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Chronology
Chronology
Chronology
(from Latin
Latin
chronologia, from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia)[2] is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time. Consider, for example, the use of a timeline or sequence of events. It is also "the determination of the actual temporal sequence of past events".[3] Chronology
Chronology
is part of periodization
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Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Neolithic
Neolithic
(/ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen)[1]) was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world[2] and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
or The New Stone Age, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the " Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution"
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Isotope
Isotopes
Isotopes
are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number. All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom. The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table. The number of protons within the atom's nucleus is called atomic number and is equal to the number of electrons in the neutral (non-ionized) atom. Each atomic number identifies a specific element, but not the isotope; an atom of a given element may have a wide range in its number of neutrons
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Paleontology
Paleontology
Paleontology
or palaeontology (/ˌpeɪliɒnˈtɒlədʒi, ˌpæli-, -ən-/) is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene
Holocene
Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, "old, ancient", ὄν, on (gen
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Jacques Cassini
Jacques Cassini
Jacques Cassini
(18 February 1677 – 16 April 1756) was a French astronomer, son of the famous Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini. Cassini was born at the Paris Observatory. Admitted at the age of seventeen to membership of the French Academy of Sciences, he was elected in 1696 a fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
of London, and became maître des comptes in 1706. Having succeeded to his father's position at the observatory in 1712, he measured in 1713 the arc of the meridian from Dunkirk
Dunkirk
to Perpignan, and published the results in a volume entitled Traité de la grandeur et de la figure de la terre (1720)
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Philippe De La Hire
Philippe de La Hire
Philippe de La Hire
(or Lahire, La Hyre or Phillipe de La Hire) (18 March 1640 – 21 April 1718)[1] was a French painter, mathematician, astronomer, and architect.[2] According to Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle he was an "academy unto himself". He was born in Paris, the son of Laurent de La Hire, a distinguished artist and Marguerite Coquin.[3] In 1660, he moved to Venice
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Christian
A Christian
Christian
(/ˈkrɪstʃən, -tiən/ ( listen)) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
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Pope Boniface IV
Pope
Pope
Boniface IV (Latin: Bonifatius IV; d. 8 May 615)[2] was Pope
Pope
from 25 September 608 to his death in 615. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with a universal feast falling annually on 25 May.[3]Contents1 Life 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Son of Johannes, "a physician, a Marsian from the province and town of Valeria; he succeeded Boniface III after a vacancy of over nine months".[3] He was consecrated on either 25 August (Duchesne) or 15 September (Jaffé) in 608
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Paulus Orosius
Paulus Orosius
Orosius
(/ˈpɔːləs ɔːˈroʊʒiəs/; born c. 375, died after 418 AD)[1] — less often Paul Orosius
Orosius
in English — was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo. It is possible that he was born in Bracara Augusta (now Braga, Portugal), then capital of the Roman province of Gallaecia, and which would be the capital of the Kingdom of the Suebi by his death.[2] Although there are some questions regarding his biography, such as his exact date of birth, it is known that he was a person of some prestige from a cultural point of view, as he had contact with the greatest figures of his time such as Saint Augustine of Hippo and Saint Jerome. In order to meet with them Orosius travelled to cities on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, such as Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
and Alexandria. These journeys defined his life and intellectual output
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Consul
Consul
Consul
(abbrev. cos.; Latin
Latin
plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire. The title was also used in other city states and also revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic. The relating adjective is consular, from the consularis.Contents1 Modern use of the term 2 Medieval city states 3 French Revolution3.1 French Republic 3.2 Roman Republic 3.3 Bolognese Republic4 Later modern republics4.1 Paraguay5 Other uses in antiquity5.1 Other city states 5.2 Private sphere 5.3 Revolutionary Greece6 See also 7 Sources and referencesModern use of the term[edit] Main article: Consul
Consul
(representative) In modern terminology, a consul is a type of diplomat
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Rome
Rome
Rome
(/roʊm/ ROHM; Italian: Roma i[ˈroːma]; Latin: Roma [ˈroːma]) is the capital of Italy
Italy
and a special comune (named Comune
Comune
di Roma Capitale). Rome
Rome
also serves as the capital of the Lazio
Lazio
region. With 2,874,558 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi),[1] it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union
European Union
by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents.[2] Rome
Rome
is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber
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Dionysius Exiguus
Dionysius Exiguus ( Latin
Latin
for "Dionysius the Humble"[a]; c. AD 470 – c. AD 544) was a 6th-century monk born in Scythia Minor (probably modern Dobruja, in Romania
Romania
and Bulgaria). He was a member of a community of Scythian monks concentrated in Tomis, the major city of Scythia Minor. Dionysius is best known as the inventor of the Anno Domini (AD) era, which is used to number the years of both the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
and the (Christianised) Julian calendar
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Bede
Bede
Bede
(/biːd/ BEED; Old English: Bǣda, Bēda; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable
Venerable
Bede, and Bede
Bede
the Venerable (Latin: Bēda Venerābilis), was an English monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles
Angles
(contemporarily Monkwearmouth– Jarrow
Jarrow
Abbey in Tyne and Wear, England). Born on lands likely belonging to the Monkwearmouth monastery, Bede
Bede
was sent there at the age of seven and later joined Abbot
Abbot
Ceolfrith
Ceolfrith
at the Jarrow
Jarrow
monastery, both of whom survived a plague that struck in 686, an outbreak that killed a majority of the population there
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Calibration
Calibration
Calibration
in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy. Such a standard could be another measurement device of known accuracy, a device generating the quantity to be measured such as a voltage, or a physical artefact, such as a metre ruler. The outcome of the comparison can result in no significant error being noted on the device under test, a significant error being noted but no adjustment made, or an adjustment made to correct the error to an acceptable level
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Correlation
In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data. Correlation is any of a broad class of statistical relationships involving dependence, though in common usage it most often refers to how close two variables are to having a linear relationship with each other. Familiar examples of dependent phenomena include the correlation between the physical statures of parents and their offspring, and the correlation between the demand for a limited supply product and its price. Correlations are useful because they can indicate a predictive relationship that can be exploited in practice. For example, an electrical utility may produce less power on a mild day based on the correlation between electricity demand and weather. In this example, there is a causal relationship, because extreme weather causes people to use more electricity for heating or cooling
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Carbon
Carbon
Carbon
(from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table.[13] Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years.[14] Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity.[15] Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth
Earth
enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life
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