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Bede
Bede
(/biːd/ BEED; Old English: Bǣda, Bēda; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable
Venerable
Bede, and Bede
Bede
the Venerable (Latin: Bēda Venerābilis), was an English monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles
Angles
(contemporarily Monkwearmouth– Jarrow
Jarrow
Abbey in Tyne and Wear, England). Born on lands likely belonging to the Monkwearmouth monastery, Bede
Bede
was sent there at the age of seven and later joined Abbot
Abbot
Ceolfrith
Ceolfrith
at the Jarrow
Jarrow
monastery, both of whom survived a plague that struck in 686, an outbreak that killed a majority of the population there. While he spent most of his life in the monastery, Bede
Bede
traveled to several abbeys and monasteries across the British Isles, even visiting the archbishop of York and King Ceolwulf of Northumbria. He is well known as an author, teacher (a student of one of his pupils was Alcuin), and scholar, and his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People
Ecclesiastical History of the English People
gained him the title "The Father of English History". His ecumenical writings were extensive and included a number of Biblical commentaries and other theological works of exegetical erudition. Another important area of study for Bede
Bede
was the academic discipline of computus, otherwise known to his contemporaries as the science of calculating calendar dates. One of the more important dates Bede
Bede
tried to compute was Easter, an effort that was mired with controversy. He also helped establish the practice of dating forward from the birth of Christ ( Anno Domini
Anno Domini
– in the year of our Lord), a practice which eventually became commonplace in medieval Europe. Bede
Bede
was one of the greatest teachers and writers of the early Middle Ages and is considered by many historians to be the single most important scholar of antiquity for the period between the death of Pope Gregory I
Pope Gregory I
in 604 and the coronation of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in 800. In 1899, Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII
declared him a Doctor of the Church. He is the only native of Great Britain
Great Britain
to achieve this designation; Anselm of Canterbury, also a Doctor of the Church, was originally from Italy. Bede
Bede
was moreover a skilled linguist and translator, and his work made the Latin
Latin
and Greek writings of the early Church Fathers
Church Fathers
much more accessible to his fellow Anglo-Saxons, which contributed significantly to English Christianity. Bede's monastery had access to an impressive library which included works by Eusebius, Orosius, and many others.

Contents

1 Life 2 Works 3 Ecclesiastical History of the English People

3.1 Sources 3.2 Models and style 3.3 Intent 3.4 Omissions and biases 3.5 Use of Anno Domini 3.6 Assessment

4 Other historical works

4.1 Chronicles 4.2 Lives

5 Theological works

5.1 Works on the Old Testament 5.2 Works on the New Testament

6 Works on historical and astronomical chronology 7 Educational works 8 Vernacular poetry 9 Veneration

9.1 Modern legacy

10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Sources

13.1 Primary sources 13.2 Secondary sources

14 Further reading 15 External links

Life[edit]

Opera Bedae Venerabilis (1563)

Almost everything that is known of Bede's life is contained in the last chapter of his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, a history of the church in England. It was completed in about 731,[2] and Bede
Bede
implies that he was then in his fifty-ninth year, which would give a birth date in 672 or 673.[1][3][4][a] A minor source of information is the letter by his disciple Cuthbert
Cuthbert
(not to be confused with the saint, Cuthbert, who is mentioned in Bede's work) which relates Bede's death.[8][b] Bede, in the Historia, gives his birthplace as "on the lands of this monastery".[9] He is referring to the twinned monasteries of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow,[10] in modern-day Wearside
Wearside
and Tyneside
Tyneside
respectively; there is also a tradition that he was born at Monkton, two miles from the monastery at Jarrow.[1][11] Bede
Bede
says nothing of his origins, but his connections with men of noble ancestry suggest that his own family was well-to-do.[12] Bede's first abbot was Benedict Biscop, and the names "Biscop" and "Beda" both appear in a king list of the kings of Lindsey from around 800, further suggesting that Bede
Bede
came from a noble family.[4] Bede's name reflects West Saxon Bīeda (Northumbrian Bǣda, Anglian Bēda).[13] It is an Anglo-Saxon short name formed on the root of bēodan "to bid, command".[14] The name also occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 501, as Bieda, one of the sons of the Saxon founder of Portsmouth. The Liber Vitae of Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral
names two priests with this name, one of whom is presumably Bede
Bede
himself. Some manuscripts of the Life of Cuthbert, one of Bede's works, mention that Cuthbert's own priest was named Bede; it is possible that this priest is the other name listed in the Liber Vitae.[15][16] At the age of seven, Bede
Bede
was sent, as a puer oblatus,[17] to the monastery of Monkwearmouth by his family to be educated by Benedict Biscop and later by Ceolfrith.[18] Bede
Bede
does not say whether it was already intended at that point that he would be a monk.[19] It was fairly common in Ireland at this time for young boys, particularly those of noble birth, to be fostered out as an oblate; the practice was also likely to have been common among the Germanic peoples in England.[20] Monkwearmouth's sister monastery at Jarrow
Jarrow
was founded by Ceolfrith
Ceolfrith
in 682, and Bede
Bede
probably transferred to Jarrow
Jarrow
with Ceolfrith
Ceolfrith
that year.[10] The dedication stone for the church has survived to the present day; it is dated 23 April 685, and as Bede would have been required to assist with menial tasks in his day-to-day life it is possible that he helped in building the original church.[20] In 686, plague broke out at Jarrow. The Life of Ceolfrith, written in about 710, records that only two surviving monks were capable of singing the full offices; one was Ceolfrith
Ceolfrith
and the other a young boy, who according to the anonymous writer had been taught by Ceolfrith. The two managed to do the entire service of the liturgy until others could be trained. The young boy was almost certainly Bede, who would have been about 14.[18][21] When Bede
Bede
was about 17 years old, Adomnán, the abbot of Iona Abbey, visited Monkwearmouth and Jarrow. Bede
Bede
would probably have met the abbot during this visit, and it may be that Adomnan sparked Bede's interest in the Easter dating controversy.[22] In about 692, in Bede's nineteenth year, Bede
Bede
was ordained a deacon by his diocesan bishop, John, who was bishop of Hexham. The canonical age for the ordination of a deacon was 25; Bede's early ordination may mean that his abilities were considered exceptional,[20] but it is also possible that the minimum age requirement was often disregarded.[23] There might have been minor orders ranking below a deacon; but there is no record of whether Bede
Bede
held any of these offices.[6][c] In Bede's thirtieth year (about 702), he became a priest, with the ordination again performed by Bishop John.[4] In about 701 Bede
Bede
wrote his first works, the De Arte Metrica and De Schematibus et Tropis; both were intended for use in the classroom.[23] He continued to write for the rest of his life, eventually completing over 60 books, most of which have survived. Not all his output can be easily dated, and Bede
Bede
may have worked on some texts over a period of many years.[4][23] His last-surviving work is a letter to Ecgbert of York, a former student, written in 734.[23] A 6th-century Greek and Latin
Latin
manuscript of Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
that is believed to have been used by Bede
Bede
survives and is now in the Bodleian Library at University of Oxford; it is known as the Codex Laudianus.[24][25] Bede
Bede
may also have worked on one of the Latin bibles that were copied at Jarrow, one of which is now held by the Laurentian Library
Laurentian Library
in Florence.[26] Bede
Bede
was a teacher as well as a writer;[27] he enjoyed music, and was said to be accomplished as a singer and as a reciter of poetry in the vernacular.[23] It is possible that he suffered a speech impediment, but this depends on a phrase in the introduction to his verse life of Saint Cuthbert. Translations of this phrase differ, and it is uncertain whether Bede intended to say that he was cured of a speech problem, or merely that he was inspired by the saint's works.[28][29][d]

Stained glass at Gloucester Cathedral
Gloucester Cathedral
depicting Bede
Bede
dictating to a scribe

In 708, some monks at Hexham accused Bede
Bede
of having committed heresy in his work De Temporibus.[30] The standard theological view of world history at the time was known as the Six Ages of the World; in his book, Bede
Bede
calculated the age of the world for himself, rather than accepting the authority of Isidore of Seville, and came to the conclusion that Christ had been born 3,952 years after the creation of the world, rather than the figure of over 5,000 years that was commonly accepted by theologians.[31] The accusation occurred in front of the bishop of Hexham, Wilfrid, who was present at a feast when some drunken monks made the accusation. Wilfrid
Wilfrid
did not respond to the accusation, but a monk present relayed the episode to Bede, who replied within a few days to the monk, writing a letter setting forth his defence and asking that the letter also be read to Wilfrid.[30][e] Bede
Bede
had another brush with Wilfrid, for the historian himself says that he met Wilfrid, sometime between 706 and 709, and discussed Æthelthryth, the abbess of Ely. Wilfrid
Wilfrid
had been present at the exhumation of her body in 695, and Bede
Bede
questioned the bishop about the exact circumstances of the body and asked for more details of her life, as Wilfrid
Wilfrid
had been her advisor.[32] In 733, Bede
Bede
travelled to York to visit Ecgbert, who was then bishop of York. The See of York was elevated to an archbishopric in 735, and it is likely that Bede
Bede
and Ecgbert discussed the proposal for the elevation during his visit.[33] Bede
Bede
hoped to visit Ecgbert again in 734, but was too ill to make the journey.[33] Bede
Bede
also travelled to the monastery of Lindisfarne, and at some point visited the otherwise-unknown monastery of a monk named Wicthed, a visit that is mentioned in a letter to that monk. Because of his widespread correspondence with others throughout the British Isles, and due to the fact that many of the letters imply that Bede
Bede
had met his correspondents, it is likely that Bede
Bede
travelled to some other places, although nothing further about timing or locations can be guessed.[34] It seems certain that he did not visit Rome, however, as he would have mentioned it in the autobiographical chapter of his Historia Ecclesiastica.[35] Nothhelm, a correspondent of Bede's who assisted him by finding documents for him in Rome, is known to have visited Bede, though the date cannot be determined beyond the fact that it was after Nothhelm's visit to Rome.[36] Except for a few visits to other monasteries, his life was spent in a round of prayer, observance of the monastic discipline and study of the Sacred Scriptures. He was considered the most learned man of his time, and wrote excellent biblical and historical books.[37]

Bede's tomb in Durham Cathedral

Bede
Bede
died on the Feast of the Ascension, Thursday, 26 May 735, on the floor of his cell, singing "Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit"[37] and was buried at Jarrow.[4] Cuthbert, a disciple of Bede's, wrote a letter to a Cuthwin (of whom nothing else is known), describing Bede's last days and his death. According to Cuthbert, Bede
Bede
fell ill, "with frequent attacks of breathlessness but almost without pain", before Easter. On the Tuesday, two days before Bede
Bede
died, his breathing became worse and his feet swelled. He continued to dictate to a scribe, however, and despite spending the night awake in prayer he dictated again the following day. At three o'clock, according to Cuthbert, he asked for a box of his to be brought, and distributed among the priests of the monastery "a few treasures" of his: "some pepper, and napkins, and some incense". That night he dictated a final sentence to the scribe, a boy named Wilberht, and died soon afterwards.[38] The account of Cuthbert
Cuthbert
does not make entirely clear whether Bede
Bede
died before midnight or after. However, by the reckoning of Bede's time, passage from the old day to the new occurred at sunset, not midnight, and Cuthbert
Cuthbert
is clear that he died after sunset. Thus, while his box was brought at three o'clock Wednesday afternoon the 25th, by the time of the final dictation it might be considered already Thursday in that ecclesiastical sense, although the 25th in the ordinary sense.[39] Cuthbert's letter also relates a five-line poem in the vernacular that Bede
Bede
composed on his deathbed, known as "Bede's Death Song". It is the most-widely copied Old English poem, and appears in 45 manuscripts, but its attribution to Bede
Bede
is not certain—not all manuscripts name Bede
Bede
as the author, and the ones that do are of later origin than those that do not.[40][41][42] Bede's remains may have been transferred to Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral
in the 11th century; his tomb there was looted in 1541, but the contents were probably re-interred in the Galilee chapel at the cathedral.[4] One further oddity in his writings is that in one of his works, the Commentary on the Seven Catholic Epistles, he writes in a manner that gives the impression he was married.[15] The section in question is the only one in that work that is written in first-person view. Bede says: "Prayers are hindered by the conjugal duty because as often as I perform what is due to my wife I am not able to pray."[43] Another passage, in the Commentary on Luke, also mentions a wife in the first person: "Formerly I possessed a wife in the lustful passion of desire and now I possess her in honourable sanctification and true love of Christ."[43] The historian Benedicta Ward argues that these passages are Bede
Bede
employing a rhetorical device.[44] Works[edit] Main article: List of works by Bede

Depiction of the Venerable
Venerable
Bede
Bede
(on CLVIIIv) from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493

Bede
Bede
wrote scientific, historical and theological works, reflecting the range of his writings from music and metrics to exegetical Scripture
Scripture
commentaries. He knew patristic literature, as well as Pliny the Elder, Virgil, Lucretius, Ovid, Horace
Horace
and other classical writers. He knew some Greek. Bede's scriptural commentaries employed the allegorical method of interpretation[45] and his history includes accounts of miracles, which to modern historians has seemed at odds with his critical approach to the materials in his history. Modern studies have shown the important role such concepts played in the world-view of Early Medieval scholars.[46] He dedicated his work on the Apocalypse and the De Temporum Ratione to the successor of Ceolfrid as abbot, Hwaetbert.[47] Although Bede
Bede
is mainly studied as a historian now, in his time his works on grammar, chronology, and biblical studies were as important as his historical and hagiographical works. The non-historical works contributed greatly to the Carolingian
Carolingian
renaissance.[48] He has been credited with writing a penitential, though his authorship of this work is still very much disputed.[49] Ecclesiastical History of the English People[edit] Main article: Ecclesiastical History of the English People Bede's best-known work is the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, or An Ecclesiastical History of the English People,[50] completed in about 731. Bede
Bede
was aided in writing this book by Albinus, abbot of St Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury.[51] The first of the five books begins with some geographical background, and then sketches the history of England, beginning with Caesar's invasion in 55 BC.[52] A brief account of Christianity
Christianity
in Roman Britain, including the martyrdom of St Alban, is followed by the story of Augustine's mission to England in 597, which brought Christianity
Christianity
to the Anglo-Saxons.[4] The second book begins with the death of Gregory the Great
Gregory the Great
in 604, and follows the further progress of Christianity
Christianity
in Kent and the first attempts to evangelise Northumbria.[53] These ended in disaster when Penda, the pagan king of Mercia, killed the newly Christian Edwin of Northumbria at the Battle of Hatfield Chase
Battle of Hatfield Chase
in about 632.[53] The setback was temporary, and the third book recounts the growth of Christianity
Christianity
in Northumbria under kings Oswald of Northumbria
Oswald of Northumbria
and Oswy.[54] The climax of the third book is the account of the Council of Whitby, traditionally seen as a major turning point in English history.[55] The fourth book begins with the consecration of Theodore as Archbishop of Canterbury, and recounts Wilfrid's efforts to bring Christianity
Christianity
to the kingdom of Sussex.[56] The fifth book brings the story up to Bede's day, and includes an account of missionary work in Frisia, and of the conflict with the British church over the correct dating of Easter.[56] Bede
Bede
wrote a preface for the work, in which he dedicates it to Ceolwulf, king of Northumbria.[57] The preface mentions that Ceolwulf received an earlier draft of the book; presumably Ceolwulf knew enough Latin
Latin
to understand it, and he may even have been able to read it.[4][52] The preface makes it clear that Ceolwulf had requested the earlier copy, and Bede
Bede
had asked for Ceolwulf's approval; this correspondence with the king indicates that Bede's monastery had excellent connections among the Northumbrian nobility.[4] Sources[edit] The monastery at Wearmouth- Jarrow
Jarrow
had an excellent library. Both Benedict Biscop
Benedict Biscop
and Ceolfrith
Ceolfrith
had acquired books from the Continent, and in Bede's day the monastery was a renowned centre of learning.[58] It has been estimated that there were about 200 books in the monastic library.[59] For the period prior to Augustine's arrival in 597, Bede
Bede
drew on earlier writers, including Solinus.[4][60] He had access to two works of Eusebius: the Historia Ecclesiastica, and also the Chronicon, though he had neither in the original Greek; instead he had a Latin translation of the Historia, by Rufinus, and Saint Jerome's translation of the Chronicon.[61] He also knew Orosius's Adversus Paganus, and Gregory of Tours' Historia Francorum, both Christian histories,[61] as well as the work of Eutropius, a pagan historian.[62] He used Constantius's Life of Germanus as a source for Germanus's visits to Britain.[4][60] Bede's account of the invasion of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
is drawn largely from Gildas's De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae.[63] Bede
Bede
would also have been familiar with more recent accounts such as Eddius
Eddius
Stephanus's Life of Wilfrid, and anonymous Lives of Gregory the Great
Gregory the Great
and Cuthbert.[60] He also drew on Josephus's Antiquities, and the works of Cassiodorus,[64] and there was a copy of the Liber Pontificalis
Liber Pontificalis
in Bede's monastery.[65] Bede quotes from several classical authors, including Cicero, Plautus, and Terence, but he may have had access to their work via a Latin
Latin
grammar rather than directly.[66] However, it is clear he was familiar with the works of Virgil
Virgil
and with Pliny the Elder's Natural History, and his monastery also owned copies of the works of Dionysius Exiguus.[66] He probably drew his account of St. Alban from a life of that saint which has not survived. He acknowledges two other lives of saints directly; one is a life of Fursa, and the other of St. Æthelburh; the latter no longer survives.[67] He also had access to a life of Ceolfrith.[68] Some of Bede's material came from oral traditions, including a description of the physical appearance of Paulinus of York, who had died nearly 90 years before Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica was written.[68] Bede
Bede
also had correspondents who supplied him with material. Albinus, the abbot of the monastery in Canterbury, provided much information about the church in Kent, and with the assistance of Nothhelm, at that time a priest in London, obtained copies of Gregory the Great's correspondence from Rome
Rome
relating to Augustine's mission.[4][60][69] Almost all of Bede's information regarding Augustine is taken from these letters.[4] Bede
Bede
acknowledged his correspondents in the preface to the Historia Ecclesiastica;[70] he was in contact with Daniel, the Bishop of Winchester, for information about the history of the church in Wessex, and also wrote to the monastery at Lastingham
Lastingham
for information about Cedd
Cedd
and Chad.[70] Bede
Bede
also mentions an Abbot
Abbot
Esi as a source for the affairs of the East Anglian church, and Bishop Cynibert for information about Lindsey.[70] The historian Walter Goffart argues that Bede
Bede
based the structure of the Historia on three works, using them as the framework around which the three main sections of the work were structured. For the early part of the work, up until the Gregorian mission, Goffart feels that Bede
Bede
used Gildas's De excidio. The second section, detailing the Gregorian mission
Gregorian mission
of Augustine of Canterbury
Canterbury
was framed on the anonymous Life of Gregory the Great
Gregory the Great
written at Whitby. The last section, detailing events after the Gregorian mission, Goffart feels were modelled on Stephen of Ripon's Life of Wilfrid.[71] Most of Bede's informants for information after Augustine's mission came from the eastern part of Britain, leaving significant gaps in the knowledge of the western areas, which were those areas likely to have a native Briton presence.[72][73] Models and style[edit] Bede's stylistic models included some of the same authors from whom he drew the material for the earlier parts of his history. His introduction imitates the work of Orosius,[4] and his title is an echo of Eusebius's Historia Ecclesiastica.[1] Bede
Bede
also followed Eusebius in taking the Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
as the model for the overall work: where Eusebius
Eusebius
used the Acts as the theme for his description of the development of the church, Bede
Bede
made it the model for his history of the Anglo-Saxon church.[74] Bede
Bede
quoted his sources at length in his narrative, as Eusebius
Eusebius
had done.[4] Bede
Bede
also appears to have taken quotes directly from his correspondents at times. For example, he almost always uses the terms "Australes" and "Occidentales" for the South and West Saxons respectively, but in a passage in the first book he uses "Meridiani" and "Occidui" instead, as perhaps his informant had done.[4] At the end of the work, Bede
Bede
added a brief autobiographical note; this was an idea taken from Gregory of Tours' earlier History of the Franks.[75] Bede's work as a hagiographer, and his detailed attention to dating, were both useful preparations for the task of writing the Historia Ecclesiastica. His interest in computus, the science of calculating the date of Easter, was also useful in the account he gives of the controversy between the British and Anglo-Saxon church over the correct method of obtaining the Easter date.[50] Bede
Bede
is described by Michael Lapidge as "without question the most accomplished Latinist produced in these islands in the Anglo-Saxon period".[76] His Latin
Latin
has been praised for its clarity, but his style in the Historia Ecclesiastica is not simple. He knew rhetoric, and often used figures of speech and rhetorical forms which cannot easily be reproduced in translation, depending as they often do on the connotations of the Latin
Latin
words. However, unlike contemporaries such as Aldhelm, whose Latin
Latin
is full of difficulties, Bede's own text is easy to read.[77] In the words of Charles Plummer, one of the best-known editors of the Historia Ecclesiastica, Bede's Latin
Latin
is "clear and limpid ... it is very seldom that we have to pause to think of the meaning of a sentence ... Alcuin
Alcuin
rightly praises Bede
Bede
for his unpretending style."[78] Intent[edit] Bede's primary intention in writing the Historia Ecclesiastica was to show the growth of the united church throughout England. The native Britons, whose Christian church survived the departure of the Romans, earn Bede's ire for refusing to help convert the Saxons; by the end of the Historia the English, and their Church, are dominant over the Britons.[79] This goal, of showing the movement towards unity, explains Bede's animosity towards the British method of calculating Easter: much of the Historia is devoted to a history of the dispute, including the final resolution at the Synod of Whitby
Synod of Whitby
in 664.[75] Bede is also concerned to show the unity of the English, despite the disparate kingdoms that still existed when he was writing. He also wants to instruct the reader by spiritual example, and to entertain, and to the latter end he adds stories about many of the places and people about which he wrote.[79] N.J. Higham argues that Bede
Bede
designed his work to promote his reform agenda to Ceolwulf, the Northumbrian king. Bede
Bede
painted a highly optimistic picture of the current situation in the Church, as opposed to the more pessimistic picture found in his private letters.[80] Bede's extensive use of miracles can prove difficult for readers who consider him a more or less reliable historian, but do not accept the possibility of miracles. Yet both reflect an inseparable integrity and regard for accuracy and truth, expressed in terms both of historical events and of a tradition of Christian faith that continues to the present day. Bede, like Gregory the Great
Gregory the Great
whom Bede
Bede
quotes on the subject in the Historia, felt that faith brought about by miracles was a stepping stone to a higher, truer faith, and that as a result miracles had their place in a work designed to instruct.[81] Omissions and biases[edit] Bede
Bede
is somewhat reticent about the career of Wilfrid, a contemporary and one of the most prominent clerics of his day. This may be because Wilfrid's opulent lifestyle was uncongenial to Bede's monastic mind; it may also be that the events of Wilfrid's life, divisive and controversial as they were, simply did not fit with Bede's theme of the progression to a unified and harmonious church.[53] Bede's account of the early migrations of the Angles
Angles
and Saxons to England
England
omits any mention of a movement of those peoples across the channel from Britain to Brittany described by Procopius, who was writing in the sixth century. Frank Stenton describes this omission as "a scholar's dislike of the indefinite"; traditional material that could not be dated or used for Bede's didactic purposes had no interest for him.[82] Bede
Bede
was a Northumbrian, and this tinged his work with a local bias.[83] The sources to which he had access gave him less information about the west of England
England
than for other areas.[84] He says relatively little about the achievements of Mercia and Wessex, omitting, for example, any mention of Boniface, a West Saxon missionary to the continent of some renown and of whom Bede
Bede
had almost certainly heard, though Bede
Bede
does discuss Northumbrian missionaries to the continent. He also is parsimonious in his praise for Aldhelm, a West Saxon who had done much to convert the native Britons to the Roman form of Christianity. He lists seven kings of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
whom he regards as having held imperium, or overlordship; only one king of Wessex, Ceawlin, is listed, and none from Mercia, though elsewhere he acknowledges the secular power several of the Mercians held.[85] Historian
Historian
Robin Fleming states that he was so hostile to Mercia because Northumbria had been diminished by Mercian power that he consulted no Mercian informants and included no stories about its saints.[86] Bede
Bede
relates the story of Augustine's mission from Rome, and tells how the British clergy refused to assist Augustine in the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons. This, combined with Gildas's negative assessment of the British church at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasions, led Bede to a very critical view of the native church. However, Bede
Bede
ignores the fact that at the time of Augustine's mission, the history between the two was one of warfare and conquest, which, in the words of Barbara Yorke, would have naturally "curbed any missionary impulses towards the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
from the British clergy."[87] Use of Anno Domini[edit] At the time Bede
Bede
wrote the Historia Ecclesiastica, there were two common ways of referring to dates. One was to use indictions, which were 15-year cycles, counting from 312 AD. There were three different varieties of indiction, each starting on a different day of the year. The other approach was to use regnal years—the reigning Roman emperor, for example, or the ruler of whichever kingdom was under discussion. This meant that in discussing conflicts between kingdoms, the date would have to be given in the regnal years of all the kings involved. Bede
Bede
used both these approaches on occasion, but adopted a third method as his main approach to dating: the Anno Domini
Anno Domini
method invented by Dionysius Exiguus.[88] Although Bede
Bede
did not invent this method, his adoption of it, and his promulgation of it in De Temporum Ratione, his work on chronology, is the main reason why it is now so widely used.[88][89] Beda Venerabilis' Easter cycle, contained in De Temporum Ratione, was developed from Dionysius Exiguus’ famous Easter table. Assessment[edit] The Historia Ecclesiastica was copied often in the Middle Ages, and about 160 manuscripts containing it survive. About half of those are located on the European continent, rather than in the British Isles.[90] Most of the 8th- and 9th-century texts of Bede's Historia come from the northern parts of the Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire.[91] This total does not include manuscripts with only a part of the work, of which another 100 or so survive. It was printed for the first time between 1474 and 1482, probably at Strasbourg, France.[90] Modern historians have studied the Historia extensively, and a number of editions have been produced.[92] For many years, early Anglo-Saxon history was essentially a retelling of the Historia, but recent scholarship has focused as much on what Bede
Bede
did not write as what he did. The belief that the Historia was the culmination of Bede's works, the aim of all his scholarship, a belief common among historians in the past, is no longer accepted by most scholars.[93] Modern historians and editors of Bede
Bede
have been lavish in their praise of his achievement in the Historia Ecclesiastica. Stenton regarded it as one of the "small class of books which transcend all but the most fundamental conditions of time and place", and regarded its quality as dependent on Bede's "astonishing power of co-ordinating the fragments of information which came to him through tradition, the relation of friends, or documentary evidence ... In an age where little was attempted beyond the registration of fact, he had reached the conception of history."[94] Patrick Wormald described him as "the first and greatest of England's historians".[95] The Historia Ecclesiastica has given Bede
Bede
a high reputation, but his concerns were different from those of a modern writer of history.[4] His focus on the history of the organisation of the English church, and on heresies and the efforts made to root them out, led him to exclude the secular history of kings and kingdoms except where a moral lesson could be drawn or where they illuminated events in the church.[4] Besides the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the medieval writers William of Malmesbury, Henry of Huntingdon, and Geoffrey of Monmouth used his works as sources and inspirations.[96] Early modern writers, such as Polydore Vergil
Polydore Vergil
and Matthew Parker, the Elizabethan Archbishop of Canterbury, also utilised the Historia, and his works were used by both Protestant and Catholic sides in the Wars of Religion.[97] Some historians have questioned the reliability of some of Bede's accounts. One historian, Charlotte Behr, thinks that the Historia's account of the arrival of the Germanic invaders in Kent should not be considered to relate what actually happened, but rather relates myths that were current in Kent during Bede's time.[98] It is likely that Bede's work, because it was so widely copied, discouraged others from writing histories and may even have led to the disappearance of manuscripts containing older historical works.[99] Other historical works[edit]

A page from a copy of Bede's Lives of St. Cuthbert, showing King Athelstan presenting the work to the saint. This manuscript was given to St. Cuthbert's shrine in 934.[100]

Chronicles[edit] As Chapter 66 of his On the Reckoning of Time, in 725 Bede
Bede
wrote the Greater Chronicle (chronica maiora), which sometimes circulated as a separate work. For recent events the Chronicle, like his Ecclesiastical History, relied upon Gildas, upon a version of the Liber Pontificalis
Liber Pontificalis
current at least to the papacy of Pope
Pope
Sergius I (687–701), and other sources. For earlier events he drew on Eusebius's Chronikoi Kanones. The dating of events in the Chronicle is inconsistent with his other works, using the era of creation, the Anno Mundi.[101] Lives[edit] His other historical works included lives of the abbots of Wearmouth and Jarrow, as well as verse and prose lives of Saint Cuthbert
Cuthbert
of Lindisfarne, an adaptation of Paulinus of Nola's Life of St Felix, and a translation of the Greek Passion of St Anastasius. He also created a listing of saints, the Martyrology.[102] Theological works[edit] In his own time, Bede
Bede
was as well known for his biblical commentaries and exegetical, as well as other theological works. The majority of his writings were of this type, and covered the Old Testament and the New Testament. Most survived the Middle Ages, but a few were lost.[103] It was for his theological writings that he earned the title of Doctor Anglorum, and why he was declared a saint.[104] Bede
Bede
synthesised and transmitted the learning from his predecessors, as well as made careful, judicious innovation in knowledge (such as recalculating the age of the earth—for which he was censured before surviving the heresy accusations and eventually having his views championed by Archbishop
Archbishop
Ussher in the sixteenth century—see below) that had theological implications. In order to do this, he learned Greek, and attempted to learn Hebrew. He spent time reading and rereading both the Old and the New Testaments. He mentions that he studied from a text of Jerome's Vulgate, which itself was from the Hebrew text. He also studied both the Latin
Latin
and the Greek Fathers of the Church. In the monastic library at Jarrow
Jarrow
were a number of books by theologians, including works by Basil, Cassian, John Chrysostom, Isidore of Seville, Origen, Gregory of Nazianzus, Augustine of Hippo, Jerome, Pope
Pope
Gregory I, Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan, Cassiodorus, and Cyprian.[66][104] He used these, in conjunction with the Biblical texts themselves, to write his commentaries and other theological works.[104] He had a Latin
Latin
translation by Evagrius of Athanasius's Life of Antony, and a copy of Sulpicius Severus' Life of St. Martin.[66] He also used lesser known writers, such as Fulgentius, Julian of Eclanum, Tyconius, and Prosper of Aquitaine. Bede
Bede
was the first to refer to Jerome, Augustine, Pope
Pope
Gregory and Ambrose
Ambrose
as the four Latin
Latin
Fathers of the Church.[105] It is clear from Bede's own comments that he felt his calling was to explain to his students and readers the theology and thoughts of the Church Fathers.[106] Bede
Bede
also wrote homilies, works written to explain theology used in worship services. Bede
Bede
wrote homilies not only on the major Christian seasons such as Advent, Lent, or Easter, but on other subjects such as anniversaries of significant events.[104] Both types of Bede's theological works circulated widely in the Middle Ages. A number of his biblical commentaries were incorporated into the Glossa Ordinaria, an 11th-century collection of biblical commentaries. Some of Bede's homilies were collected by Paul the Deacon, and they were used in that form in the Monastic Office. Saint Boniface
Boniface
used Bede's homilies in his missionary efforts on the continent.[104] Bede
Bede
sometimes included in his theological books an acknowledgement of the predecessors on whose works he drew. In two cases he left instructions that his marginal notes, which gave the details of his sources, should be preserved by the copyist, and he may have originally added marginal comments about his sources to others of his works. Where he does not specify, it is still possible to identify books to which he must have had access by quotations that he uses. A full catalogue of the library available to Bede
Bede
in the monastery cannot be reconstructed, but it is possible to tell, for example, that Bede
Bede
was very familiar with the works of Virgil. There is little evidence that he had access to any other of the pagan Latin writers—he quotes many of these writers but the quotes are almost all to be found in the Latin
Latin
grammars that were common in his day, one or more of which would certainly have been at the monastery. Another difficulty is that manuscripts of early writers were often incomplete: it is apparent that Bede
Bede
had access to Pliny's Encyclopedia, for example, but it seems that the version he had was missing book xviii, as he would almost certainly have quoted from it in his De temporum ratione.[107][f] Works on the Old Testament[edit] The works dealing with the Old Testament included Commentary on Samuel,[109] Commentary on Genesis,[110] Commentaries on Ezra and Nehemiah, On the Temple, On the Tabernacle,[111] Commentaries on Tobit, Commentaries on Proverbs,[112] Commentaries on the Song of Songs, Commentaries on the Canticle of Habakkuk,[113] The works on Ezra, the Tabernacle and the Temple were especially influenced by Gregory the Great's writings.[114] Works on the New Testament[edit] Bede's works included Commentary on Revelation,[115] Commentary on the Catholic Epistles,[116] Commentary on Acts, Reconsideration on the Books of Acts,[117] On the Gospel of Mark, On the Gospel of Luke, and Homilies on the Gospels.[118] At the time of his death he was working on a translation of the Gospel of St. John into English.[119] He did this for the last 40 days of his life. When the last passage had been translated he said: "All is finished."[37] Works on historical and astronomical chronology[edit]

De natura rerum, 1529

De temporibus, or On Time, written in about 703, provides an introduction to the principles of Easter computus.[120] This was based on parts of Isidore of Seville's Etymologies, and Bede
Bede
also included a chronology of the world which was derived from Eusebius, with some revisions based on Jerome's translation of the bible.[4] In about 723,[4] Bede
Bede
wrote a longer work on the same subject, On the Reckoning of Time, which was influential throughout the Middle Ages.[121] He also wrote several shorter letters and essays discussing specific aspects of computus. On the Reckoning of Time (De temporum ratione) included an introduction to the traditional ancient and medieval view of the cosmos, including an explanation of how the spherical earth influenced the changing length of daylight, of how the seasonal motion of the Sun and Moon influenced the changing appearance of the New Moon
New Moon
at evening twilight, and a quantitative relation between the changes of the tides at a given place and the daily motion of the moon.[122] Since the focus of his book was the computus, Bede
Bede
gave instructions for computing the date of Easter and the related time of the Easter Full Moon, for calculating the motion of the Sun and Moon through the zodiac, and for many other calculations related to the calendar. He gives some information about the months of the Anglo-Saxon calendar in chapter XV.[123] Any codex of Bede's Easter cycle is normally found together with a codex of his De temporum ratione. For calendric purposes, Bede
Bede
made a new calculation of the age of the world since the creation, which he dated as 3952 BC. Due to his innovations in computing the age of the world, he was accused of heresy at the table of Bishop Wilfrid, his chronology being contrary to accepted calculations. Once informed of the accusations of these "lewd rustics," Bede
Bede
refuted them in his Letter to Plegwin.[124] In addition to these works on astronomical timekeeping, he also wrote De natura rerum, or On the Nature of Things, modelled in part after the work of the same title by Isidore of Seville.[125] His works were so influential that late in the 9th century Notker the Stammerer, a monk of the Monastery of St. Gall in Switzerland, wrote that "God, the orderer of natures, who raised the Sun from the East on the fourth day of Creation, in the sixth day of the world has made Bede
Bede
rise from the West as a new Sun to illuminate the whole Earth".[126] Educational works[edit] Bede
Bede
wrote some works designed to help teach grammar in the abbey school. One of these was his De arte metrica, a discussion of the composition of Latin
Latin
verse, drawing on previous grammarians work. It was based on Donatus' De pedibus and Servius' De finalibus, and used examples from Christian poets as well as Virgil. It became a standard text for the teaching of Latin
Latin
verse during the next few centuries. Bede
Bede
dedicated this work to Cuthbert, apparently a student, for he is named "beloved son" in the dedication, and Bede
Bede
says "I have laboured to educate you in divine letters and ecclesiastical statutes"[127] Another textbook of Bede's is the De orthographia, a work on orthography, designed to help a medieval reader of Latin
Latin
with unfamiliar abbreviations and words from classical Latin
Latin
works. Although it could serve as a textbook, it appears to have been mainly intended as a reference work. The exact date of composition for both of these works is unknown.[128] Another educational work is De schematibus et tropis sacrae scripturae, which discusses the Bible's use of rhetoric.[4] Bede
Bede
was familiar with pagan authors such as Virgil, but it was not considered appropriate to teach biblical grammar from such texts, and in De schematibus ... Bede
Bede
argues for the superiority of Christian texts in understanding Christian literature.[4][129] Similarly, his text on poetic metre uses only Christian poetry for examples.[4] Vernacular poetry[edit] According to his disciple Cuthbert, Bede
Bede
was also doctus in nostris carminibus ("learned in our songs"). Cuthbert's letter on Bede's death, the Epistola Cuthberti de obitu Bedae, moreover, commonly is understood to indicate that Bede
Bede
also composed a five line vernacular poem known to modern scholars as Bede's Death Song

And he used to repeat that sentence from St. Paul "It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God," and many other verses of Scripture, urging us thereby to awake from the slumber of the soul by thinking in good time of our last hour. And in our own language,—for he was familiar with English poetry,—speaking of the soul's dread departure from the body:

Fore ðæm nedfere nænig wiorðe ðonc snottora ðon him ðearf siæ to ymbhycgenne ær his hinionge hwæt his gastæ godes oððe yfles æfter deað dæge doemed wiorðe.[130]

Facing that enforced journey, no man can be More prudent than he has good call to be, If he consider, before his going hence, What for his spirit of good hap or of evil After his day of death shall be determined.

As Opland notes, however, it is not entirely clear that Cuthbert
Cuthbert
is attributing this text to Bede: most manuscripts of the letter do not use a finite verb to describe Bede's presentation of the song, and the theme was relatively common in Old English and Anglo- Latin
Latin
literature. The fact that Cuthbert's description places the performance of the Old English poem in the context of a series of quoted passages from Sacred Scripture, indeed, might be taken as evidence simply that Bede
Bede
also cited analogous vernacular texts.[131] On the other hand, the inclusion of the Old English text of the poem in Cuthbert's Latin letter, the observation that Bede
Bede
"was learned in our song," and the fact that Bede
Bede
composed a Latin
Latin
poem on the same subject all point to the possibility of his having written it. By citing the poem directly, Cuthbert
Cuthbert
seems to imply that its particular wording was somehow important, either since it was a vernacular poem endorsed by a scholar who evidently frowned upon secular entertainment[132] or because it is a direct quotation of Bede's last original composition.[133] Veneration[edit]

Bede
Bede
depicted at St. Bede's school, Chennai

There is no evidence for cult being paid to Bede
Bede
in England
England
in the 8th century. One reason for this may be that he died on the feast day of Augustine of Canterbury. Later, when he was venerated in England, he was either commemorated after Augustine on 26 May, or his feast was moved to 27 May. However, he was venerated outside England, mainly through the efforts of Boniface
Boniface
and Alcuin, both of whom promoted the cult on the Continent. Boniface
Boniface
wrote repeatedly back to England during his missionary efforts, requesting copies of Bede's theological works. Alcuin, who was taught at the school set up in York by Bede's pupil Egbert, praised Bede
Bede
as an example for monks to follow and was instrumental in disseminating Bede's works to all of Alcuin's friends.[134] Bede's cult became prominent in England
England
during the 10th-century revival of monasticism, and by the 14th century had spread to many of the cathedrals of England. Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester (c. 1008–1095) was a particular devotee of Bede's, dedicating a church to him in 1062, which was Wulfstan's first undertaking after his consecration as bishop.[135] His body was 'translated' (the ecclesiastical term for relocation of relics) from Jarrow
Jarrow
to Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral
around 1020, where it was placed in the same tomb with Saint Cuthbert
Cuthbert
of Lindisfarne. Later Bede's remains were moved to a shrine in the Galilee Chapel at Durham Cathedral in 1370. The shrine was destroyed during the English Reformation, but the bones were reburied in the chapel. In 1831 the bones were dug up and then reburied in a new tomb, which is still there.[136] Other relics were claimed by York, Glastonbury[10] and Fulda.[137] His scholarship and importance to Catholicism were recognised in 1899 when he was declared a Doctor of the Church.[4] He is the only Englishman named a Doctor of the Church.[37][90] He is also the only Englishman in Dante's Paradise (Paradiso X.130), mentioned among theologians and doctors of the church in the same canto as Isidore of Seville and the Scot Richard of St. Victor. His feast day was included in the General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar
in 1899, for celebration on 27 May rather than on his date of death, 26 May, which was then the feast day of Pope
Pope
Saint Gregory VII. He is venerated in both the Anglican and Roman Catholic Church, with a feast day of 25 May,[90] and in the Eastern Orthodox Church, with a feast day on 27 May.[138] Bede
Bede
became known as Venerable
Venerable
Bede
Bede
(Lat.: Beda Venerabilis) by the 9th century[139] because of his holiness,[37] but this was not linked to consideration for sainthood by the Roman Catholic Church. According to a legend the epithet was miraculously supplied by angels, thus completing his unfinished epitaph.[140] It is first utilised in connection with Bede
Bede
in the 9th century, where Bede
Bede
was grouped with others who were called "venerable" at two ecclesiastical councils held at Aachen in 816 and 836. Paul the Deacon
Deacon
then referred to him as venerable consistently. By the 11th and 12th century, it had become commonplace. However, there are no descriptions of Bede
Bede
by that term right after his death.[8] Modern legacy[edit] Bede's reputation as a historian, based mostly on the Historia Ecclesiastica, remains strong;[94][95] historian Walter Goffart says of Bede
Bede
that he "holds a privileged and unrivalled place among first historians of Christian Europe".[92] His life and work have been celebrated with the annual Jarrow
Jarrow
Lecture, held at St. Paul's Church, Jarrow, since 1958.[141] The English Heritage Organization created Jarrow
Jarrow
Hall (previously known as Bede's World), a museum that celebrates the history of Bede
Bede
and other parts of English heritage. See also[edit]

Anglo-Saxon England
England
portal Biography portal Christianity
Christianity
portal Saints portal

Jarrow
Jarrow
Hall – Anglo-Saxon Farm, Village and Bede
Bede
Museum, formerly 'Bede's World' List of manuscripts of Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica List of works by Bede North East England

Notes[edit]

^ Bede's words are "Ex quo tempore accepti presbyteratus usque ad annum aetatis meae LVIIII ..."; which means "From the time I became a priest until the fifty-ninth year of my life I have made it my business ... to make brief extracts from the works of the venerable fathers on the holy Scriptures ..."[5][6] Other, less plausible, interpretations of this passage have been suggested—for example that it means Bede
Bede
stopped writing about scripture in his fifty-ninth year.[7] ^ Cuthbert
Cuthbert
is probably the same person as the later abbot of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow, but this is not entirely certain.[8] ^ Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville
lists six orders below a deacon, but these orders need not have existed at Monkwearmouth.[6] ^ The key phrase is per linguae curationem, which is variously translated as "how his tongue was healed", "[a] canker on the tongue", or, following a different interpretation of curationem, "the guidance of my tongue".[29] ^ The letter itself is in Bedae Opera de Temporibus edited by C. W. Jones, pp. 307–315 ^ Laistner provides a list of works definitely or tentatively identified as in Bede's library.[108]

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f Ray 2001, pp. 57–59 ^ Brooks 2006, p. 5 ^ Colgrave & Mynors 1969, p. xix ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Campbell 2004 ^ Colgrave & Mynors 1969, pp. 566–567 ^ a b c Blair 1990, p. 253 ^ Whiting, "The Life of the Venerable
Venerable
Bede", in Thompson, "Bede: His Life, Times and Writing", p. 4. ^ a b c Higham 2006, pp. 9–10 ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, V.24, p. 329. ^ a b c Farmer 2004, pp. 47–48 ^ Colgrave & Mynors 1969, pp. xix–xx ^ Blair 1990, p. 4 ^ J. Insley, "Portesmutha" in: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde vol. 23, Walter de Gruyter (2003), 291. ^ Förstemann, Altdeutsches Namenbuch s.v. BUD (289) connects the Old High German short name Bodo (variants Boto, Boddo, Potho, Boda, Puoto etc.) as from the same verbal root. ^ a b Higham 2006, pp. 8–9 ^ Swanton 1998, pp. 14–15 ^ Kendall 2010, p. 101; Rowley 2017, p. 258 ^ a b Blair 1990, p. 178 ^ Blair 1990, p. 241 ^ a b c Colgrave & Mynors 1969, p. xx ^ Plummer, Bedae Opera Historica, vol. I, p. xii. ^ Blair 1990, p. 181 ^ a b c d e Blair 1990, p. 5 ^ Blair 1990, p. 234 ^ "Classical and Medieval MSS". Bodleian Library. Retrieved 30 December 2010.  ^ A few pages from another copy are held by the British Museum. Farmer 1978, p. 20 ^ Ray 2001, p. 57 ^ Whiting, "The Life of the Venerable
Venerable
Bede", in Thompson, "Bede: His Life, Times and Writing", pp. 5–6. ^ a b Dorothy Whitelock, " Bede
Bede
and his Teachers and Friends", in Bonner, Famulus Christi, p. 21. ^ a b Blair 1990, p. 267 ^ Hurst, Bede
Bede
the Venerable, p. 38. ^ Goffart, Narrators p. 322 ^ a b Blair 1990, p. 305 ^ Higham 2006, p. 15 ^ Colgrave & Mynors 1969, p. 556n ^ Plummer, Bedae Opera Historica, vol. II, p. 3. ^ a b c d e Fr. Paolo O. Pirlo, SHMI (1997). "St. Venerable
Venerable
Bede". My First Book
Book
of Saints. Sons of Holy Mary Immaculate – Quality Catholic Publications. p. 104. ISBN 971-91595-4-5.  ^ Colgrave & Mynors 1969, pp. 580–587 ^ Blair 1990, p. 307 ^ Donald Scragg, "Bede's Death Song", in Lapidge, Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England, p. 59. ^ Colgrave & Mynors 1969, pp. 580–581n ^ "St. Gallen Stiftsbibliothek Cod. Sang. 254. Jerome, Commentary on the Old Testament book of Isaiah. Includes the most authentic version of the Old English "Death Song" by the Venerable
Venerable
Bede". Europeana Regia. Retrieved 5 June 2013.  ^ a b Quoted in Ward 1990, p. 57 ^ Ward 1990, p. 57 ^ Holder (trans.), Bede: On the Tabernacle, (Liverpool: Liverpool Univ. Pr., 1994), pp. xvii–xx. ^ McClure and Collins, The Ecclesiastical History, pp. xviii–xix. ^ Blair 1990, p. 187 ^ Goffart 1988, pp. 242–243 ^ Frantzen, Allan J. (1983). The Literature of Penance in Anglo-Saxon England
England
(1st ed.). New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0813509556.  ^ a b Farmer 1978, p. 21 ^  "Albinus". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.  ^ a b Farmer 1978, p. 22 ^ a b c Farmer 1978, p. 31 ^ Farmer 1978, pp. 31–32 ^ Abels 1983, pp. 1–2 ^ a b Farmer 1978, p. 32 ^ Bede, "Preface", Historia Ecclesiastica, p. 41. ^ Cramp, "Monkwearmouth (or Wearmouth) and Jarrow", pp. 325–326. ^ Michael Lapidge, "Libraries", in Lapidge, Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England, pp. 286–287. ^ a b c d Farmer 1978, p. 25 ^ a b Campbell, "Bede", in Dorey, Latin
Latin
Historians, p. 162. ^ Campbell, "Bede", in Dorey, Latin
Latin
Historians, p. 163. ^ Lapidge, "Gildas", p. 204. ^ Meyvaert 1996, p. 831 ^ Meyvaert 1996, p. 843 ^ a b c d Colgrave & Mynors 1969, pp. xxv–xxvi ^ Plummer, Bedae Opera Historic, vol. I, p. xxiv. ^ a b Campbell, "Bede", in Dorey, Latin
Latin
Historians, p. 164. ^ Keynes, "Nothhelm", pp. 335 336. ^ a b c Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica, Preface, p. 42. ^ Goffart 1988, pp. 296–307 ^ Brooks 2006, pp. 7–10 ^ Brooks 2006, pp. 12–14 ^ Farmer 1978, p. 26 ^ a b Farmer 1978, p. 27 ^ Lapidge 2005, p. 323 ^ Colgrave & Mynors 1969, pp. xxxvii–xxxviii ^ Plummer, Bedae Opera Historica, vol. I, pp. liii–liv. ^ a b Colgrave & Mynors 1969, pp. xxx–xxxi ^ Higham, N.J. (2013). "Bede's Agenda in Book
Book
IV of the 'Ecclesiastical History of the English People': A Tricky Matter of Advising the King". Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 64 (3): 476–493. doi:10.1017/s0022046913000523.  ^ Colgrave & Mynors 1969, pp. xxxiv–xxxvi ^ Stenton 1971, pp. 8–9 ^ Wallace-Hadrill 1988, p. xxxi ^ Yorke 2006, p. 119 ^ Yorke 2006, pp. 21–22 ^ Fleming 2011, p. 111 ^ Yorke 2006, p. 118 ^ a b Colgrave & Mynors 1969, pp. xviii–xix ^ Stenton 1971, p. 186 ^ a b c d Wright 2008, pp. 4–5 ^ Higham 2006, p. 21 ^ a b Goffart 1988, p. 236 ^ Goffart 1988, pp. 238–9 ^ a b Stenton 1971, p. 187 ^ a b Wormald 1999, p. 29 ^ Higham 2006, p. 27 ^ Higham 2006, p. 33 ^ Behr 2000, pp. 25–52 ^ Plummer, Bedae Opera Historica, vol. I, p. xlvii and note. ^ Cannon & Griffiths 1997, pp. 42–43 ^ Wallis (trans.), The Reckoning of Time, pp. lxvii–lxxi, 157–237, 353–66 ^ Goffart 1988, pp. 245–246 ^ Brown 1987, p. 42 ^ a b c d e Ward 2001, pp. 57–64 ^ Ward 1990, p. 44 ^ Meyvaert 1996, p. 827 ^ M.L.W. Laistner, "The Library of the Venerable
Venerable
Bede", in A.H. Thompson, "Bede: His Life, Times and Writings", pp. 237–262. ^ M.L.W. Laistner, "The Library of the Venerable
Venerable
Bede", in A.H. Thompson, "Bede: His Life, Times and Writings", pp. 263–266. ^ Ward 1990, p. 67 ^ Ward 1990, p. 68 ^ Ward 1990, p. 72 ^ Obermair 2010, pp. 45–57 ^ Ward 1990, p. 74 ^ Thacker 1998, p. 80 ^ Ward 1990, p. 51 ^ Ward 1990, p. 56 ^ Ward 1990, pp. 58–59 ^ Ward 1990, p. 60 ^ Loyn 1962, p. 270 ^ Brown 1987, p. 37 ^ Brown 1987, pp. 38–41 ^ Bede
Bede
2004, pp. 82–85, 307–312 ^ Bede
Bede
2004, pp. 53–4, 285–7; see also [1] ^ Bede
Bede
2004, pp. xxx, 405–415 ^ Brown 1987, p. 36 ^ Bede
Bede
2004, p. lxxxv ^ Brown 1987, pp. 31–32 ^ Brown 1987, pp. 35–36 ^ Colgrave gives the example of Desiderius of Vienne, who was reprimanded by Gregory the Great
Gregory the Great
for using "heathen" authors in his teaching. ^ Colgrave & Mynors 1969, pp. 580–3 ^ Opland 1980, pp. 140–141 ^ McCready 1994, pp. 14–19 ^ Opland 1980, p. 14 ^ Ward 1990, pp. 136–138 ^ Ward 1990, p. 139 ^ Wright 2008, p. 4 (caption) ^ Higham 2006, p. 24 ^ " Venerable
Venerable
Bede, the Church Historian".  ^ Wright 2008, p. 3 ^ Catholic Encyclopedia article The Venerable
Venerable
Bede ^ "The jarrow lecture". stpaulschurchjarrow.com. 

Library resources about Bede

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By Bede

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Sources[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Bede
Bede
(c. 860). "St. Gallen Stiftsbibliothek Cod. Sang. 254. Jerome, Commentary on the Old Testament book of Isaiah. Includes the most authentic version of the Old English "Death Song" by the Venerable Bede". Europeana Regia. Retrieved 5 June 2013.   ———  (1896). Plummer, C, ed. 'Hist. eccl. · Venerabilis Baedae opera historica'. 2 vols.   ———  (1969). Colgrave, Bertram; Mynors, R. A. B., eds. Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822202-5.  (Parallel Latin
Latin
text and English translation with English notes.)  ———  (1991). D. H. Farmer, ed. Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Translated by Leo Sherley-Price. Revised by R. E. Latham. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-044565-X.   ———  (1994). McClure, Judith; Collins, Roger, eds. The Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283866-0.   ———  (1943). Jones, C. W., ed. Bedae Opera de Temporibus. Cambridge, MA: Mediaeval Academy of America.   ———  (2004). Bede: The Reckoning of Time. Translated by Wallis, Faith. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0-85323-693-3.   ———  (2011). On the Song of Songs and selected writings. The Classics of Western Spirituality. Translated by Holder, Arthur G. New York: Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4700-9.  (contains translations of On the Song of Songs, Homilies on the Gospels and selections from the Ecclesiastical history of the English people). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Translated by Swanton, Michael James. New York: Routledge. 1998. ISBN 0-415-92129-5. 

Secondary sources[edit]

Abels, Richard (1983). "The Council of Whitby: A Study in Early Anglo-Saxon Politics". Journal of British Studies. 23 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1086/385808. JSTOR 175617.  Behr, Charlotte (2000). "The Origins of Kingship in Early Medieval Kent". Early Medieval Europe. 9 (1): 25–52. doi:10.1111/1468-0254.00058.  Blair, Peter Hunter (1990). The World of Bede
Bede
(Reprint of 1970 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39819-3.  Brooks, Nicholas (2006). "From British to English Christianity: Deconstructing Bede's Interpretation of the Conversion". In Howe, Nicholas; Karkov, Catherine. Conversion and Colonization in Anglo-Saxon England. Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies. pp. 1–30. ISBN 0-86698-363-5.  Brown, George Hardin (1987). Bede, the Venerable. Boston: Twayne. ISBN 0-8057-6940-4.   ———  (1999). "Royal and Ecclesiastical rivalries in Bede's History". Renascence. 51 (1): 19–33.  Campbell, J. (2004). " Bede
Bede
(673/4–735)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (revised May 2008 ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription required (help)).  Cannon, John; Griffiths, Ralph (1997). The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822786-8.  Chadwick, Henry (1995). "Theodore, the English Church, and the Monothelete Controversy". In Lapidge, Michael. Archbishop
Archbishop
Theodore. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England
England
#11. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 88–95. ISBN 0-521-48077-9.  Colgrave, Bertram; Mynors, R. A. B. (1969). "Introduction". Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822202-5.  Dorey, T. A. (1966). Latin
Latin
Historians. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.  Farmer, David
David
Hugh (1978). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-282038-9.   ———  (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Fifth ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860949-0.  Fleming, Robin (2011). Britain after Rome: The Fall and the Rise, 400 to 1070. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-014823-7.  Goffart, Walter A. (1988). The Narrators of Barbarian History (A. D. 550–800): Jordanes, Gregory of Tours, Bede, and Paul the Deacon. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05514-9.  Higham, N. J. (2006). (Re-)Reading Bede: The Historia Ecclesiastica in Context. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-35368-7.  Kendall, Calvin B. (2010). " Bede
Bede
and Education". In DeGregorio, Scott. The Cambridge Companion to Bede. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 99–112. ISBN 9781139825429.  Lapidge, Michael (2005). "Poeticism in Pre-Conquest Anglo-Latin Prose". In Reinhardt, Tobias; et al. Aspects of the Language of Latin Prose. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-726332-1.  Loyn, H. R. (1962). Anglo-Saxon England
England
and the Norman Conquest. Longman. ISBN 0-582-48232-1.  McCready, William D. (1994). Miracles and the Venerable
Venerable
Bede: Studies and Texts. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies
Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies
#118. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 0-88844-118-5.  Mayr-Harting, Henry (1991). The Coming of Christianity
Christianity
to Anglo-Saxon England. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-00769-9.  Meyvaert, Paul (1996). "Bede, Cassiodorus, and the Codex Amiatinus". Speculum. Medieval Academy of America. 71 (4): 827–883. doi:10.2307/2865722. JSTOR 2865722.  Obermair, Hannes (2010). "Novit iustus animas. Ein Bozner Blatt aus Bedas Kommentar der Sprüche Salomos" (PDF). Concilium medii aevi. Edition Ruprecht. 31: 45–57. ISSN 1437-904X.  Opland, Jeff (1980). Anglo-Saxon Oral Poetry: A Study of the Traditions. New Haven and London: Yale U.P. ISBN 0-300-02426-6.  Ray, Roger (2001). "Bede". In Lapidge, Michael; et al. Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Malden, MA: Blackwell. pp. 57–59. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1.  Rowley, Sharon M. (2017). "Bede". In Echard, Sian; Rouse, Robert. The Encyclopedia of Medieval Literature in Britain. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 257–64. ISBN 9781118396988.  Stenton, F. M. (1971). Anglo-Saxon England
England
(Third ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5.  Thacker, Alan (1998). "Memorializing Gregory the Great: The Origin and Transmission of a Papal Cult in the 7th and early 8th centuries". Early Medieval Europe. 7 (1): 59–84. doi:10.1111/1468-0254.00018.  Thompson, A. Hamilton (1969). Bede: His Life, Times and Writings: Essays in Commemoration of the Twelfth Century of his Death. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Tyler, Damian (April 2007). "Reluctant Kings and Christian Conversion in Seventh-Century England". History. 92 (306): 144–161. doi:10.1111/j.1468-229X.2007.00389.x.  Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. (1988). Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People: A Historical Commentary. Oxford Medieval Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822269-6.  Ward, Benedicta (1990). The Venerable
Venerable
Bede. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing. ISBN 0-8192-1494-9.   ———  (2001). " Bede
Bede
the Theologian". In Evans, G. R. The Medieval Theologians: An Introduction to Theology in the Medieval Period. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 57–64. ISBN 978-0-631-21203-4.  Wormald, Patrick (1999). The Making of English Law: King Alfred to the Twelfth Century. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-13496-4.  Wright, J. Robert (2008). A Companion to Bede: A Reader's Commentary on The Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6309-6.  Yorke, Barbara (2006). The Conversion of Britain: Religion, Politics and Society in Britain c. 600–800. London: Pearson/Longman. ISBN 0-582-77292-3. 

Further reading[edit]

Story, Joanna; Bailey, Richard (2015). "The Skull of Bede". The Antiquaries Journal. 95: 325–50. doi:10.1017/s0003581515000244. 

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Saints of Anglo-Saxon England

British / Welsh

Alban of St Albans Aldatus of Oxford Amphibalus
Amphibalus
of St Albans Arilda of Oldbury Barloc
Barloc
of Norbury Brannoc of Braunton Branwalator of Milton Credan of Bodmin Congar of Congresbury Dachuna of Bodmin Decuman
Decuman
of Watchet Elfin of Warrington Ivo of Ramsey Judoc
Judoc
of Winchester Juthwara of Sherbourne Melorius of Amesbury Nectan of Hartland Neot
Neot
of St Neots Patrick of Glastonbury Rumon
Rumon
of Tavistock Samson of Dol Sativola
Sativola
of Exeter Urith
Urith
of Chittlehampton

East Anglian

Æthelberht of East Anglia Æthelburh of Faremoutiers Æthelflæd of Ramsey Æthelthryth
Æthelthryth
of Ely Æthelwine of Lindsey Athwulf of Thorney Blitha of Martham Botwulf of Thorney Cissa of Crowland Cuthbald of Peterborough Eadmund of East Anglia Eadnoth of Ramsey Guthlac of Crowland Herefrith of Thorney Hiurmine of Blythburgh Huna of Thorney Pega
Pega
of Peakirk Regenhere of Northampton Seaxburh of Ely Tancred of Thorney Torthred of Thorney Tova of Thorney Walstan
Walstan
of Bawburgh Wihtburh
Wihtburh
of Ely Wulfric of Holme

East Saxon

Æthelburh of Barking Hildelith
Hildelith
of Barking Osgyth Sæbbi of London

Frisian, Frankish and Old Saxon

Balthild of Romsey Bertha of Kent Felix of Dommoc Grimbald of St Bertin Monegunda of Watton Odwulf of Evesham Wulfram of Grantham

Irish and Scottish

Aidan of Lindisfarne Boisil
Boisil
of Melrose Echa of Crayke Ultan the Scribe Indract of Glastonbury Maildub of Malmesbury

Kentish

Æbbe of Thanet (Domne Eafe) Æthelberht of Kent Æthelburh of Kent Æthelred of Kent Albinus of Canterbury Berhtwald of Canterbury Deusdedit of Canterbury Edburga of Minster-in-Thanet Eanswith
Eanswith
of Folkestone Eormengyth of Thanet Mildrith
Mildrith
of Thanet Nothhelm of Canterbury Sigeburh of Thanet

Mercian

Ælfnoth of Stowe Ælfthryth of Crowland Æthelberht of Bedford Æthelmod of Leominster Æthelred of Mercia Æthelwynn of Sodbury Aldwyn of Coln Beonna of Breedon Beorhthelm of Stafford Coenwulf of Mercia Cotta of Breedon Credan of Evesham Cyneburh of Castor Cyneburh of Gloucester Cynehelm of Winchcombe Cyneswith of Peterborough Eadburh of Bicester Eadburh of Pershore Eadburh of Southwell Eadgyth of Aylesbury Eadweard of Maugersbury Ealdgyth of Stortford Earconwald
Earconwald
of London Egwin of Evesham Freomund of Mercia Frithuric
Frithuric
of Breedon Frithuswith
Frithuswith
of Oxford Frithuwold of Chertsey Hæmma of Leominster Merefin Mildburh
Mildburh
of Wenlock Mildgyth Mildrith
Mildrith
of Thanet Milred of Worcester Oda of Canterbury Oswald of Worcester Osburh of Coventry Rumwold of Buckingham Tibba of Ryhall Werburgh
Werburgh
of Chester Wærstan Wigstan
Wigstan
of Repton Wulfhild of Barking

Northumbrian

Acca of Hexham Æbbe "the Elder" of Coldingham Æbbe "the Younger" of Coldingham Ælfflæd of Whitby Ælfwald of Northumbria Æthelburh of Hackness Æthelgyth of Coldingham Æthelsige of Ripon Æthelwold of Farne Æthelwold of Lindisfarne Alchhild of Middleham Alchmund of Hexham Alkmund of Derby Balthere of Tyningham Beda of Jarrow Bega of Copeland Benedict Biscop Bercthun
Bercthun
of Beverley Billfrith of Lindisfarne Bosa of York Botwine of Ripon Ceadda of Lichfield Cedd
Cedd
of Lichfield Ceolfrith
Ceolfrith
of Monkwearmouth Ceolwulf of Northumbria Cuthbert
Cuthbert
of Durham Dryhthelm of Melrose Eadberht of Lindisfarne Eadfrith of Leominster Eadfrith of Lindisfarne Eadwine of Northumbria Ealdberht of Ripon Eanmund Eardwulf of Northumbria Eata of Hexham Ecgberht of Ripon Eoda Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth Hilda of Whitby Hyglac Iwig of Wilton John of Beverley Osana of Howden Osthryth of Bardney Oswald of Northumbria Oswine of Northumbria Sicgred of Ripon Sigfrith of Monkwearmouth Tatberht
Tatberht
of Ripon Wihtberht
Wihtberht
of Ripon Wilfrith of Hexham Wilfrith II Wilgils
Wilgils
of Ripon

Roman

Anselm of Canterbury Augustine of Canterbury Firmin of North Crawley Birinus
Birinus
of Dorchester Blaise Florentius of Peterborough Hadrian of Canterbury Honorius of Canterbury Justus
Justus
of Canterbury Laurence of Canterbury Mellitus
Mellitus
of Canterbury Paulinus of York Theodore of Canterbury

South Saxon

Cuthflæd
Cuthflæd
of Lyminster Cuthmann of Steyning Leofwynn
Leofwynn
of Bishopstone

West Saxon

Æbbe of Abingdon Ælfgar of Selwood Ælfgifu of Exeter Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury Ælfheah of Canterbury Ælfheah of Winchester Æthelflæd of Romsey Æthelgar of Canterbury Æthelnoth of Canterbury Æthelwine of Athelney Æthelwold of Winchester Aldhelm
Aldhelm
of Sherborne Benignus of Glastonbury Beocca of Chertsey Beorhthelm of Shaftesbury Beornstan of Winchester Beornwald
Beornwald
of Bampton Centwine of Wessex Cuthburh
Cuthburh
of Wimborn Cwenburh
Cwenburh
of Wimborne Dunstan
Dunstan
of Canterbury Eadburh of Winchester Eadgar of England Eadgyth of Polesworth Eadgyth of Wilton Eadweard the Confessor Eadweard the Martyr Eadwold of Cerne Earmund of Stoke Fleming Edor
Edor
of Chertsey Evorhilda Frithestan of Winchester Hædde of Winchester Humbert of Stokenham Hwita of Whitchurch Canonicorum Mærwynn
Mærwynn
of Romsey Margaret of Dunfermline Swithhun of Winchester Wulfsige of Sherborne Wulfthryth of Wilton

Unclear origin

Rumbold of Mechelen

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Doctors of the Catholic Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius
Athanasius
of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

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Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

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Athanasius
of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius
Athanasius
of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

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and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface
Boniface
I Boniface
Boniface
IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

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History of Catholic theology

General history

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Church beginnings

Paul Clement of Rome First Epistle of Clement Didache Ignatius of Antioch Polycarp Epistle of Barnabas The Shepherd of Hermas Aristides of Athens Justin Martyr Epistle to Diognetus Irenaeus Montanism Tertullian Origen Antipope Novatian Cyprian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Eusebius Athanasius
Athanasius
of Alexandria Arianism Pelagianism Nestorianism Monophysitism Ephrem the Syrian Hilary of Poitiers Cyril of Jerusalem Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Ambrose John Chrysostom Jerome Augustine of Hippo John Cassian Orosius Cyril of Alexandria Peter Chrysologus Pope
Pope
Leo I Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Early Middle Ages

Isidore of Seville John Climacus Maximus the Confessor Monothelitism Ecthesis Bede John of Damascus Iconoclasm Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
dispute Predestination
Predestination
disputes Paulinus II of Aquileia Alcuin Benedict of Aniane Rabanus Maurus Paschasius Radbertus John Scotus Eriugena

High Middle Ages

Roscellinus Gregory of Narek Berengar of Tours Peter Damian Anselm of Canterbury Joachim of Fiore Peter Abelard Decretum Gratiani Bernard of Clairvaux Peter Lombard Anselm of Laon Hildegard of Bingen Hugh of Saint Victor Dominic de Guzmán Robert Grosseteste Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Beatrice of Nazareth Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Thomism Roger Bacon

Mysticism
Mysticism
and reforms

Ramon Llull Duns Scotus Dante Alighieri William of Ockham Richard Rolle John of Ruusbroec Catherine of Siena Brigit of Sweden Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Walter Hilton The Cloud of Unknowing Heinrich Seuse Geert Groote Devotio Moderna Julian of Norwich Thomas à Kempis Nicholas of Cusa Marsilio Ficino Girolamo Savonarola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Erasmus Thomas Cajetan Thomas More John Fisher Johann Eck Francisco de Vitoria Thomas of Villanova Ignatius of Loyola Francisco de Osuna John of Ávila Francis Xavier Teresa of Ávila Luis de León John of the Cross Peter Canisius Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
(Molinism) Robert Bellarmine Francisco Suárez Lawrence of Brindisi Francis de Sales

Baroque
Baroque
period to French Revolution

Tommaso Campanella Pierre de Bérulle Pierre Gassendi René Descartes Mary of Jesus
Jesus
of Ágreda António Vieira Jean-Jacques Olier Louis Thomassin Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet François Fénelon Cornelius Jansen
Cornelius Jansen
(Jansenism) Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Giambattista Vico Alphonsus Liguori Louis de Montfort Maria Gaetana Agnesi Alfonso Muzzarelli Johann Michael Sailer Clement Mary Hofbauer Bruno Lanteri

19th century

Joseph Görres Felicité de Lamennais Luigi Taparelli Antonio Rosmini Ignaz von Döllinger John Henry Newman Henri Lacordaire Jaime Balmes Gaetano Sanseverino Giovanni Maria Cornoldi Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler Giuseppe Pecci Joseph Hergenröther Tommaso Maria Zigliara Matthias Joseph Scheeben Émile Boutroux Modernism Léon Bloy Désiré-Joseph Mercier Friedrich von Hügel Vladimir Solovyov Marie-Joseph Lagrange George Tyrrell Maurice Blondel Thérèse of Lisieux

20th century

G. K. Chesterton Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange Joseph Maréchal Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jacques Maritain Étienne Gilson Ronald Knox Dietrich von Hildebrand Gabriel
Gabriel
Marcel Marie-Dominique Chenu Romano Guardini Edith Stein Fulton Sheen Henri de Lubac Jean Guitton Josemaría Escrivá Adrienne von Speyr Karl Rahner Yves Congar Bernard Lonergan Emmanuel Mounier Jean Daniélou Hans Urs von Balthasar Alfred Delp Edward Schillebeeckx Thomas Merton René Girard Johann Baptist Metz Jean Vanier Henri Nouwen

21st century

Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI Walter Kasper Raniero Cantalamessa Michał Heller Peter Kreeft Jean-Luc Marion Tomáš Halík Scott Hahn Robert Barron

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 61539765 LCCN: n80039744 ISNI: 0000 0001 2096 2352 GND: 118508237 SELIBR: 180275 SUDOC: 026649535 BNF: cb11885724g (data) BIBSYS: 90362380 ULAN: 500248520 NLA: 35979387 NDL: 00519908 NKC: jn19992000061 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV59712 BNE: XX840

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