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Celt
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Sto
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Liburnian Language
The LIBURNIAN LANGUAGE is an extinct language which was spoken by the ancient Liburnians
Liburnians
, who occupied Liburnia in classical times. Classification of the Liburnian language
Liburnian language
is not clearly established; it is reckoned as an Indo-European language with significant proportion of the Pre-Indo-European elements from wider area of the ancient Mediterranean . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Onomastics * 2.1 Anthroponyms
Anthroponyms
* 2.2 Theonyms * 2.3 Toponyms * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources CLASSIFICATIONNo writings in Liburnian are known. The only Liburnian linguistic remains are Liburnian toponyms and some family and personal names in Liburnia, in Latinized form from the 1st century AD
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Indo-Iranian Languages
The INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES, or INDO-IRANIC LANGUAGES, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family . It has more than 1 billion speakers, stretching from the Caucasus
Caucasus
(Ossetian ) and the Balkans
Balkans
(Romani/Gypsy ) eastward to Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(Sarikoli ) and Assam
Assam
(Assamese ), and south to the Maldives (Maldivian ). The common ancestor of all of the languages in this family is called Proto-Indo-Iranian —also known as Common Aryan—which was spoken in approximately the late 3rd millennium BC. The three branches of the modern Indo- Iranian languages are Indo-Aryan , Iranian , and Nuristani . Additionally, sometimes a fourth independent branch, Dardic , is posited, but recent scholarship in general places Dardic languages as archaic members of the Indo-Aryan branch
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Messapian Language
MESSAPIAN (/mɛˈsæpiən, mə-, -ˈseɪ-/ ; also known as MESSAPIC) is an extinct Indo-European language of southeastern Italy
Italy
, once spoken in the region of Apulia . It was spoken by the three Iapygian tribes of the region: the Messapians , the Peucetians and the Daunians . The language has been preserved in about 300 inscriptions dating from the 6th to the 1st century BCE. Messapian may have been related to the Illyrian language
Illyrian language
. Messapian became extinct after the Roman Republic conquered the region of Apulia and assimilated the inhabitants. CONTENTS * 1 Inscriptions * 2 Messapian words * 3 Bibliography * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links INSCRIPTIONSFew, if any, Messapic inscriptions have been definitely deciphered
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Mysian Language
The MYSIAN LANGUAGE was spoken by Mysians inhabiting Mysia
Mysia
in north-west Anatolia
Anatolia
. Little is known about the Mysian language. Strabo noted that their language was, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and Phrygian languages . As such, the Mysian language could be a language of the Anatolian group . However, a passage in Athenaeus
Athenaeus
suggests that the Mysian language was akin to the barely attested Paeonian language of Paeonia , north of Macedon
Macedon
. A short inscription that could be in Mysian and which dates from between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC was found in Üyücek village in the Tavşanlı district of Kütahya province, and seems to include Indo-European words
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Indo-European Ablaut
In linguistics , the INDO-EUROPEAN ABLAUT (pronounced /ˈæblaʊt/ ) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
. All modern Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
have inherited the feature, though its prevalence and productivity strongly varies. An example of ablaut in English is the strong verb sIng, sAng, sUng and its related noun sOng, a paradigm inherited directly from the Proto-Indo-European stage of the language
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Paeonian Language
The PAEONIAN LANGUAGE is the poorly attested language of the ancient Paeonians , whose kingdom once stretched north of Macedon
Macedon
into Dardania and in earlier times into southwestern Thrace
Thrace
. Several Paeonian words are known from classical sources: * monapos, monaipos, the European bison
European bison
* tilôn, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias * paprax, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias. Paprakas, masc. acc. pl.A number of anthroponyms (some known only from Paeonian coinage) are attested: Agis (Άγις), Patraos (Πατράος), Lycpeios (Λύκπειος), Audoleon (Αυδολέων), Eupolemos (Εὐπόλεμος), Ariston (Αρίστων), etc
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Iranian Languages
The IRANIAN LANGUAGES or IRANIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages
, which in turn are a branch of the Indo-European language family . The speakers of Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are known as Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
. Historical Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are grouped in three stages: Old Iranian (until 400 BC), Middle Iranian (400 BC – 900 AD), and New Iranian (since 900 AD). Of the Old Iranian languages, the better understood and recorded ones are Old Persian (a language of Achaemenid Iran) and Avestan
Avestan
(the language of the Avesta
Avesta
). Middle Iranian languages
Iranian languages
included Middle Persian (a language of Sassanid Iran), Parthian , and Bactrian
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Proto-Indo-European Root
The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes . PIE roots usually have verbal meaning like "eat" or "run". Roots never occur alone in the language. Complete inflected words like verbs, nouns or adjectives are formed by adding further morphemes to a root. CONTENTS* 1 Word formation * 1.1 Finite verbs * 1.2 Nouns and adjectives * 1.3 Infinitives and participles * 2 Shape of a root * 2.1 Sonority hierarchy * 2.2 Obstruent clusters * 2.3 Further restrictions * 2.4 Exceptions * 3 Lexical meaning * 4 Creation of new roots * 4.1 Root extensions * 4.2 Sonorant metathesis * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links WORD FORMATIONTypically, a root plus a suffix forms a stem , and adding an ending forms a word
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Proto-Indo-European Nominals
PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN NOMINALS include nouns , adjectives and pronouns . Their grammatical forms and meanings have been reconstructed by modern linguists, based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages . This article discusses nouns and adjectives, and Proto-Indo-European pronouns are treated elsewhere. PIE had eight or nine cases , three numbers (singular, dual and plural) and probably originally two genders (animate and neuter), with the animate later splitting into the masculine and the feminine. Nominals fell into multiple different declensions . Most of them had word stems ending in a consonant (called athematic stems) and exhibited a complex pattern of accent shifts and/or vowel changes (ablaut ) among the different cases. Two declensions ended in a vowel (*-o/e- ) and are called thematic; they were more regular and became more common during the history of PIE and its older daughter languages. PIE very frequently derived nominals from verbs
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Proto-Indo-European Numerals
The numerals and derived numbers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The following article lists and discusses their hypothesized forms
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Proto-Indo-European Accent
PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN ACCENT refers to the accentual system of Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Reflexes * 3 Unaccented words * 4 Interpretation * 5 Modern theories * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References DESCRIPTIONProto-Indo-European (PIE) is usually reconstructed as having had variable lexical stress : the placement of the stress in a word (the accent) was not predictable by its phonological rules . Stressed syllables received a higher pitch than unstressed ones so PIE is often said to have had pitch accent . (That must not be confused with the other meaning of the term "pitch accent" , which refers to a system of one or two syllables per word having one of at least two unpredictable tones , and the tones of any other syllables being predictable.) PIE accent could be mobile so it could change place throughout the inflectional paradigm
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Thraco-Illyrian
THRACO-ILLYRIAN is a hypothesis that the Thraco-Dacian and Illyrian languages comprise a distinct branch of Indo-European . THRACO-ILLYRIAN is also used as a term merely implying a Thracian -Illyrian interference , mixture or sprachbund , or as a shorthand way of saying that it is not determined whether a subject is to be considered as pertaining to Thracian or Illyrian. Downgraded to a geo-linguistic concept, these languages are referred to as Paleo-Balkan . The linguistical hypothesis was especially current in the early 20th century, but after the 1960s it was seriously called into question. New publications argued that no strong evidence for Thraco-Illyrian exists, and that the two language-areas show more differences than correspondences (Vladimir Georgiev, Ivan Duridanov, Eric Hamp , et al.)
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