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Clothing
Clothing
(also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body. Clothing
Clothing
can be made of textiles, animal skin, or other thin sheets of materials put together. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of nearly all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depend on body type, social, and geographic considerations. Some clothing can be gender-specific. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking. It protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters, thorns and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions. Further, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing
Clothing
also provides protection from ultraviolet radiation. Wearing clothes is also a social norm, as being deprived of clothing in front of others may be embarrassing, or not wearing clothes in public to the extent that genitals, breasts or buttocks are visible could be seen as indecent exposure.

Contents

1 Origin of clothing 2 Functions 3 Scholarship 4 Cultural aspects

4.1 Gender
Gender
differentiation 4.2 Social status 4.3 Religion

5 Origin and history

5.1 First recorded use 5.2 Making clothing

6 Contemporary clothing

6.1 Western dress code 6.2 Spread of western styles 6.3 Ethnic and cultural heritage 6.4 Sport and activity 6.5 Fashion 6.6 Future trends

7 Political issues

7.1 Working conditions in the garments industry 7.2 Fur

8 Life cycle

8.1 Clothing
Clothing
maintenance 8.2 Laundry, ironing, storage 8.3 Non-iron 8.4 Mending 8.5 Recycling

9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Origin of clothing[edit] See also: Evolution of hair
Evolution of hair
and History of clothing
History of clothing
and textiles There is no easy way to determine when clothing was first developed, but some information has been inferred by studying lice which estimates the introduction of clothing at roughly 42,000–72,000 years ago.[1][2][3][4][5] Functions[edit]

A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater

The most obvious function of clothing is to improve the comfort of the wearer, by protecting the wearer from the elements. In hot climates, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage, while in cold climates its thermal insulation properties are generally more important. The shelter usually reduces the functional need for clothing. For example, coats, hats, gloves, and other superficial layers are normally removed when entering a warm home, particularly if one is residing or sleeping there. Similarly, clothing has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are generally worn in warmer seasons and regions than in colder ones. Clothing
Clothing
performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual, occupational and gender differentiation, and social status.[6] In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion, gender, and social status. Clothing
Clothing
may also function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style. Clothing
Clothing
can and has in history been made from a very wide variety of materials. Materials have ranged from leather and furs to woven materials, to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn (such as purses), worn on a single part of the body and easily removed (scarves), worn purely for adornment (jewelry), or those that serve a function other than protection (eyeglasses), are normally considered accessories rather than clothing, except for shoes. Clothing
Clothing
protects against many things that might injure the uncovered human body. Clothes protect people from the elements, including rain, snow, wind, and other weather, as well as from the sun. However, clothing that is too sheer, thin, small, tight, etc., offers less protection. Clothes also reduce risk during activities such as work or sport. Some clothing protects from specific environmental hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather, weapons, and contact with abrasive substances. Conversely, clothing may protect the environment from the clothing wearer, as with doctors wearing medical scrubs. Humans have shown the extreme invention in devising clothing solutions to environmental hazards. Examples include: space suits, air conditioned clothing, armor, diving suits, swimsuits, bee-keeper gear, motorcycle leathers, high-visibility clothing, and other pieces of protective clothing. Meanwhile, the distinction between clothing and protective equipment is not always clear-cut—since clothes designed to be fashionable often have protective value and clothes designed for function often consider fashion in their design. Wearing clothes also has social implications. They cover parts of the body that social norms require being covered, act as a form of adornment, and serve other social purposes. Someone who lacks the means to procure reasonable clothing due to poverty or affordability is sometimes said to be scruffy, ragged, or shabby.[7] Scholarship[edit] Although dissertations on clothing and its function appear from the 19th century as colonising countries dealt with new environments,[8] concerted scientific research into psycho-social, physiological and other functions of clothing (e.g. protective, cartage) occurred in the first half of the 20th century, with publications such as J. C. Flügel's Psychology of Clothes in 1930,[6] and Newburgh's seminal Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing
Clothing
in 1949.[9] By 1968, the field of environmental physiology had advanced and expanded significantly, but the science of clothing in relation to environmental physiology had changed little.[10] While considerable research has since occurred and the knowledge-base has grown significantly, the main concepts remain unchanged, and indeed Newburgh's book is still cited by contemporary authors, including those attempting to develop thermoregulatory models of clothing development.[11] Cultural aspects[edit] Gender
Gender
differentiation[edit]

Former 3rd Duke of Fife wearing a traditional Scottish kilt
Scottish kilt
(1984)

Advisor to US President
US President
and businesswoman Ivanka Trump
Ivanka Trump
(right) along with Japanese PM Shinzō Abe
Shinzō Abe
wearing Western-style business suits as per their gender, 2017

In most cultures, gender differentiation of clothing is considered appropriate. The differences are in styles, colors, and fabrics. In Western societies, skirts, dresses and high-heeled shoes are usually seen as women's clothing, while neckties are usually seen as men's clothing. Trousers
Trousers
were once seen as exclusively male clothing, but can nowadays be worn by both genders. Male clothes are often more practical (that is, they can function well under a wide variety of situations), but a wider range of clothing styles are available for females. Males are typically allowed to bare their chests in a greater variety of public places. It is generally more or less acceptable for a woman to wear clothing perceived as masculine, while the opposite is seen as unusual. In some cultures, sumptuary laws regulate what men and women are required to wear. Islam
Islam
requires women to wear more modest forms of attire, usually hijab. What qualifies as "modest" varies in different Muslim
Muslim
societies. However, women are usually required to cover more of their bodies than men are. Articles of clothing Muslim
Muslim
women wear for modesty range from the head-scarf to the burqa. Men may sometimes choose to wear men's skirts such as togas or kilts, especially on ceremonial occasions. Such garments were (in previous times) often worn as normal daily clothing by men. Clothing
Clothing
designed to be worn by either sex is called unisex clothing. Unisex clothes, such as T-shirts, tends to be cut straighter to fit a wider variety of bodies. The majority of unisex clothing styles have started out as menswear, but some articles, like the fedora, were originally worn by women. Social status[edit]

A Barong Tagalog
Barong Tagalog
made for a wedding ceremony.

Alim Khan's bemedaled robe sends a social message about his wealth, status, and power.

In some societies, clothing may be used to indicate rank or status. In ancient Rome, for example, only senators could wear garments dyed with Tyrian purple. In traditional Hawaiian society, only high-ranking chiefs could wear feather cloaks and palaoa, or carved whale teeth. In China, before establishment of the republic, only the emperor could wear yellow. History provides many examples of elaborate sumptuary laws that regulated what people could wear. In societies without such laws, which includes most modern societies, social status is instead signaled by the purchase of rare or luxury items that are limited by cost to those with wealth or status. In addition, peer pressure influences clothing choice. Religion[edit] See also: Category:Religious vesture

Nicolas Trigault, in Ming-style Confucian hanfu, by Rubens.

Muslim
Muslim
men traditionally wear white robes and a cap during prayers

Religious clothing might be considered a special case of occupational clothing. Sometimes it is worn only during the performance of religious ceremonies. However, it may also be worn every day as a marker for special religious status. For example, Jains and Muslim
Muslim
men wear unstitched cloth pieces when performing religious ceremonies. The unstitched cloth signifies unified and complete devotion to the task at hand, with no digression.[citation needed] Sikhs wear a turban as it is a part of their religion. The cleanliness of religious dresses in Eastern religions like Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism, Islam
Islam
and Jainism
Jainism
is of paramount importance since it indicates purity. Clothing
Clothing
figures prominently in the Bible
Bible
where it appears in numerous contexts, the more prominent ones being: the story of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
who made coverings for themselves out of fig leaves, Joseph's cloak, Judah and Tamar, Mordecai
Mordecai
and Esther. Furthermore, the priests officiating in the Temple had very specific garments, the lack of which made one liable to death. The Quran says about husbands and wives, regarding clothing: "...They are clothing/covering (Libaas) for you; and you for them" (chapter 2:187). Jewish ritual also requires rending of one's upper garment as a sign of mourning. This practice is found in the Bible
Bible
when Jacob hears of the apparent death of his son Joseph.[12] Origin and history[edit] Main article: History of clothing See also: History of Western fashion
History of Western fashion
and Category:History of clothing First recorded use[edit] According to archaeologists and anthropologists, the earliest clothing likely consisted of fur, leather, leaves, or grass that were draped, wrapped, or tied around the body. Knowledge of such clothing remains inferential, since clothing materials deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell and metal artifacts. Archeologists have identified very early sewing needles of bone and ivory from about 30,000 BC, found near Kostenki, Russia
Russia
in 1988.[13] Dyed flax fibers that could have been used in clothing have been found in a prehistoric cave in the Republic of Georgia that date back to 36,000 BP.[14][15] Scientists are still debating when people started wearing clothes. Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and Mark Stoneking, anthropologists at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, have conducted a genetic analysis of human body lice that suggests clothing originated quite recently, around 170,000 years ago. Body lice
Body lice
is an indicator of clothes-wearing, since most humans have sparse body hair, and lice thus require human clothing to survive. Their research suggests the invention of clothing may have coincided with the northward migration of modern Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
away from the warm climate of Africa, thought to have begun between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. However, a second group of researchers using similar genetic methods estimate that clothing originated around 540,000 years ago [16] For now, the date of the origin of clothing remains unresolved. Making clothing[edit] See also: Garment
Garment
industry, knitting, and weaving Some human cultures, such as the various people of the Arctic Circle, traditionally make their clothing entirely of prepared and decorated furs and skins. Other cultures supplemented or replaced leather and skins with cloth: woven, knitted, or twined from various animal and vegetable fibers including wool, linen, cotton, silk, hemp, and ramie. Although modern consumers may take the production of clothing for granted, making fabric by hand is a tedious and labor-intensive process involving fiber making, spinning, and weaving. The textile industry was the first to be mechanized – with the powered loom – during the Industrial Revolution. Different cultures have evolved various ways of creating clothes out of cloth. One approach simply involves draping the cloth. Many people wore, and still wear, garments consisting of rectangles of cloth wrapped to fit – for example, the dhoti for men and the sari for women in the Indian subcontinent, the Scottish kilt
Scottish kilt
or the Javanese sarong. The clothes may simply be tied up, as is the case of the first two garments; or pins or belts hold the garments in place, as in the case of the latter two. The precious cloth remains uncut, and people of various sizes or the same person at different sizes can wear the garment. Another approach involves measuring, cutting, and sewing the cloth by hand or with a sewing machine. Clothing
Clothing
can be cut from a sewing pattern and adjusted by a tailor to a person's measurements. An adjustable sewing mannequin or dress form is used to create form fitting clothing. Fabrics are expensive and efforts are made to use every bit of the cloth rectangle in constructing the clothing. The tailor may cut triangular pieces from one corner of the cloth, and then add them elsewhere as gussets. Traditional European patterns for men's shirts and women's chemises take this approach. These remnants can also be reused to make patchwork hats, vests, and skirts. Modern European fashion treats cloth much less conservatively, typically cutting in such a way as to leave various odd-shaped cloth remnants. Industrial sewing operations sell these as waste; home sewers may turn them into quilts. In the thousands of years that humans have spent constructing clothing, they have created an astonishing array of styles, many of which have been reconstructed from surviving garments, photos, paintings, mosaics, etc., as well as from written descriptions. Costume
Costume
history serves as a source of inspiration to current fashion designers, as well as a topic of professional interest to costumers constructing for plays, films, television, and historical reenactment. Contemporary clothing[edit]

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Western dress codes

Formal wear Semi-formal Informal Business casual Smart casual Casual

Western dress code[edit] Main article: Western dress code The Western dress code
Western dress code
has changed over the past 500+ years. The mechanization of the textile industry made many varieties of cloth widely available at affordable prices. Styles have changed, and the availability of synthetic fabrics has changed the definition of "stylish". In the latter half of the 20th century, blue jeans became very popular, and are now worn to events that normally demand formal attire. Activewear
Activewear
has also become a large and growing market. The licensing of designer names was pioneered by designers like Pierre Cardin in the 1960s and has been a common practice within the fashion industry from about the 1970s. Among the more popular include Marc Jacobs and Gucci, named for Marc Jacobs
Marc Jacobs
and Guccio Gucci
Gucci
respectively. Spread of western styles[edit]

A tourist couple (top) and university students (bottom) in casual clothes in USA.

By the early years of the 21st century, western clothing styles had, to some extent, become international styles. This process began hundreds of years earlier, during the periods of European colonialism. The process of cultural dissemination has perpetuated over the centuries as Western media corporations have penetrated markets throughout the world, spreading Western culture and styles. Fast fashion clothing has also become a global phenomenon. These garments are less expensive, mass-produced Western clothing. Donated used clothing from Western countries are also delivered to people in poor countries by charity organizations. Ethnic and cultural heritage[edit] People may wear ethnic or national dress on special occasions or in certain roles or occupations. For example, most Korean men and women have adopted Western-style dress for daily wear, but still wear traditional hanboks on special occasions, like weddings and cultural holidays. Items of Western dress may also appear worn or accessorized in distinctive, non-Western ways. A Tongan man may combine a used T-shirt
T-shirt
with a Tongan wrapped skirt, or tupenu. Sport and activity[edit] Main articles: Activewear
Activewear
and Sportswear (fashion) Most sports and physical activities are practiced wearing special clothing, for practical, comfort or safety reasons. Common sportswear garments include shorts, T-shirts, tennis shirts, leotards, tracksuits, and trainers. Specialized garments include wet suits (for swimming, diving or surfing), salopettes (for skiing) and leotards (for gymnastics). Also, spandex materials are often used as base layers to soak up sweat. Spandex
Spandex
is also preferable for active sports that require form fitting garments, such as volleyball, wrestling, track & field, dance, gymnastics and swimming.

Fashion
Fashion
shows are often the source of the latest trends in clothing fashions. Photo
Photo
is of a model in a modern gown reflecting the current fashion trend at a Haute couture
Haute couture
fashion show.

Fashion[edit] Main articles: Fashion
Fashion
and 2010s in fashion A diverse range of styles exist in fashion, varying by geography, exposure to modern media, economic conditions, and ranging from expensive haute couture to traditional garb, to thrift store grunge. Fashion
Fashion
shows are events for designers to show off new and often extravagant designs. Future trends[edit] Main article: Fashion
Fashion
forecasting

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The world of clothing is always changing, as new cultural influences meet technological innovations. Researchers in scientific labs have been developing prototypes for fabrics that can serve functional purposes well beyond their traditional roles, for example, clothes that can automatically adjust their temperature, repel bullets, project images, and generate electricity. Some practical advances already available to consumers are bullet-resistant garments made with kevlar and stain-resistant fabrics that are coated with chemical mixtures that reduce the absorption of liquids. New blends of Spandex cotton blends allow for form fitting and stretching of closer fitting mass produced patterns. New mesh materials allow for better breathe-ability in shoes. New insulation fibers and batting make lighter raiment that provide warmth in cold or wet weather, and recent advances in coatings for fabrics or down also repel water. Political issues[edit] Working conditions in the garments industry[edit] Further information: Garment
Garment
industry

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Garments factory in Bangladesh

Safety garb for women workers in Los Angeles, c. 1943, was designed to prevent occupational accidents among female war workers.

Though mechanization transformed most aspects of human industry by the mid-20th century, garment workers have continued to labor under challenging conditions that demand repetitive manual labor. Mass-produced
Mass-produced
clothing is often made in what are considered by some to be sweatshops, typified by long work hours, lack of benefits, and lack of worker representation. While most examples of such conditions are found in developing countries, clothes made in industrialized nations may also be manufactured similarly.[citation needed] Coalitions of NGOs, designers (including Katharine Hamnett, American Apparel, Veja, Quiksilver, eVocal, and Edun) and campaign groups like the Clean Clothes Campaign
Clean Clothes Campaign
(CCC) and the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights as well as textile and clothing trade unions have sought to improve these conditions as much as possible by sponsoring awareness-raising events, which draw the attention of both the media and the general public to the workers. Outsourcing
Outsourcing
production to low wage countries like Bangladesh, China, India
India
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
became possible when the Multi Fibre Agreement (MFA) was abolished. The MFA, which placed quotas on textiles imports, was deemed a protectionist measure.[citation needed] Although many countries recognize treaties like the International Labour Organization, which attempt to set standards for worker safety and rights, many countries have made exceptions to certain parts of the treaties or failed to thoroughly enforce them. India
India
for example has not ratified sections 87 and 92 of the treaty.[citation needed] Despite the strong reactions that "sweatshops" evoked among critics of globalization, the production of textiles has functioned as a consistent industry for developing nations providing work and wages, whether construed as exploitative or not, to many thousands of people. Fur[edit] Main article: Fur
Fur
clothing The use of animal fur in clothing dates to prehistoric times. It is currently associated in developed countries with expensive, designer clothing, although fur is still used by indigenous people in arctic zones and higher elevations for its warmth and protection. Once uncontroversial, it has recently been the focus of campaigns on the grounds that campaigners consider it cruel and unnecessary. PETA, along with other animal rights and animal liberation groups have called attention to fur farming and other practices they consider cruel. Life cycle[edit] Clothing
Clothing
maintenance[edit] Clothing
Clothing
suffers assault both from within and without. The human body sheds skin cells and body oils, and exudes sweat, urine, and feces. From the outside, sun damage, moisture, abrasion, and dirt assault garments. Fleas and lice can hide in seams. Worn clothing, if not cleaned and refurbished, itches, becomes outworn, and loses functionality (as when buttons fall off, seams come undone, fabrics thin or tear, and zippers fail). Often, people wear an item of clothing until it falls apart. Some materials present problems. Cleaning leather is difficult, and bark cloth (tapa) cannot be washed without dissolving it. Owners may patch tears and rips, and brush off surface dirt, but materials like these inevitably age. However, most clothing consists of cloth, and most cloth can be laundered and mended (patching, darning, but compare felt). Laundry, ironing, storage[edit] Humans have developed many specialized methods for laundering, ranging from early methods of pounding clothes against rocks in running streams, to the latest in electronic washing machines and dry cleaning (dissolving dirt in solvents other than water). Hot water washing (boiling), chemical cleaning and ironing are all traditional methods of sterilizing fabrics for hygiene purposes. Many kinds of clothing are designed to be ironed before they are worn to remove wrinkles. Most modern formal and semi-formal clothing is in this category (for example, dress shirts and suits). Ironed clothes are believed to look clean, fresh, and neat. Much contemporary casual clothing is made of knit materials that do not readily wrinkle, and do not require ironing. Some clothing is permanent press, having been treated with a coating (such as polytetrafluoroethylene) that suppresses wrinkles and creates a smooth appearance without ironing. Once clothes have been laundered and possibly ironed, they are usually hung on clothes hangers or folded, to keep them fresh until they are worn. Clothes are folded to allow them to be stored compactly, to prevent creasing, to preserve creases or to present them in a more pleasing manner, for instance when they are put on sale in stores. Non-iron[edit] Main article: Permanent press A resin used for making non-wrinkle shirts releases formaldehyde, which could cause contact dermatitis for some people; no disclosure requirements exist, and in 2008 the U.S. Government Accountability Office tested formaldehyde in clothing and found that generally the highest levels were in non-wrinkle shirts and pants.[17] In 1999, a study of the effect of washing on the formaldehyde levels found that after 6 months after washing, 7 of 27 shirts had levels in excess of 75 ppm, which is a safe limit for direct skin exposure.[18] Mending[edit] In past times, mending was an art. A meticulous tailor or seamstress could mend rips with thread raveled from hems and seam edges so skillfully that the tear was practically invisible. When the raw material – cloth – was worth more than labor, it made sense to expend labor in saving it. Today clothing is considered a consumable item. Mass-manufactured clothing is less expensive than the labor required to repair it. Many people buy a new piece of clothing rather than spend time mending. The thrifty still replace zippers and buttons and sew up ripped hems. Recycling[edit] Used, unwearable clothing can be repurposed for quilts, rags, rugs, bandages, and many other household uses. It can also be recycled into paper. In Western societies, used clothing is often thrown out or donated to charity (such as through a clothing bin). It is also sold to consignment shops, dress agencies, flea markets, and in online auctions. Used clothing is also often collected on an industrial scale to be sorted and shipped for re-use in poorer countries. Globally, used clothes are worth $4 billion[19] with the US as the leading exporter at $575 million.[20] There are many concerns about the life cycle of synthetics, which come primarily from petrochemicals.[weasel words] Unlike natural fibers, their source is not renewable and they are not biodegradable.[21] See also[edit]

Clothing
Clothing
fetish Thermoregulation Timeline of requisite dress in Western civilization

References[edit]

^ Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser & Mark Stoneking (2003), "Molecular evolution of Pediculus humanus and the origin of clothing" (PDF), Current Biology, 13 (16): 1414–1417, doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00507-4, PMID 12932325, archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-10  ^ Kittler, Ralf; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark (2004). "Molecular Evolution of Pediculus humanus and the Origin of Clothing". Current Biology. 14 (24): 2309. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.12.024.  ^ "...Lice Indicates Early Clothing
Clothing
Use ...", Mol Biol Evol (2011) 28 (1): 29-32. ^ Reed, David (2007), Pair of lice lost or parasites regained: The evolutionary history of Anthropoid primate lice, BMC Biology  ^ "Naked ape: Humans lost body hair long before finding clothes". 2003-08-20. Retrieved 2012-03-13.  ^ a b Flugel, John Carl (1976) [1930], The Psychology of Clothes, International Psycho-analytical Library, No.18, New York: AMS Press. First published by Hogarth Press, London, ISBN 0-404-14721-6  Alternative ISBN 978-0-404-14721-1 (This work is one of the earliest attempts at an overview of the psycho-social and practical functions of clothing) ^ Baradel, Lacey. "Geographic Mobility and Domesticity in Eastman Johnson’s The Tramp." American Art 28.2 (2014): 26-49 ^ e.g. Jeffreys, Julius (1858), The British Army in India: Its Preservation by an appropriate Clothing, Housing, Locating, Recreative Employment, and Hopeful Encouragement of the Troops, London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans & Roberts, retrieved 8 September 2010  ^ Newburgh, Louis Harry, ed. (1968) [1949], Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing, New York & London: Hafner Publishing  ^ Hertig, Bruce A (February 1969), "Book review: Physiology of Heat Regulation and the Science of Clothing", Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 11 (2): 100, doi:10.1097/00043764-196902000-00012, PMC 1520373 , retrieved 8 September 2010  (reviewer's name appears next to Newburgh, but was not the co-author. See also reviewer's name at bottom of page). ^ Gilligan, Ian (January 2010), "The Prehistoric Development of Clothing: Archaeological Implications of a Thermal Model", Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 17 (1): 15–80, doi:10.1007/s10816-009-9076-x  ^ "?" (PDF). Retrieved 9 August 2010. [self-published source?] ^ Hoffecker, J., Scott, J., Excavations In Eastern Europe Reveal Ancient Human Lifestyles, University of Colorado at Boulder News Archive, March 21, 2002, colorado.edu Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Balter M (2009). "Clothes Make the (Hu) Man". Science. 325 (5946): 1329. doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a. PMID 19745126.  ^ Kvavadze E, Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A, Boaretto E, Jakeli N, Matskevich Z, Meshveliani T (2009). "30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers". Science. 325 (5946): 1359. doi:10.1126/science.1175404. PMID 19745144. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Supporting Online Material ^ Reed; et al. (2004). "Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans". PLoS Biology. 2 (11): e340. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020340. PMC 521174 . PMID 15502871. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ When Wrinkle-Free Clothing
Clothing
Also Means Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde
Fumes. New York Times. ^ Changes of Free Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde
Quantity in Non-iron Shirts by Washing and Storage Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine.. Journal of Health Science. ^ Minter, Adam (15 January 2018). "No One Wants Your Used Clothes Anymore". Bloomberg View. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  ^ Banigan, Melissa (25 January 2018). "East Africa
Africa
Doesn't Want Your Hand-Me-Downs". Racked. Vox Media. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  ^ The Textile
Textile
Materials Eco Battle Between Natural and Synthetic Fabrics "Steven E. Davis, Sweatshirt Station".

Further reading[edit]

Finnane, Antonia (2008), Changing Clothes in China: Fashion, History, Nation, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14350-9, retrieved 8 September 2010  ebook ISBN 978-0-231-51273-2 Forsberg, Krister; Mansdorf, S.Z (2007), Quick Selection Guide to Chemical Protective Clothing
Clothing
(5th ed.), Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-14681-1, retrieved 8 September 2010  Gavin, Timothy P (2003), " Clothing
Clothing
and Thermoregulation
Thermoregulation
During Exercise", Sports Medicine, 33 (13): 941–947, doi:10.2165/00007256-200333130-00001, PMID 14606923, retrieved 8 September 2010  Hollander, Anne L (1993), Seeing Through Clothes, Berkley & Los Angeles, California, and London, UK: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-08231-1, retrieved 8 September 2010  Montain, Scott J; Sawaka, Michael N; Cadarett, Bruce S; Quigley, Mark D; McKay, James M (1994), "Physiological tolerance to uncompensable heat stress: effects of exercise intensity, protective clothing, and climate" (PDF), Journal of Applied Physiology, 77 (1): 216–222, PMID 7961236, retrieved 8 September 2010  Ross, Robert (2008), Clothing, a Global History: or, The Imperialist's New Clothes, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, ISBN 978-0-7456-3186-8, retrieved 8 September 2010  Paperback ISBN 978-0-7456-3187-5 Tochihara, Yutaka; Ohnaka, Tadakatsu, eds. (2005), Environmental Ergonomics: The Ergonomics of Human Comfort, Health and Performance in the Thermal Environment, Elsevier
Elsevier
Ergonomics Book Series, Vol.3, Amsterdam & Boston: Elsevier, pp. 315–320, ISBN 0-08-044466-0, retrieved 8 September 2010  (see especially sections 5 – 'Clothing' – & 6 – 'Protective clothing'). Yarborough, Portia; Nelson, Cherilyn N, eds. (2005), Performance of Protective Clothing: Global Needs and Emerging Markets, 8th Vol., West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, ISBN 0-8031-3488-6, ISSN 1040-3035, retrieved 8 September 2010 

External links[edit]

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Hosiery
Museum (English language) Molecular Evolution of Pediculus humanus and the Origin of Clothing
Clothing
by Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and Mark Stoneking (. PDF
PDF
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Clothing

Historical clothing • Traditional and national clothing

Tops

Blouse Cache-cœur Cardigan Crop top Dress
Dress
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Sweater
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Trousers

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A-line skirt Ballerina skirt Denim skirt Men's skirts Miniskirt Pencil skirt Prairie skirt Rah-rah skirt Sarong Skort Tutu Wrap

Dresses

Ball gown Bouffant gown Coatdress Cocktail dress Débutante dress Formal wear Frock Evening gown Gown House dress Jumper Little black dress Princess line Sheath dress Shirtdress Slip dress Strapless dress Sundress Wedding dress Wrap dress

Suits and uniforms

Academic dress Ball dress Black tie Boilersuit Cleanroom suit Clerical clothing Court dress Gymslip Hazmat suit Jumpsuit Kasaya Lab coat Military uniform Morning dress Onesie Pantsuit Red Sea rig Romper suit School uniform Scrubs Stroller Tuxedo Vestment White tie

Outerwear

Apron Blazer British Warm Cagoule Cape Chesterfield Coat Covert coat Cut-off Duffel coat Flight jacket Gilet Goggle jacket Guards coat Harrington jacket Hoodie Jacket Jerkin Leather
Leather
jacket Mess jacket Opera coat Overcoat Parka Paletot Pea coat Poncho Raincoat Robe Safari jacket Shawl Shrug Ski suit Sleeved blanket Smoking jacket Sport coat Trench coat Ulster coat Waistcoat Windbreaker

Underwear (lingerie)

Top

Bra Camisole Undershirt

Bottom

Diaper Panties Plastic pants Slip Thong Underpants

Boxer briefs Boxer shorts Midway briefs Briefs

Full

Adult bodysuit Infant
Infant
bodysuit Long underwear Playsuit Teddy

Footwear

Boot Court shoe Dress
Dress
shoe Flip-flops Hosiery Sandal Shoe Spats Slipper Sneakers Sock Stocking Tights

Headwear

Baseball cap Beret Cap Fedora Hat Helmet Hood Kerchief Knit cap Toque Turban Veil

Neckwear

Ascot tie Bow tie Cravat Neckerchief Necktie Scarf

Nightwear

Babydoll Blanket sleeper Negligee Nightgown Nightshirt Pajamas

Swimwear

Bikini Burkini Boardshorts Dry suit Monokini One-piece Rash guard Square leg suit Swim briefs Swim diaper Trunks Wetsuit

Accessories

Belt Coin purse Cufflink Cummerbund Gaiters Glasses Gloves Headband Handbag Jewellery Muff Pocket protector Pocket watch Sash Sunglasses Suspenders Umbrella Wallet Wristwatch

See also

Activewear Clothing
Clothing
fetish Clothing
Clothing
technology Clothing
Clothing
terminology Costume Cross-dressing Dress
Dress
code

Western

Fashion Haute couture History of clothing See-through clothing

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