface of the Moon
Moon
, and en route back to Earth from the Moon. Modern space suits augment the basic pressure garment with a complex system of equipment and environmental systems designed to keep the wearer comfortable, and to minimize the effort required to bend the limbs, resisting a soft pressure garment's natural tendency to stiffen against the vacuum. A self-contained oxygen supply and environmental control system is frequently employed to allow complete freedom of movement, independent of the spacecraft
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Buttocks
The BUTTOCKS (singular: BUTTOCK) are two rounded portions of the anatomy, located on the posterior of the pelvic region of primates (including humans ), and many other bipeds or quadrupeds, and comprise a layer of fat superimposed on the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles . Physiologically, the buttocks enable weight to be taken off the feet while sitting. In many cultures, they play a role in sexual attraction . Many cultures have also used the buttocks as a primary target for corporal punishment , as the buttocks' layer of subcutaneous fat offers protection against injury while still allowing for the infliction of pain. There are several connotations of buttocks in art, fashion, culture and humor, and the English language is replete with many popular synonyms that range from polite colloquialisms ("posterior" or "bottom") to vulgar slang ("arse," "bum," "prat"). In humans the buttocks are located between the lower back and the perineum
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Hiking
HIKING is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths ), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" is acceptable to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps
Alps
. The word hiking is also often used in the UK, along with RAMBLING (a slightly old-fashioned term), HILLWALKING , and FELL WALKING (a term mostly used for hillwalking in northern England). The term "bushwalking" is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927. In New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called TRAMPING . It is a popular activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide, and studies suggest that all forms of walking have health benefits
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Insect
See text . SYNONYMS * Ectognatha * EntomidaINSECTS or INSECTA (from Latin
Latin
insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον , "cut into sections") are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum . Definitions and circumscriptions vary; in one approach insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As the term is used here, it is synonymous with ECTOGNATHA. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton , a three-part body (head , thorax and abdomen ), three pairs of jointed legs , compound eyes and one pair of antennae . They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms . The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth
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