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Chronology
CHRONOLOGY (from Latin
Latin
chronologia, from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time . Consider, for example, the use of a timeline or sequence of events . It is also "the determination of the actual temporal sequence of past events". Chronology
Chronology
is part of periodization . It is also part of the discipline of history , including earth history , the earth sciences , and study of the geologic time scale
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Correlation
In statistics , DEPENDENCE or ASSOCIATION is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data . CORRELATION is any of a broad class of statistical relationships involving dependence, though in common usage it most often refers to how close two variables are to having a linear relationship with each other. Familiar examples of dependent phenomena include the correlation between the physical statures of parents and their offspring, and the correlation between the demand for a product and its price. Correlations are useful because they can indicate a predictive relationship that can be exploited in practice. For example, an electrical utility may produce less power on a mild day based on the correlation between electricity demand and weather. In this example, there is a causal relationship , because extreme weather causes people to use more electricity for heating or cooling
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Calibration
CALIBRATION in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy. Such a standard could be another measurement device of known accuracy, a device generating the quantity to be measured such as a voltage , or a physical artefact, such as a metre ruler. The outcome of the comparison can result in no significant error being noted on the device under test, a significant error being noted but no adjustment made, or an adjustment made to correct the error to an acceptable level. Strictly speaking, the term calibration means just the act of comparison, and does not include any subsequent adjustment. The calibration standard is normally traceable to a national standard held by a National Metrological Institute
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Jacques Cassini
JACQUES CASSINI (18 February 1677 – 16 April 1756) was a French astronomer , son of the famous Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini . Cassini was born at the Paris Observatory
Paris Observatory
. Admitted at the age of seventeen to membership of the French Academy of Sciences
French Academy of Sciences
, he was elected in 1696 a fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
of London, and became maître des comptes in 1706. Having succeeded to his father's position at the observatory in 1712, he measured in 1713 the arc of the meridian from Dunkirk
Dunkirk
to Perpignan
Perpignan
, and published the results in a volume entitled Traité de la grandeur et de la figure de la terre (1720)
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Carbon
CARBON (from Latin
Latin
: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent —making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds . It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide , decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity . Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen , helium , and oxygen . Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds , and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth
Earth
enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life
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Isotope
ISOTOPES are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number . All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom . The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table . The number of protons within the atom\'s nucleus is called atomic number and is equal to the number of electrons in the neutral (non-ionized) atom. Each atomic number identifies a specific element, but not the isotope; an atom of a given element may have a wide range in its number of neutrons . The number of nucleons (both protons and neutrons) in the nucleus is the atom's mass number , and each isotope of a given element has a different mass number
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Paleontology
PALEONTOLOGY or PALAEONTOLOGY ( /ˌpeɪliɒnˈtɒlədʒi/ , /ˌpeɪliənˈtɒlədʒi/ or /ˌpæliɒnˈtɒlədʒi/ , /ˌpæliənˈtɒlədʒi/ ) is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present ). It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology ). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
's work on comparative anatomy , and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, i.e. "old, ancient", ὄν, on (gen. ontos), i.e. "being, creature" and λόγος, logos, i.e. "speech, thought, study"
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William Flinders Petrie
SIR WILLIAM MATTHEW FLINDERS PETRIE, FRS , FBA (3 June 1853 – 28 July 1942), commonly known as FLINDERS PETRIE, was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology and preservation of artifacts. He held the first chair of Egyptology in the United Kingdom, and excavated many of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt in conjunction with his wife, Hilda Petrie . Some consider his most famous discovery to be that of the Merneptah Stele , an opinion with which Petrie himself concurred. Petrie developed the system of dating layers based on pottery and ceramic findings. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Academic career * 3 Archaeology
Archaeology
career * 4 Discovery of the \'Israel\' or Merneptah
Merneptah
stele * 5 Later life * 6 Death and preservation of head * 7 Personal life * 8 Legacy * 9 Published work * 9.1 Contributions to the Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed
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Consul
CONSUL (abbrev. cos.; Latin
Latin
plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The title was also used in other city states and also revived in modern states , notably in the First French Republic . The relating adjective is CONSULAR, from the consularis
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Paulus Orosius
PAULUS OROSIUS (/ˈpɔːləs ɔːˈroʊʒiəs/ ; born c. 375, died after 418 AD) — less often PAUL OROSIUS in English — was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian , a student of Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
. It is possible that he was born in Bracara Augusta (now Braga
Braga
), then capital of the Roman province of Gallaecia , and which would be the capital of the Kingdom of the Suebi by his death. Although there are some questions regarding his biography, such as his exact date of birth, it is known that he was a person of some prestige from a cultural point of view, as he had contact with the greatest figures of his time such as Saint Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
and Saint Jerome
Jerome

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Rome
ROME (/roʊm/ ROHM ; Italian : Roma ( listen ), Latin
Latin
: Rōma) is the capital of Italy
Italy
and a special comune (named Comune
Comune
di Roma Capitale). Rome
Rome
also serves as the capital of the Lazio region . With 2,876,051 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union
European Union
by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome , which has a population of 4.3 million residents. Rome
Rome
is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber
Tiber

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Dionysius Exiguus
DIONYSIUS EXIGUUS ( Latin
Latin
for "Dionysius the Humble" ; c. AD 470 – c. AD 544) was a 6th-century monk born in Scythia Minor
Scythia Minor
(probably modern Dobruja
Dobruja
, in Romania
Romania
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
). He was a member of a community of Scythian monks concentrated in Tomis , the major city of Scythia Minor. Dionysius is best known as the inventor of the Anno Domini (AD) era, which is used to number the years of both the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
and the (Christianised) Julian calendar
Julian calendar
. Some churches adopted his computus (calculation) for the dates of Easter
Easter

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Bede
BEDE (/ˈbiːd/ BEED ; Old English : Bǣda or Bēda; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as SAINT BEDE, VENERABLE BEDE, and BEDE THE VENERABLE ( Latin
Latin
: Bēda Venerābilis), was an English monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria
Kingdom of Northumbria
of the Angles
Angles
(contemporarily Monkwearmouth– Jarrow
Jarrow
Abbey in Tyne and Wear , England
England
). He is well known as an author and scholar, and his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People
Ecclesiastical History of the English People
gained him the title "The Father of English History "
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Pope Boniface IV
POPE BONIFACE IV (Latin : Bonifatius IV; c. 550 – 8 May 615) was Pope
Pope
from 25 September 608 to his death in 615. He is venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
with a universal feast falling annually on 25 May. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links LIFESon of Johannes, "a physician , a Marsian from the province and town of Valeria; he succeeded Boniface III after a vacancy of over nine months". He was consecrated on either 25 August (Duchesne ) or 15 September (Jaffé ) in 608. His death is listed as either 8 May or 25 May 615 by these same two authorities. In the time of Pope Gregory I
Pope Gregory I
, he was a deacon of the Roman Church and held the position of dispensator, that is, the first official in connection with the administration of the patrimonies
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Carbon-14
CARBON-14, 14C, or RADIOCARBON, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons . Its presence in organic materials is the basis of the radiocarbon dating method pioneered by Willard Libby and colleagues (1949) to date archaeological, geological and hydrogeological samples. Carbon-14
Carbon-14
was discovered on February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben at the University of California Radiation Laboratory
University of California Radiation Laboratory
in Berkeley, California . Its existence had been suggested by Franz Kurie in 1934. There are three naturally occurring isotopes of carbon on Earth: 99% of the carbon is carbon-12 , 1% is carbon-13 , and carbon-14 occurs in trace amounts, i.e., making up about 1 or 1.5 atoms per 1012 atoms of the carbon in the atmosphere
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Time
TIME (styled TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City
New York City
. It was founded in 1923 and originally run by Henry Luce . A European edition ( Time
Time
Europe, formerly known as Time
Time
Atlantic) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition ( Time
Time
Asia) is based in Hong Kong . The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands , is based in Sydney
Sydney
. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. Time
Time
has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of which are based in the United States. In mid-2016, its circulation was 3,032,581, having fallen from 3.3 million in 2012
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