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Celt
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle Dnieper Bronze
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Proto-Indo-European Numerals
The numerals and derived numbers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages
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Proto-Indo-European Nominals
Proto-Indo-European nominals include nouns, adjectives and pronouns. Their grammatical forms and meanings have been reconstructed by modern linguists, based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages. This article discusses nouns and adjectives, and Proto-Indo-European pronouns are treated elsewhere. PIE had eight or nine cases, three numbers (singular, dual and plural) and probably originally two genders (animate and neuter), with the animate later splitting into the masculine and the feminine. Nominals fell into multiple different declensions
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Indo-European Ablaut
In linguistics, the Indo-European ablaut (pronounced /ˈæblaʊt/) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language
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Proto-Indo-European Verb
A verb, from the Latin
Latin
verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice. A verb may also agree with the person, gender or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object
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Paeonian Language
The Paeonian language is the poorly attested language of the ancient Paeonians, whose kingdom once stretched north of Macedon
Macedon
into Dardania and in earlier times into southwestern Thrace. Several Paeonian words are known from classical sources:monapos, monaipos, the European bison tilôn, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias paprax, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias. Paprakas, masc. acc. pl.A number of anthroponyms (some known only from Paeonian coinage) are attested: Agis (Άγις), Patraos (Πατράος), Lycpeios (Λύκπειος), Audoleon
Audoleon
(Αυδολέων), Eupolemos (Εὐπόλεμος), Ariston (Αρίστων), etc
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Mysian Language
The Mysian language was spoken by Mysians
Mysians
inhabiting Mysia
Mysia
in north-west Anatolia. Little is known about the Mysian language. Strabo noted that their language was, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and Phrygian languages. As such, the Mysian language could be a language of the Anatolian group
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Messapian Language
Messapian (/mɛˈsæpiən, mə-, -ˈseɪ-/; also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of southeastern Italy, once spoken in the region of Apulia. It was spoken by the three Iapygian tribes of the region: the Messapians, the Peucetians
Peucetians
and the Daunians. The language has been preserved in about 300 inscriptions dating from the 6th to the 1st century BC. Messapian might have been related to the Illyrian language
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Proto-Indo-European Root
The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes. PIE roots usually have verbal meaning like "eat" or "run". Roots never occur alone in the language
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Proto-Indo-European Accent
Proto-Indo-European accent refers to the accentual system of Proto-Indo-European language.Contents1 Description 2 Reflexes 3 Unaccented words 4 Interpretation 5 Modern theories 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesDescription[edit] Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is usually reconstructed as having had variable lexical stress: the placement of the stress in a word (the accent) was not predictable by its phonological rules. Stressed syllables received a higher pitch than unstressed ones so PIE is often said to have had pitch accent. (That must not be confused with the other meaning of the term "pitch accent", which refers to a system of one or two syllables per word having one of at least two unpredictable tones, and the tones of any other syllables being predictable.) PIE accent could be mobile so it could change place throughout the inflectional paradigm
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Proto-Indo-European Particles
The particles of the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages. The following article lists and discusses their hypothesized forms.Contents1 Adverbs1.1 Adverbs used as adpositions 1.2 Negating prefixes (privatives) 1.3 Adverbs derived from adjectives2 Conjunctions 3 Interjections 4 Notes 5 ReferencesAdverbs[edit] Adverbs used as adpositions[edit] Many particles could be used both as adverbs and postpositions. This is similar to modern languages; compare English He is above in the attic (adverb) and The bird is above the house (preposition)
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Graeco-Aryan
Graeco-Aryan, or Graeco-Armeno-Aryan, is a hypothetical clade within the Indo-European family that would be the ancestor of Greek, Armenian, and the Indo-Iranian languages. Graeco-Aryan
Graeco-Aryan
unity would have become divided into Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian
Proto-Indo-Iranian
by the mid-3rd millennium BC
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Thraco-Illyrian
Thraco-Illyrian is a hypothesis that the Thraco-Dacian and Illyrian languages comprise a distinct branch of Indo-European. Thraco-Illyrian is also used as a term merely implying a Thracian-Illyrian interference, mixture or sprachbund, or as a shorthand way of saying that it is not determined whether a subject is to be considered as pertaining to Thracian or Illyrian
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Graeco-Phrygian
Graeco-Phrygian /ˌɡriːkoʊˈfrɪdʒiən/ is a hypothetical branch of the Indo-European language family
Indo-European language family
with two branches in turn: Greek and Phrygian. Greek has also been variously grouped with Armenian (Graeco-Armenian; Graeco-Aryan), Ancient Macedonian (Graeco-Macedonian) and, more recently, Messapian. Multiple or all of these, with the exception of Armenian, are sometimes (tentatively) classified under "Hellenic"; at other times, Hellenic is posited to consist of only Greek
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Proto-Indo-European Pronouns
Proto-Indo-European pronouns have been reconstructed by modern linguists, based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages. This article lists and discusses the hypothesised forms. PIE pronouns, especially demonstrative pronouns, are difficult to reconstruct because of their variety in later languages.Contents1 Grammatical categories 2 Personal pronouns 3 Demonstrative pronouns 4 Reflexive pronoun 5 Relative pronoun 6 Interrogative/indefinite pronoun 7 Pronominal adjectives 8 Reflexes 9 Notes 10 References 11 External linksGrammatical categories[edit] PIE pronouns inflected for case and number, and partly for gender. For more information on these categories, see the article on Proto-Indo-European nominals. Personal pronouns[edit] PIE had personal pronouns in the first and second person, but not the third person, where demonstratives were used instead. They were inflected for case and number (singular, dual, and plural), but not for gender
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