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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Pontic Steppe

* Domestication of the horse * Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture

* Steppe cultures

* Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk

* Yamna

* Mikhaylovka culture

Caucasus

* Maykop

East-Asia

* Afanasevo

Eastern Europe

* Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni

Northern Europe

* Corded ware

* Baden * Middle Dnieper

------------------------- Bronze Age
Bronze Age

Pontic Steppe

* Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna

Northern/Eastern Steppe

* Abashevo culture * Andronovo * Sintashta

Europe

* Beaker * Globular Amphora culture * Corded ware * Tumulus * Unetice * Urnfield * Lusatian * Nordic Bronze Age
Bronze Age
* Terramare * Trzciniec

South-Asia

* BMAC * Yaz * Gandhara grave

------------------------- Iron Age
Iron Age

Steppe

* Chernoles

Europe

* Thraco-Cimmerian * Hallstatt
Hallstatt
* Jastorf

Caucasus

* Colchian

India

* Painted Grey Ware * Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware

Peoples and societies Bronze Age
Bronze Age

* Anatolians * Armenians
Armenians
* Mycenaean Greeks
Greeks
* Indo-Iranians

Iron Age
Iron Age

Indo-Aryans

* Indo-Aryans

Iranians

* Iranians

* Scythians
Scythians
* Persians * Medes

Europe

* Celts
Celts

* Gauls
Gauls
* Celtiberians
Celtiberians
* Insular Celts

* Hellenic peoples * Italic peoples * Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples

* Paleo-Balkans / Anatolia :

* Thracians * Dacians
Dacians
* Illyrians
Illyrians
* Phrygians

Middle Ages
Middle Ages

East-Asia

* Tocharians

Europe

* Balts
Balts
* Slavs * Albanians * Medieval Europe
Medieval Europe

Indo-Aryan

* Medieval India

Iranian

* Greater Persia

Religion and mythology Reconstructed

* Proto-Indo-European religion * Proto-Indo-Iranian religion
Proto-Indo-Iranian religion

------------------------- Historical

* Hittite

Indian

* Vedic

* Hinduism
Hinduism

* Buddhism
Buddhism
* Jainism
Jainism

Iranian

* Persian

* Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism

* Kurdish

* Yazidism * Yarsanism
Yarsanism

* Scythian

* Ossetian

Other

* Armenian

Europe

* Paleo-Balkans * Greek * Roman

* Celtic

* Irish * Scottish * Breton * Welsh * Cornish

* Germanic

* Anglo-Saxon * Continental * Norse

* Baltic

* Latvian * Lithuanian

* Slavic * Albanian

Practices

* Fire-sacrifice * Horse sacrifice * Sati * Winter solstice
Winter solstice
/ Yule

Indo-European studies
Indo-European studies
Scholars

* Marija Gimbutas
Marija Gimbutas
* J.P. Mallory

Institutes

* Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European

Publications

* Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture * The Horse, the Wheel and Language
The Horse, the Wheel and Language
* Journal of Indo-European Studies * Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch * Indo-European Etymological Dictionary

* v * t * e

The CELTS (/ˈkɛlts/ or /ˈsɛlts/ , see pronunciation of Celt for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age
Iron Age
and Medieval Europe
Medieval Europe
who spoke Celtic languages
Celtic languages
and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial. The exact geographic spread of the ancient Celts
Celts
is also disputed; in particular, the ways in which the Iron Age inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
should be regarded as Celts has become a subject of controversy.

The history of pre-Celtic Europe remains very uncertain. According to one theory, the common root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language , arose in the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Urnfield culture
Urnfield culture
of Central Europe, which flourished from around 1200 BC. In addition, according to a theory proposed in the 19th century, the first people to adopt cultural characteristics regarded as Celtic were the people of the Iron Age
Iron Age
Hallstatt culture in central Europe (c. 800–450 BC), named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt
Hallstatt
, Austria. Thus this area is sometimes called the "Celtic homeland". By or during the later La Tène period (c. 450 BC up to the Roman conquest), this Celtic culture was supposed to have expanded by trans-cultural diffusion or migration to the British Isles
British Isles
( Insular Celts ), France
France
and the Low Countries ( Gauls
Gauls
), Bohemia
Bohemia
, Poland and much of Central Europe, the Iberian Peninsula ( Celtiberians
Celtiberians
, Celtici , Lusitanians
Lusitanians
and Gallaeci ) and northern Italy
Italy
( Golasecca culture
Golasecca culture
and Cisalpine Gauls
Gauls
) and, following the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe beginning in 279 BC , as far east as central Anatolia (Galatians ) in modern-day Turkey
Turkey
.

The earliest undisputed direct examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic
Lepontic
inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC . Continental Celtic languages
Celtic languages
are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names. Insular Celtic languages
Celtic languages
are attested beginning around the 4th century
4th century
in Ogham inscriptions , although it was clearly being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century . Coherent texts of Early Irish literature , such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge
Táin Bó Cúailnge
("Cattle Raid of Cooley "), survive in 12th century
12th century
recensions .

By the mid- 1st millennium , with the expansion of the Roman Empire and the Migration Period of Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
, Celtic culture and Insular Celtic languages
Celtic languages
had become restricted to Ireland, the western and northern parts of Great Britain ( Wales
Wales
, Scotland, and Cornwall
Cornwall
), the Isle of Man , and Brittany
Brittany
. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a reasonably cohesive cultural entity. They had a common linguistic, religious and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities. By the 6th century, however, the Continental Celtic languages
Celtic languages
were no longer in wide use.

Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels (Irish , Scottish and Manx ) and the Celtic Britons
Celtic Britons
(Welsh , Cornish , and Bretons
Bretons
) of the medieval and modern periods. A modern "Celtic identity " was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, Ireland, and other European territories, such as Portugal
Portugal
and Spanish Galicia . Today, Irish , Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
, Welsh , and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, and Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival.

CONTENTS

* 1 Names and terminology

* 2 Origins

* 2.1 Atlantic seaboard theory * 2.2 Linguistic evidence * 2.3 Archaeological evidence * 2.4 Historical evidence

* 3 Distribution

* 3.1 Continental Celts
Celts

* 3.1.1 Gaul
Gaul
* 3.1.2 Iberia * 3.1.3 Alps
Alps
and Italy
Italy
* 3.1.4 Expansion east and south

* 3.2 Insular Celts

* 4 Romanisation

* 5 Society

* 5.1 Clothing * 5.2 Gender and sexual norms * 5.3 Celtic art

* 6 Warfare and weapons

* 6.1 Head hunting

* 7 Religion

* 7.1 Polytheism * 7.2 Gallic calendar * 7.3 Roman influence * 7.4 Celtic Christianity
Celtic Christianity

* 8 See also

* 9 References

* 9.1 Bibliography

* 10 External links

NAMES AND TERMINOLOGY

Celtic stele from Galicia , 2nd century: “APANA·AMBO(-) / LLI·F(ilia)·CELTICA / SUPERTAM(arica) / (castello) MAIOBRI / AN(norum)·XXV· H(ic)·S(ita)·E(st) / APANUS·FR(ater)· F(aciendum)·C(uravit)” Main article: Names of the Celts

The first recorded use of the name of Celts
Celts
– as Κελτοί – to refer to an ethnic group was by Hecataeus of Miletus
Hecataeus of Miletus
, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC, when writing about a people living near Massilia (modern Marseille
Marseille
). In the fifth century BC, Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube
Danube
and also in the far west of Europe. The etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel 'to hide' (present also in Old Irish ceilid), IE *kʲel 'to heat' or *kel 'to impel'. Several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks. Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the latter group, and suggests the meaning "the tall ones".

In the 1st century BC , Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
reported that the people known to the Romans as Gauls
Gauls
(Galli) called themselves Celts, which suggests that even if the name Keltoi was bestowed by the Greeks, it had been adopted to some extent as a collective name by the tribes of Gaul. The geographer Strabo, writing about Gaul
Gaul
towards the end of the first century BC, refers to the “race which is now called both Gallic and Galatic,” though he also uses the term Celtica as a synonym for Gaul, which is separated from Iberia by the Pyrenees. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, and also uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani and Iberi. Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania
Lusitania
as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed.

Latin GALLUS (pl. Galli) might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name originally, perhaps one borrowed into Latin during the Celtic expansions into Italy
Italy
during the early fifth century BC. Its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning “power, strength”, hence Old Irish gal “boldness, ferocity” and Welsh gallu “to be able, power”. The tribal names of GALLAECI and the Greek Γαλάται (Galatai, Latinized Galatae; see the region Galatia in Anatolia) most probably have the same origin. The suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Classical writers did not apply the terms Κελτοί or Celtae to the inhabitants of Britain or Ireland, which has led to some scholars preferring not to use the term for the Iron Age
Iron Age
inhabitants of those islands.

CELT is a modern English word, first attested in 1707, in the writing of Edward Lhuyd
Edward Lhuyd
, whose work, along with that of other late 17th-century scholars, brought academic attention to the languages and history of the early Celtic inhabitants of Great Britain. The English form GAUL (first recorded in the 17th century) and GAULISH come from the French Gaule and Gaulois, a borrowing from Frankish *Walholant, “Land of foreigners or Romans” (see Gaul: Name ), the root of which is Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
*walha- , “foreigner, Roman, Celt”, whence the English word WELSH ( Old English
Old English
wælisċ < *walhiska-), South German welsch, meaning “Celtic speaker”, “French speaker” or “Italian speaker” in different contexts, and Old Norse valskr, pl. valir, “Gaulish, French”). Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
*walha is derived ultimately from the name of the Volcae , a Celtic tribe who lived first in the South of Germany and in Central Europe emigrated then to Gaul. This means that English Gaul, despite its superficial similarity, is not actually derived from Latin Gallia (which should have produced **Jaille in French), though it does refer to the same ancient region.

CELTIC refers to a family of languages and, more generally, means “of the Celts” or “in the style of the Celts”. Several archaeological cultures are considered Celtic in nature, based on unique sets of artefacts. The link between language and artefact is aided by the presence of inscriptions. The relatively modern idea of an identifiable Celtic cultural identity or "Celticity" generally focuses on similarities among languages, works of art, and classical texts, and sometimes also among material artefacts, social organisation , homeland and mythology . Earlier theories held that these similarities suggest a common racial origin for the various Celtic peoples, but more recent theories hold that they reflect a common cultural and language heritage more than a genetic one. Celtic cultures seem to have been widely diverse, with the use of a Celtic language being the main thing they have in common.

Today, the term Celtic generally refers to the languages and respective cultures of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall
Cornwall
, the Isle of Man , and Brittany
Brittany
, also known as the Celtic nations . These are the regions where four Celtic languages
Celtic languages
are still spoken to some extent as mother tongues. The four are Irish Gaelic , Scottish Gaelic , Welsh , and Breton ; plus two recent revivals, Cornish (one of the Brittonic languages
Brittonic languages
) and Manx (one of the Goidelic languages ). There are also attempts to reconstruct Cumbric
Cumbric
, a Brittonic language from North West England
North West England
and South West Scotland ). Celtic regions of Continental Europe
Continental Europe
are those whose residents claim a Celtic heritage, but where no Celtic language has survived; these areas include the western Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
, i.e. Portugal
Portugal
and north-central Spain (Galicia , Asturias
Asturias
, Cantabria , Castile and León , Extremadura
Extremadura
).

CONTINENTAL CELTS are the Celtic-speaking people of mainland Europe and INSULAR CELTS are the Celtic-speaking peoples of the British and Irish islands and their descendants. The Celts
Celts
of Brittany
Brittany
derive their language from migrating insular Celts, mainly from Wales
Wales
and Cornwall
Cornwall
, and so are grouped accordingly.

ORIGINS

Overview of the Hallstatt
Hallstatt
and La Tène cultures. The core Hallstatt
Hallstatt
territory (HaC, 800 BC) is shown in solid yellow. The eventual area of Hallstatt
Hallstatt
influence (by 500 BC, HaD) in light yellow. The core territory of the La Tène culture
La Tène culture
(450 BC) in solid green. The eventual area of La Tène influence (by 250 BC) in light green. The territories of some major Celtic tribes of the late La Tène period are labelled. Main articles: Pre-Celtic and Celticization Reconstruction of a late La Tène period settlement in Altburg near Bundenbach (first century BC) Reconstruction of a late La Tène period settlement in Havranok , Slovakia (second–first century BC)

The Celtic languages
Celtic languages
form a branch of the larger Indo-European family . By the time speakers of Celtic languages
Celtic languages
entered history around 400 BC , they were already split into several language groups, and spread over much of Western continental Europe, the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
, Ireland
Ireland
and Britain.

Some scholars think that the Urnfield culture
Urnfield culture
of western Middle Europe represents an origin for the Celts
Celts
as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European family. This culture was preeminent in central Europe during the late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, from circa 1200 BC until 700 BC, itself following the Unetice and Tumulus cultures . The Urnfield period saw a dramatic increase in population in the region, probably due to innovations in technology and agriculture . The Greek historian Ephorus of Cyme in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
, writing in the 4th century BC , believed that the Celts
Celts
came from the islands off the mouth of the Rhine
Rhine
and were "driven from their homes by the frequency of wars and the violent rising of the sea".

The spread of iron-working led to the development of the Hallstatt culture directly from the Urnfield (c. 700 to 500 BC). Proto-Celtic, the latest common ancestor of all known Celtic languages, is considered by this school of thought to have been spoken at the time of the late Urnfield or early Hallstatt
Hallstatt
cultures, in the early 1st millennium BC. The spread of the Celtic languages
Celtic languages
to Iberia, Ireland and Britain would have occurred during the first half of the 1st millennium BC, the earliest chariot burials in Britain dating to c. 500 BC. Other scholars see Celtic languages
Celtic languages
as covering Britain and Ireland, and parts of the Continent, long before any evidence of "Celtic" culture is found in archaeology. Over the centuries the language(s) developed into the separate Celtiberian , Goidelic and Brittonic languages.

The Hallstatt culture was succeeded by the La Tène culture
La Tène culture
of central Europe, which was overrun by the Roman Empire, though traces of La Tène style are still to be seen in Gallo-Roman artefacts . In Britain and Ireland
Ireland
La Tène style in art survived precariously to re-emerge in Insular art . Early Irish literature casts light on the flavour and tradition of the heroic warrior elites who dominated Celtic societies. Celtic river-names are found in great numbers around the upper reaches of the Danube
Danube
and Rhine
Rhine
, which led many Celtic scholars to place the ethnogenesis of the Celts
Celts
in this area.

Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
and Strabo
Strabo
both suggest that the heartland of the people they called Celts
Celts
was in southern France
France
. The former says that the Gauls
Gauls
were to the north of the Celts, but that the Romans referred to both as Gauls
Gauls
(in linguistic terms the Gauls
Gauls
were certainly Celts). Before the discoveries at Hallstatt
Hallstatt
and La Tène, it was generally considered that the Celtic heartland was southern France, see Encyclopædia Britannica for 1813.

ATLANTIC SEABOARD THEORY

Myles Dillon and Nora Kershaw Chadwick accepted that "the Celtic settlement of the British Isles" might have to be dated to the Bell Beaker culture
Beaker culture
concluding that "There is no reason why so early a date for the coming of the Celts
Celts
should be impossible". Martín Almagro Gorbea proposed the origins of the Celts
Celts
could be traced back to the 3rd millennium BC, also seeking the initial roots in the Beaker period, thus offering the wide dispersion of the Celts
Celts
throughout western Europe, as well as the variability of the different Celtic peoples, and the existence of ancestral traditions an ancient perspective. Using a multidisciplinary approach, Alberto J. Lorrio and Gonzalo Ruiz Zapatero reviewed and built on Almagro Gorbea's work to present a model for the origin of the Celtic archaeological groups in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
(Celtiberian, Vetton , Vaccean , the Castro culture of the northwest, Asturian -Cantabrian and Celtic of the southwest) and proposing a rethinking of the meaning of "Celtic" from a European perspective. More recently, John Koch and Barry Cunliffe
Barry Cunliffe
have suggested that Celtic origins lie with the Atlantic Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, roughly contemporaneous with the Hallstatt culture but positioned considerably to the West, extending along the Atlantic coast of Europe.

Stephen Oppenheimer points out that the only written evidence that locates the Keltoi near the source of the Danube
Danube
(i.e. in the Hallstatt
Hallstatt
region) is in the Histories of Herodotus. However, Oppenheimer shows that Herodotus
Herodotus
seemed to believe the Danube
Danube
rose near the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
, which would place the Ancient Celts
Celts
in a region which is more in agreement with later classical writers and historians (i.e. in Gaul
Gaul
and the Iberian peninsula).

LINGUISTIC EVIDENCE

Main article: Proto-Celtic language Further information: Celtic toponymy

The Proto-Celtic language is usually dated to the Late Bronze
Bronze
Age. The earliest records of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
(Northern Italy), the oldest of which predate the La Tène period . Other early inscriptions, appearing from the early La Tène period in the area of Massilia , are in Gaulish , which was written in the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
until the Roman conquest. Celtiberian inscriptions, using their own Iberian script, appear later, after about 200 BC. Evidence of Insular Celtic is available only from about 400 AD, in the form of Primitive Irish
Primitive Irish
Ogham inscriptions .

Besides epigraphical evidence, an important source of information on early Celtic is toponymy .

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

Further information: Iron Age
Iron Age
Europe Map of the Hallstatt culture The world according to Herodotus
Herodotus

Before the 19th century, scholars assumed that the original land of the Celts
Celts
was west of the Rhine, more precisely in Gaul, because it was where Greek and Roman ancient sources, namely Caesar, located the Celts. This view was challenged by the 19th-century historian Marie Henri d\'Arbois de Jubainville who placed the land of origin of the Celts
Celts
east of the Rhine. Jubainville based his arguments on a phrase of Herodotus' that placed the Celts
Celts
at the source of the Danube, and argued that Herodotus
Herodotus
had meant to place the Celtic homeland in southern Germany. The finding of the prehistoric cemetery of Hallstat in 1846 by Johan Ramsauer and the finding of the archaeological site of La Tène by Hansli Kopp in 1857 drew attention to this area.

The concept that the Hallstatt
Hallstatt
and La Tène cultures could be seen not just as chronological periods but as " Culture
Culture
Groups", entities composed of people of the same ethnicity and language, had started to grow by the end of the 19th century. At the beginning of the 20th century the belief that these " Culture
Culture
Groups" could be thought of in racial or ethnic terms was strongly held by Gordon Childe whose theory was influenced by the writings of Gustaf Kossinna . As the 20th century progressed, the racial ethnic interpretation of La Tène culture became much more strongly rooted, and any findings of La Tène culture and flat inhumation cemeteries were directly associated with the Celts
Celts
and the Celtic language. The Iron Age
Iron Age
Hallstatt
Hallstatt
(c. 800–475 BC) and La Tène (c. 500–50 BC) cultures are typically associated with Proto-Celtic and Celtic culture. Expansion of the Celtic culture in the third century BC according to Francisco Villar

In various academic disciplines the Celts
Celts
were considered a Central European Iron Age
Iron Age
phenomenon, through the cultures of Hallstatt
Hallstatt
and La Tène. However, archaeological finds from the Halstatt and La Tène culture were rare in the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern France, northern and western Britain, southern Ireland
Ireland
and Galatia and did not provide enough evidence for a cultural scenario comparable to that of Central Europe. It is considered equally difficult to maintain that the origin of the Peninsular Celts
Celts
can be linked to the preceding Urnfield culture. This has resulted in a more recent approach that introduces a 'proto-Celtic' substratum and a process of Celticisation, having its initial roots in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Bell Beaker culture
Beaker culture
.

The La Tène culture
La Tène culture
developed and flourished during the late Iron Age (from 450 BC to the Roman conquest in the 1st century BC) in eastern France, Switzerland, Austria, southwest Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia
Slovakia
and Hungary. It developed out of the Hallstatt culture without any definite cultural break, under the impetus of considerable Mediterranean influence from Greek , and later Etruscan civilisations . A shift of settlement centres took place in the 4th century.

The western La Tène culture
La Tène culture
corresponds to historical Celtic Gaul
Gaul
. Whether this means that the whole of La Tène culture
La Tène culture
can be attributed to a unified Celtic people is difficult to assess; archaeologists have repeatedly concluded that language, material culture, and political affiliation do not necessarily run parallel. Frey notes that in the 5th century, "burial customs in the Celtic world were not uniform; rather, localised groups had their own beliefs, which, in consequence, also gave rise to distinct artistic expressions". Thus, while the La Tène culture
La Tène culture
is certainly associated with the Gauls
Gauls
, the presence of La Tène artefacts may be due to cultural contact and does not imply the permanent presence of Celtic speakers. Borders of the region known as Celtica at time of the Roman conquest c. 54 BC; they soon renamed it Gallia Lugdunensis .

HISTORICAL EVIDENCE

Polybius
Polybius
published a history of Rome about 150 BC in which he describes the Gauls
Gauls
of Italy
Italy
and their conflict with Rome. Pausanias in the 2nd century AD says that the Gauls
Gauls
"originally called Celts", "live on the remotest region of Europe on the coast of an enormous tidal sea". Posidonius described the southern Gauls
Gauls
about 100 BC. Though his original work is lost it was used by later writers such as Strabo
Strabo
. The latter, writing in the early 1st century AD, deals with Britain and Gaul
Gaul
as well as Hispania, Italy
Italy
and Galatia. Caesar wrote extensively about his Gallic Wars in 58–51 BC. Diodorus Siculus wrote about the Celts
Celts
of Gaul
Gaul
and Britain in his 1st-century history.

DISTRIBUTION

CONTINENTAL CELTS

Gaul

Main article: Gauls
Gauls

The Romans knew the Celts
Celts
then living in what became present-day France
France
as Gauls. The territory of these peoples probably included the Low Countries
Low Countries
, the Alps
Alps
and present-day northern Italy. Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars described the 1st-century BC descendants of those Gauls.

Eastern Gaul
Gaul
became the centre of the western La Tène culture. In later Iron Age
Iron Age
Gaul, the social organisation resembled that of the Romans, with large towns. From the 3rd century BC the Gauls
Gauls
adopted coinage. Texts with Greek characters from southern Gaul
Gaul
have survived from the 2nd century BC.

Greek traders founded Massalia about 600 BC, with some objects (mostly drinking ceramics) being traded up the Rhone valley . But trade became disrupted soon after 500 BC and re-oriented over the Alps to the Po valley in the Italian peninsula. The Romans arrived in the Rhone valley in the 2nd century BC and encountered a mostly Celtic-speaking Gaul. Rome wanted land communications with its Iberian provinces and fought a major battle with the Saluvii at Entremont in 124–123 BC. Gradually Roman control extended, and the Roman Province of Gallia Transalpina developed along the Mediterranean coast. The Romans knew the remainder of Gaul
Gaul
as Gallia Comata – "Hairy Gaul".

In 58 BC the Helvetii planned to migrate westward but Julius Caesar forced them back. He then became involved in fighting the various tribes in Gaul, and by 55 BC had overrun most of Gaul. In 52 BC Vercingetorix
Vercingetorix
led a revolt against the Roman occupation but was defeated at the siege of Alesia and surrendered.

Following the Gallic Wars of 58–51 BC, Caesar's Celtica formed the main part of Roman Gaul, becoming the province of Gallia Lugdunensis . This territory of the Celtic tribes was bounded on the south by the Garonne and on the north by the Seine and the Marne. The Romans attached large swathes of this region to neighboring provinces Belgica and Aquitania , particularly under Augustus
Augustus
.

Place- and personal-name analysis and inscriptions suggest that the Gaulish Celtic language was spoken over most of what is now France.

Iberia

Main language areas in Iberia , showing Celtic languages
Celtic languages
in beige, c. 300 BC Main articles: Celtiberians
Celtiberians
and Gallaeci See also: Castro culture , Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
, Prehistoric Iberia
Prehistoric Iberia
, Hispania
Hispania
, Lusitania
Lusitania
, Gallaecia
Gallaecia
, and Celtici

Until the end of the 19th century, traditional scholarship dealing with the Celts
Celts
did acknowledge their presence in the Iberian Peninsula as a material culture relatable to the Hallstatt
Hallstatt
and La Tène cultures. However, since according to the definition of the Iron Age in the 19th century Celtic populations were supposedly rare in Iberia and did not provide a cultural scenario that could easily be linked to that of Central Europe, the presence of Celtic culture in that region was generally not fully recognised. Modern scholarship, however, has clearly proven that Celtic presence and influences were most substantial in what is today Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
(with perhaps the highest settlement saturation in Western Europe), particularly in the central, western and northern regions.

In addition to Gauls
Gauls
infiltrating from the north of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
, the Roman and Greek sources mention Celtic populations in three parts of the Iberian Peninsula: the eastern part of the Meseta (inhabited by the Celtiberians
Celtiberians
), the southwest ( Celtici , in modern-day Alentejo ) and the northwest ( Gallaecia
Gallaecia
and Asturias
Asturias
). A modern scholarly review find several archaeological groups of Celts
Celts
in Spain:

* The Celtiberian group in the Upper-Douro Upper-Tagus Upper-Jalón area. Archaeological data suggest a continuity at least from the 6th century BC. In this early period, the Celtiberians
Celtiberians
inhabited in hill-forts (Castros). Around the end of the 3rd century BC, Celtiberians
Celtiberians
adopted more urban ways of life. From the 2nd century BC, they minted coins and wrote inscriptions using the Celtiberian script . These inscriptions make the Celtiberian Language
Celtiberian Language
the only Hispano-Celtic language classified as Celtic with unanimous agreement. In the late period, before the Roman Conquest, both archaeological evidence and Roman sources suggest that the Celtiberians
Celtiberians
were expanding into different areas in the Peninsula (e.g. Celtic Baeturia). * The Vetton group in the western Meseta, between the Tormes, Douro and Tagus Rivers. They were characterised by the production of Verracos, sculptures of bulls and pigs carved in granite. * The Vaccean group in the central Douro valley. They were mentioned by Roman sources already in the 220 BC. Some of their funerary rituals suggest strong influences from their Celtiberian neighbours.

Triskelion and spirals on a Galician torc terminal, Museum of Castro de Santa Tegra, A Guarda

* The Castro Culture
Culture
in northwestern Iberia, modern day Galicia . Its high degree of continuity, from the Late Bronze
Bronze
Age, makes it difficult to support that the introduction of Celtic elements was due to the same process of Celticization of the western Iberia, from the nucleus area of Celtiberia. Two typical elements are the sauna baths with monumental entrances, and the "Gallaecian Warriors", stone sculptures built in the 1st century AD. A large group of Latin inscriptions contain linguistic features that are clearly Celtic, while others are similar to those found in the non-Celtic Lusitanian language . * The Astures and the Cantabri
Cantabri
. This area was romanised late, as it was not conquered by Rome until the Cantabrian Wars of 29-19 BC. * Celts
Celts
in the southwest, in the area Strabo
Strabo
called Celtica

The origins of the Celtiberians
Celtiberians
might provide a key to understanding the Celticisation process in the rest of the Peninsula. The process of Celticisation of the southwestern area of the peninsula by the Keltoi and of the northwestern area is, however, not a simple Celtiberian question. Recent investigations about the Callaici and Bracari in northwestern Portugal
Portugal
are providing new approaches to understanding Celtic culture (language, art and religion) in western Iberia.

John T. Koch of Aberystwyth University suggested that Tartessian inscriptions of the 8th century BC might be classified as Celtic. This would mean that Tartessian is the earliest attested trace of Celtic by a margin of more than a century.

Alps
Alps
And Italy

Main articles: Golasecca culture
Golasecca culture
, Lepontii , and Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
Map of the Alpine region of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 14 AD Further information: History of the Alps

The Canegrate culture represented the first migratory wave of the proto-Celtic population from the northwest part of the Alps
Alps
that, through the Alpine passes , had already penetrated and settled in the western Po valley between Lake Maggiore
Lake Maggiore
and Lake Como
Lake Como
(Scamozzina culture ). It has also been proposed that a more ancient proto-Celtic presence can be traced back to the beginning of the Middle Bronze
Bronze
Age , when North Westwern Italy
Italy
appears closely linked regarding the production of bronze artefacts, including ornaments, to the western groups of the Tumulus culture . La Tène cultural material appeared over a large area of mainland Italy, the southernmost example being the Celtic helmet from Canosa di Puglia .

Italy
Italy
is home to Lepontic
Lepontic
, the oldest attested Celtic language (from the 6th century BC). Anciently spoken in Switzerland
Switzerland
and in Northern-Central Italy
Italy
, from the Alps
Alps
to Umbria . According to the Recueil des Inscriptions Gauloises, more than 760 Gaulish inscriptions have been found throughout present-day France
France
– with the notable exception of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
– and in Italy
Italy
, which testifies the importance of Celtic heritage in the peninsula.

In 391 BC, Celts
Celts
"who had their homes beyond the Alps
Alps
streamed through the passes in great strength and seized the territory that lay between the Apennine mountains and the Alps" according to Diodorus Siculus . The Po Valley and the rest of northern Italy
Italy
(known to the Romans as Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
) was inhabited by Celtic-speakers who founded cities such as Milan
Milan
. Later the Roman army was routed at the battle of Allia and Rome was sacked in 390 BC by the Senones
Senones
.

At the battle of Telamon in 225 BC, a large Celtic army was trapped between two Roman forces and crushed.

The defeat of the combined Samnite , Celtic and Etruscan alliance by the Romans in the Third Samnite War sounded the beginning of the end of the Celtic domination in mainland Europe, but it was not until 192 BC that the Roman armies conquered the last remaining independent Celtic kingdoms in Italy.

Expansion East And South

Celtic tribes in S. E. Europe, first century BC (in purple) Main article: Gallic invasion of the Balkans
Gallic invasion of the Balkans

The Celts
Celts
also expanded down the Danube
Danube
river and its tributaries. One of the most influential tribes, the Scordisci
Scordisci
, had established their capital at Singidunum in the 3rd century BC, which is present-day Belgrade
Belgrade
, Serbia. The concentration of hill-forts and cemeteries shows a density of population in the Tisza
Tisza
valley of modern-day Vojvodina
Vojvodina
, Serbia, Hungary and into Ukraine
Ukraine
. Expansion into Romania
Romania
was however blocked by the Dacians
Dacians
.

Further south, Celts
Celts
settled in Thrace
Thrace
( Bulgaria
Bulgaria
), which they ruled for over a century, and Anatolia , where they settled as the Galatians (see also: Gallic Invasion of Greece ). Despite their geographical isolation from the rest of the Celtic world, the Galatians maintained their Celtic language for at least 700 years. St Jerome , who visited Ancyra (modern-day Ankara
Ankara
) in 373 AD, likened their language to that of the Treveri of northern Gaul.

For Venceslas Kruta, Galatia in central Turkey
Turkey
was an area of dense Celtic settlement.

The Boii
Boii
tribe gave their name to Bohemia
Bohemia
, Bologna
Bologna
and possibly Bavaria
Bavaria
, and Celtic artefacts and cemeteries have been discovered further east in what is now Poland and Slovakia
Slovakia
. A Celtic coin ( Biatec
Biatec
) from Bratislava
Bratislava
's mint was displayed on the old Slovak 5-crown coin.

As there is no archaeological evidence for large-scale invasions in some of the other areas, one current school of thought holds that Celtic language and culture spread to those areas by contact rather than invasion. However, the Celtic invasions of Italy
Italy
and the expedition in Greece and western Anatolia , are well documented in Greek and Latin history.

There are records of Celtic mercenaries in Egypt
Egypt
serving the Ptolemies . Thousands were employed in 283–246 BC and they were also in service around 186 BC. They attempted to overthrow Ptolemy II.

INSULAR CELTS

Principal sites in Roman Britain
Roman Britain
, with indication of tribal territories Main article: Insular Celts Further information: Iron Age Britain and Celtic immigration to the British Isles
British Isles
Further information: Iron Age
Iron Age
tribes in Britain , Goidelic substrate hypothesis , and O\'Rahilly\'s historical model

All Celtic languages
Celtic languages
extant today belong to the Insular Celtic languages , derived from the Celtic languages
Celtic languages
spoken in Iron Age Britain and Ireland
Ireland
. They were separated into a Goidelic and a Brythonic branch from an early period.

Linguists have been arguing for many years whether a Celtic language came to Britain and Ireland
Ireland
and then split or whether there were two separate "invasions". The older view of prehistorians was that the Celtic influence in the British Isles
British Isles
was the result of successive invasions from the European continent by diverse Celtic-speaking peoples over the course of several centuries, accounting for the P-Celtic vs. Q-Celtic isogloss. This view has been challenged by the hypothesis that the Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of the British Isles
British Isles
form a phylogenetic Insular Celtic dialect group.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, scholars commonly dated the "arrival" of Celtic culture in Britain (via an invasion model) to the 6th century BC, corresponding to archaeological evidence of Hallstatt influence and the appearance of chariot burials in what is now England. Some Iron Age
Iron Age
migration does seem to have occurred but the nature of the interactions with the indigenous populations of the isles is unknown. In the late Iron Age
Iron Age
. According to this model, by about the 6th century (Sub- Roman Britain
Roman Britain
), most of the inhabitants of the Isles were speaking Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of either the Goidelic or the Brythonic branch. Since the late 20th century, a new model has emerged (championed by archaeologists such as Barry Cunliffe
Barry Cunliffe
and Celtic historians such as John T. Koch ) which places the emergence of Celtic culture in Britain much earlier, in the Bronze
Bronze
Age, and credits its spread not to invasion, but due to a gradual emergence in situ out of Proto-Indo-European culture (perhaps introduced to the region by the Bell Beaker People , and enabled by an extensive network of contacts that existed between the peoples of Britain and Ireland
Ireland
and those of the Atlantic seaboard.

It should be noted, however, that classical writers did not apply the terms Κελτοί or “Celtae” to the inhabitants of Britain or Ireland, leading a number of scholars to question the use of the term Celt to describe the Iron Age
Iron Age
inhabitants of those islands. The first historical account of the islands of Britain and Ireland
Ireland
was by Pytheas , a Greek from the city of Massalia, who around 310-306 BC, sailed around what he called the "Pretannikai nesoi", which can be translated as the "Pretannic Isles". In general, classical writers referred to the inhabitants of Britain as Pretannoi or Britanni. Strabo
Strabo
, writing in the Roman era, clearly distinguished between the Celts
Celts
and Britons.

ROMANISATION

Main article: Gallo-Roman culture
Gallo-Roman culture
The Roman republic
Roman republic
and its neighbours in 58 BC

Under Caesar the Romans conquered Celtic Gaul, and from Claudius onward the Roman empire absorbed parts of Britain. Roman local government of these regions closely mirrored pre-Roman tribal boundaries, and archaeological finds suggest native involvement in local government.

The native peoples under Roman rule became Romanised and keen to adopt Roman ways. Celtic art had already incorporated classical influences, and surviving Gallo-Roman pieces interpret classical subjects or keep faith with old traditions despite a Roman overlay.

The Roman occupation of Gaul
Gaul
, and to a lesser extent of Britain , led to Roman-Celtic syncretism . In the case of the continental Celts, this eventually resulted in a language shift to Vulgar Latin , while the Insular Celts retained their language.

There was also considerable cultural influence exerted by Gaul
Gaul
on Rome, particularly in military matters and horsemanship, as the Gauls often served in the Roman cavalry
Roman cavalry
. The Romans adopted the Celtic cavalry sword, the spatha , and Epona , the Celtic horse goddess.

SOCIETY

To the extent that sources are available, they depict a pre-Christian Iron Age
Iron Age
Celtic social structure based formally on class and kingship, although this may only have been a particular late phase of organization in Celtic societies. Patron-client relationships similar to those of Roman society are also described by Caesar and others in the Gaul
Gaul
of the 1st century BC.

In the main, the evidence is of tribes being led by kings, although some argue that there is also evidence of oligarchical republican forms of government eventually emerging in areas which had close contact with Rome. Most descriptions of Celtic societies portray them as being divided into three groups: a warrior aristocracy; an intellectual class including professions such as druid , poet, and jurist; and everyone else. In historical times, the offices of high and low kings in Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland were filled by election under the system of tanistry , which eventually came into conflict with the feudal principle of primogeniture in which succession goes to the first-born son. Stone head from Mšecké Žehrovice , Czech Republic, wearing a torc , late La Tène culture
La Tène culture
The Dying Gaul , a Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
work of the late third century BC, Capitoline Museums , Rome

Little is known of family structure among the Celts. Patterns of settlement varied from decentralised to urban. The popular stereotype of non-urbanised societies settled in hillforts and duns , drawn from Britain and Ireland
Ireland
(there are about 3,000 hill forts known in Britain) contrasts with the urban settlements present in the core Hallstatt
Hallstatt
and La Tène areas, with the many significant oppida of Gaul late in the first millennium BC, and with the towns of Gallia Cisalpina .

Slavery
Slavery
, as practised by the Celts, was very likely similar to the better documented practice in ancient Greece and Rome . Slaves were acquired from war, raids, and penal and debt servitude. Slavery
Slavery
was hereditary, though manumission was possible. The Old Irish and Welsh words for ‘slave’, cacht and caeth respectively, are cognate with Latin captus ‘captive’ suggesting that the slave trade was an early means of contact between Latin and Celtic societies. In the Middle Ages, slavery was especially prevalent in the Celtic countries . Manumissions were discouraged by law and the word for "female slave", cumal, was used as a general unit of value in Ireland.

Archaeological evidence suggests that the pre-Roman Celtic societies were linked to the network of overland trade routes that spanned Eurasia. Archaeologists have discovered large prehistoric trackways crossing bogs in Ireland
Ireland
and Germany. Due to their substantial nature, these are believed to have been created for wheeled transport as part of an extensive roadway system that facilitated trade. The territory held by the Celts
Celts
contained tin , lead, iron, silver and gold. Celtic smiths and metalworkers created weapons and jewellery for international trade , particularly with the Romans.

The myth that the Celtic monetary system consisted of wholly barter is a common one, but is in part false. The monetary system was complex and is still not understood (much like the late Roman coinages), and due to the absence of large numbers of coin items, it is assumed that "proto-money" was used. This included bronze items made from the early La Tène period and onwards, which were often in the shape of axeheads , rings, or bells . Due to the large number of these present in some burials, it is thought they had a relatively high monetary value , and could be used for "day to day" purchases. Low-value coinages of potin , a bronze alloy with high tin content, were minted in most Celtic areas of the continent and in South-East Britain prior to the Roman conquest of these lands. Higher-value coinages, suitable for use in trade, were minted in gold, silver, and high-quality bronze. Gold coinage was much more common than silver coinage , despite being worth substantially more, as while there were around 100 mines in Southern Britain and Central France, silver was more rarely mined. This was due partly to the relative sparsity of mines and the amount of effort needed for extraction compared to the profit gained. As the Roman civilisation grew in importance and expanded its trade with the Celtic world, silver and bronze coinage became more common. This coincided with a major increase in gold production in Celtic areas to meet the Roman demand, due to the high value Romans put on the metal. The large number of gold mines in France
France
is thought to be a major reason why Caesar invaded.

There are only very limited records from pre-Christian times written in Celtic languages. These are mostly inscriptions in the Roman and sometimes Greek alphabets. The Ogham
Ogham
script, an Early Medieval alphabet , was mostly used in early Christian times in Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland (but also in Wales
Wales
and England), and was only used for ceremonial purposes such as inscriptions on gravestones. The available evidence is of a strong oral tradition, such as that preserved by bards in Ireland, and eventually recorded by monasteries . Celtic art also produced a great deal of intricate and beautiful metalwork, examples of which have been preserved by their distinctive burial rites.

In some regards the Atlantic Celts
Celts
were conservative: for example, they still used chariots in combat long after they had been reduced to ceremonial roles by the Greeks
Greeks
and Romans. However, despite being outdated, Celtic chariot tactics were able to repel the invasion of Britain attempted by Julius Caesar.

According to Diodorus Siculus:

The Gauls
Gauls
are tall of body with rippling muscles and white of skin and their hair is blond, and not only naturally so for they also make it their practice by artificial means to increase the distinguishing colour which nature has given it. For they are always washing their hair in limewater and they pull it back from the forehead to the nape of the neck, with the result that their appearance is like that of Satyrs and Pans since the treatment of their hair makes it so heavy and coarse that it differs in no respect from the mane of horses. Some of them shave the beard but others let it grow a little; and the nobles shave their cheeks but they let the moustache grow until it covers the mouth. The Waterloo Helmet

CLOTHING

Celtic costumes in Przeworsk culture
Przeworsk culture
, third century BC, La Tène period , Archaeological Museum of Kraków

During the later Iron Age
Iron Age
the Gauls
Gauls
generally wore long-sleeved shirts or tunics and long trousers (called braccae by the Romans). Clothes were made of wool or linen , with some silk being used by the rich. Cloaks were worn in the winter. Brooches and armlets were used, but the most famous item of jewellery was the torc , a neck collar of metal, sometimes gold. The horned Waterloo Helmet in the British Museum , which long set the standard for modern images of Celtic warriors, is in fact a unique survival, and may have been a piece for ceremonial rather than military wear.

GENDER AND SEXUAL NORMS

Reconstruction of the dress and equipment of an Iron Age
Iron Age
Celtic warrior from Biebertal , Germany See also: Ancient Celtic women

According to Aristotle
Aristotle
, most "belligerent nations" were strongly influenced by their women, but the Celts
Celts
were unusual because their men openly preferred male lovers (Politics II 1269b). H. D. Rankin in Celts
Celts
and the Classical World notes that " Athenaeus
Athenaeus
echoes this comment (603a) and so does Ammianus (30.9). It seems to be the general opinion of antiquity." In book XIII of his Deipnosophists , the Roman Greek rhetorician and grammarian Athenaeus
Athenaeus
, repeating assertions made by Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
in the 1st century BC (Bibliotheca historica 5:32), wrote that Celtic women were beautiful but that the men preferred to sleep together. Diodorus went further, stating that "the young men will offer themselves to strangers and are insulted if the offer is refused". Rankin argues that the ultimate source of these assertions is likely to be Posidonius and speculates that these authors may be recording male "bonding rituals".

The sexual freedom of women in Britain was noted by Cassius Dio :

... a very witty remark is reported to have been made by the wife of Argentocoxus, a Caledonian, to Julia Augusta . When the empress was jesting with her, after the treaty, about the free intercourse of her sex with men in Britain, she replied: "We fulfill the demands of nature in a much better way than do you Roman women; for we consort openly with the best men, whereas you let yourselves be debauched in secret by the vilest." Such was the retort of the British woman.

There are instances recorded where women participated both in warfare and in kingship, although they were in the minority in these areas. Plutarch
Plutarch
reports that Celtic women acted as ambassadors to avoid a war among Celts
Celts
chiefdoms in the Po valley during the 4th century
4th century
BC.

Very few reliable sources exist regarding Celtic views on gender divisions and societal status, though some archaeological evidence does suggest that their views of gender roles may differ from contemporary and less egalitarian classical counterparts of the Roman era. There are some general indications from Iron Age
Iron Age
burial sites in the Champagne and Bourgogne regions of Northeastern France suggesting that women may have had roles in combat during the earlier La Tène period. However, the evidence is far from conclusive. Examples of individuals buried with both female jewellery and weaponry have been identified, such as the Vix Grave
Vix Grave
, and there are questions about the gender of some skeletons that were buried with warrior assemblages. However, it has been suggested that "the weapons may indicate rank instead of masculinity".

Among the insular Celts, there is a greater amount of historic documentation to suggest warrior roles for women. In addition to commentary by Tacitus
Tacitus
about Boudica , there are indications from later period histories that also suggest a more substantial role for "women as warriors", in symbolic if not actual roles. Posidonius and Strabo described an island of women where men could not venture for fear of death, and where the women ripped each other apart. Other writers, such as Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
and Tacitus
Tacitus
, mentioned Celtic women inciting, participating in, and leading battles. Posidonius' anthropological comments on the Celts
Celts
had common themes, primarily primitivism , extreme ferocity, cruel sacrificial practices, and the strength and courage of their women.

Under Brehon Law , which was written down in early Medieval Ireland after conversion to Christianity , a woman had the right to divorce her husband and gain his property if he was unable to perform his marital duties due to impotence, obesity, homosexual inclination or preference for other women.

CELTIC ART

The reverse side of a British bronze mirror, with spiral and trumpet motifs typical of La Tène Celtic art in Britain Main article: Celtic art

Celtic art is generally used by art historians to refer to art of the La Tène period across Europe, while the Early Medieval art of Britain and Ireland, that is what "Celtic art" evokes for much of the general public, is called Insular art in art history. Both styles absorbed considerable influences from non-Celtic sources, but retained a preference for geometrical decoration over figurative subjects, which are often extremely stylised when they do appear; narrative scenes only appear under outside influence. Energetic circular forms, triskeles and spirals are characteristic. Much of the surviving material is in precious metal, which no doubt gives a very unrepresentative picture, but apart from Pictish stones
Pictish stones
and the Insular high crosses , large monumental sculpture , even with decorative carving, is very rare; possibly it was originally common in wood. Celts
Celts
were also able to create developed musical instruments such as the carnyces, these famous war trumpets used before the battle to frighten the enemy, as the best preserved found in Tintignac (Gaul ) in 2004 and which were decorated with a boar head or a snake head.

The interlace patterns that are often regarded as typical of "Celtic art" were characteristic of the whole of the British Isles, a style referred to as Insular art , or Hiberno-Saxon art. This artistic style incorporated elements of La Tène, Late Roman, and, most importantly, animal Style II of Germanic Migration Period art . The style was taken up with great skill and enthusiasm by Celtic artists in metalwork and illuminated manuscripts . Equally, the forms used for the finest Insular art were all adopted from the Roman world: Gospel books like the Book of Kells
Book of Kells
and Book of Lindisfarne , chalices like the Ardagh Chalice and Derrynaflan Chalice
Derrynaflan Chalice
, and penannular brooches like the Tara Brooch . These works are from the period of peak achievement of Insular art, which lasted from the 7th to the 9th centuries, before the Viking
Viking
attacks sharply set back cultural life.

In contrast the less well known but often spectacular art of the richest earlier Continental Celts, before they were conquered by the Romans, often adopted elements of Roman, Greek and other "foreign" styles (and possibly used imported craftsmen) to decorate objects that were distinctively Celtic. After the Roman conquests, some Celtic elements remained in popular art, especially Ancient Roman pottery , of which Gaul
Gaul
was actually the largest producer, mostly in Italian styles, but also producing work in local taste, including figurines of deities and wares painted with animals and other subjects in highly formalised styles. Roman Britain
Roman Britain
also took more interest in enamel than most of the Empire, and its development of champlevé technique was probably important to the later Medieval art
Medieval art
of the whole of Europe, of which the energy and freedom of Insular decoration was an important element. Rising nationalism brought Celtic revivals from the 19th century.

WARFARE AND WEAPONS

Main articles: Celtic warfare and Celtic sword Ceremonial Agris Helmet , 350 BC, Angoulême city Museum in France, with stylistic borrowings from around the Mediterranean

Tribal warfare appears to have been a regular feature of Celtic societies. While epic literature depicts this as more of a sport focused on raids and hunting rather than organised territorial conquest, the historical record is more of tribes using warfare to exert political control and harass rivals, for economic advantage , and in some instances to conquer territory.

The Celts
Celts
were described by classical writers such as Strabo
Strabo
, Livy
Livy
, Pausanias , and Florus as fighting like "wild beasts", and as hordes. Dionysius said that their

"manner of fighting, being in large measure that of wild beasts and frenzied, was an erratic procedure, quite lacking in military science . Thus, at one moment they would raise their swords aloft and smite after the manner of wild boars , throwing the whole weight of their bodies into the blow like hewers of wood or men digging with mattocks, and again they would deliver crosswise blows aimed at no target, as if they intended to cut to pieces the entire bodies of their adversaries, protective armour and all".

Such descriptions have been challenged by contemporary historians.

Polybius
Polybius
(2.33) indicates that the principal Celtic weapon was a long bladed sword which was used for hacking edgewise rather than stabbing. Celtic warriors are described by Polybius
Polybius
and Plutarch
Plutarch
as frequently having to cease fighting in order to straighten their sword blades. This claim has been questioned by some archaeologists, who note that Noric steel , steel produced in Celtic Noricum
Noricum
, was famous in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
period and was used to equip the Roman military . However, Radomir Pleiner, in The Celtic Sword (1993) argues that "the metallographic evidence shows that Polybius
Polybius
was right up to a point", as around one third of surviving swords from the period might well have behaved as he describes.

Polybius
Polybius
also asserts that certain of the Celts
Celts
fought naked, "The appearance of these naked warriors was a terrifying spectacle, for they were all men of splendid physique and in the prime of life." According to Livy, this was also true of the Celts
Celts
of Asia Minor.

HEAD HUNTING

A Gallic warrior statuette, first century BC, Museum of Brittany, Rennes
Rennes
, France
France

Celts
Celts
had a reputation as head hunters . According to Paul Jacobsthal , "Amongst the Celts
Celts
the human head was venerated above all else, since the head was to the Celt the soul, centre of the emotions as well as of life itself, a symbol of divinity and of the powers of the other-world." Arguments for a Celtic cult of the severed head include the many sculptured representations of severed heads in La Tène carvings, and the surviving Celtic mythology, which is full of stories of the severed heads of heroes and the saints who carry their own severed heads , right down to Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, where the Green Knight
Green Knight
picks up his own severed head after Gawain has struck it off, just as St. Denis
Denis
carried his head to the top of Montmartre
Montmartre
.

A further example of this regeneration after beheading lies in the tales of Connemara
Connemara
's St. Feichin , who after being beheaded by Viking pirates carried his head to the Holy Well on Omey Island and on dipping the head into the well placed it back upon his neck and was restored to full health.

Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
, in his 1st-century History had this to say about Celtic head-hunting:

They cut off the heads of enemies slain in battle and attach them to the necks of their horses. The blood-stained spoils they hand over to their attendants and striking up a paean and singing a song of victory; and they nail up these first fruits upon their houses, just as do those who lay low wild animals in certain kinds of hunting. They embalm in cedar oil the heads of the most distinguished enemies, and preserve them carefully in a chest, and display them with pride to strangers, saying that for this head one of their ancestors, or his father, or the man himself, refused the offer of a large sum of money. They say that some of them boast that they refused the weight of the head in gold

In Gods and Fighting Men , Lady Gregory
Lady Gregory
's Celtic Revival
Celtic Revival
translation of Irish mythology
Irish mythology
, heads of men killed in battle are described in the beginning of the story The Fight with the Fir Bolgs as pleasing to Macha , one aspect of the war goddess Morrigu .

RELIGION

A statuette probably depicting Brigantia (or Brigid), with iconography derived from Roman statues of Minerva
Minerva
, first century AD, Museum of Brittany
Brittany
, Rennes
Rennes

POLYTHEISM

Main articles: Celtic polytheism and Celtic animism

Like other European Iron Age
Iron Age
tribal societies, the Celts
Celts
practised a polytheistic religion . Many Celtic gods are known from texts and inscriptions from the Roman period. Rites and sacrifices were carried out by priests known as druids . The Celts
Celts
did not see their gods as having human shapes until late in the Iron Age. Celtic shrines were situated in remote areas such as hilltops, groves, and lakes.

Celtic religious patterns were regionally variable; however, some patterns of deity forms, and ways of worshipping these deities, appeared over a wide geographical and temporal range. The Celts worshipped both gods and goddesses. In general, Celtic gods were deities of particular skills, such as the many-skilled Lugh
Lugh
and Dagda , while goddesses were associated with natural features, particularly rivers (such as Boann
Boann
, goddess of the River Boyne ). This was not universal, however, as goddesses such as Brighid and The Morrígan were associated with both natural features (holy wells and the River Unius) and skills such as blacksmithing and healing.

Triplicity is a common theme in Celtic cosmology, and a number of deities were seen as threefold. This trait is exhibited by The Three Mothers, a group of goddesses worshipped by many Celtic tribes (with regional variations).

The Celts
Celts
had hundreds of deities, some of which were unknown outside a single family or tribe, while others were popular enough to have a following that crossed lingual and cultural barriers. For instance, the Irish god Lugh, associated with storms, lightning , and culture, is seen in similar forms as Lugos
Lugos
in Gaul
Gaul
and Lleu
Lleu
in Wales. Similar patterns are also seen with the continental Celtic horse goddess Epona and what may well be her Irish and Welsh counterparts, Macha and Rhiannon , respectively.

Roman reports of the druids mention ceremonies being held in sacred groves . La Tène Celts
Celts
built temples of varying size and shape, though they also maintained shrines at sacred trees and votive pools .

Druids fulfilled a variety of roles in Celtic religion, serving as priests and religious officiants, but also as judges, sacrificers, teachers, and lore-keepers. Druids organised and ran religious ceremonies, and they memorised and taught the calendar . Other classes of druids performed ceremonial sacrifices of crops and animals for the perceived benefit of the community.

GALLIC CALENDAR

The Coligny calendar
Coligny calendar
, which was found in 1897 in Coligny , Ain, was engraved on a bronze tablet, preserved in 73 fragments, that originally was 1.48 metres (4 feet 10 inches) wide and 0.9 metres (2 feet 11 inches) high (Lambert p. 111). Based on the style of lettering and the accompanying objects, it probably dates to the end of the 2nd century. It is written in Latin inscriptional capitals, and is in the Gallic language . The restored tablet contains 16 vertical columns, with 62 months distributed over 5 years.

The French archaeologist J. Monard speculated that it was recorded by druids wishing to preserve their tradition of timekeeping in a time when the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was imposed throughout the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. However, the general form of the calendar suggests the public peg calendars (or parapegmata ) found throughout the Greek and Roman world.

ROMAN INFLUENCE

Further information: Gallo-Roman culture
Gallo-Roman culture

The Roman invasion of Gaul
Gaul
brought a great deal of Celtic peoples into the Roman Empire. Roman culture had a profound effect on the Celtic tribes which came under the empire's control. Roman influence led to many changes in Celtic religion, the most noticeable of which was the weakening of the druid class, especially religiously; the druids were to eventually disappear altogether. Romano-Celtic deities also began to appear: these deities often had both Roman and Celtic attributes, combined the names of Roman and Celtic deities, and/or included couples with one Roman and one Celtic deity. Other changes included the adaptation of the Jupiter Column , a sacred column set up in many Celtic regions of the empire, primarily in northern and eastern Gaul. Another major change in religious practice was the use of stone monuments to represent gods and goddesses. The Celts
Celts
had only created wooden idols (including monuments carved into trees, which were known as sacred poles) previously to Roman conquest. A Celtic cross

CELTIC CHRISTIANITY

Main article: Celtic Christianity
Celtic Christianity

While the regions under Roman rule adopted Christianity along with the rest of the Roman empire, unconquered areas of Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland began to move from Celtic polytheism to Christianity in the 5th century. Ireland
Ireland
was converted by missionaries from Britain, such as Saint Patrick . Later missionaries from Ireland
Ireland
were a major source of missionary work in Scotland, Anglo-Saxon parts of Britain, and central Europe (see Hiberno-Scottish mission ). Celtic Christianity
Celtic Christianity
, the forms of Christianity that took hold in Britain and Ireland
Ireland
at this time, had for some centuries only limited and intermittent contact with Rome and continental Christianity, as well as some contacts with Coptic Christianity . Some elements of Celtic Christianity developed, or retained, features that made them distinct from the rest of Western Christianity, most famously their conservative method of calculating the date of Easter . In 664, the Synod of Whitby began to resolve these differences, mostly by adopting the current Roman practices, which the Gregorian Mission from Rome had introduced to Anglo-Saxon England
Anglo-Saxon England
.

SEE ALSO

* Celtic Studies portal

* Ethnic groups in Europe

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F G Koch, John (2005). Celtic Culture: a historical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio. pp. xx. ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0 . Retrieved 9 June 2010. * ^ A B C D E F James, Simon (1999). The Atlantic Celts
Celts
– Ancient People Or Modern Invention. University of Wisconsin Press. * ^ A B C D E Collis, John (2003). The Celts: Origins, Myths and Inventions. Stroud: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2913-2 . * ^ A B C Pryor, Francis (2004). Britain BC. Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0007126934 . * ^ A B C D Chadwick, Nora; Corcoran, J. X. W. P. (1970). The Celts. Penguin Books. pp. 28–33. * ^ Cunliffe, Barry (1997). The Ancient Celts. Penguin Books. pp. 39–67. * ^ Koch, John T (2010). Celtic from the West Chapter 9: Paradigm Shift? Interpreting Tartessian as Celtic – see map 9.3 The Ancient Celtic Languages c. 440/430 BC – see third map in PDF at URL provided which is essentially the same map (PDF). Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-84217-410-4 . * ^ Koch, John T (2010). Celtic from the West Chapter 9: Paradigm Shift? Interpreting Tartessian as Celtic – see map 9.2 Celtic expansion from Hallstatt/La Tene central Europe – see second map in PDF at URL provided which is essentially the same map (PDF). Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-84217-410-4 . * ^ Stifter, David (2008). Old Celtic Languages (PDF). pp. 24–37.

* ^ Cunliffe, Barry (2003). The Celts
Celts
– a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-19-280418-9 . * ^ McKevitt, Kerry Ann (2006). "Mythologizing Identity and History: a look at the Celtic past of Galicia" (PDF). E-Keltoi. 6: 651–673. Retrieved 8 April 2011. * ^ Sarunas Milisauskas, European prehistory: a survey. Springer, 2002 ISBN 0-306-47257-0 . 2002. p. 363. ISBN 978-0-306-47257-2 . Retrieved 2010-06-07. * ^ H. D. Rankin, Celts
Celts
and the classical world. Routledge, 1998 ISBN 0-415-15090-6 . 1998. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-415-15090-3 . Retrieved 2010-06-07. * ^ Herodotus, The Histories, 2.33; 4.49. * ^ John T. Koch (ed.), Celtic Culture: a historical encyclopedia. 5 vols. 2006. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, p. 371. * ^ P. De Bernardo Stempel 2008. “Linguistically Celtic ethnonyms: towards a classification”, in Celtic and Other Languages in Ancient Europe, J. L. García Alonso (ed.), 101-118. Ediciones Universidad Salamanca. * ^ Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
, Commentarii de Bello Gallico
Commentarii de Bello Gallico
1.1: “All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae live, another in which the Aquitani live, and the third are those who in their own tongue are called Celtae, in our language Galli.” * ^ Strabo, Geography, 3.1.3; 3.1.6; 3.2.2; 3.2.15; 4.4.2. * ^ Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
, The Natural History 21: “the Mirobrigenses, surnamed Celtici” (“Mirobrigenses qui Celtici cognominantur”). * ^ http://revistas.ucm.es/est/11326875/articulos/HIEP0101110006A.PDF * ^ Fernando DE ALMEIDA, Breve noticia sobre o santuário campestre romano de Miróbriga dos Celticos (Portugal): D(IS) M(ANIBUS) S(ACRUM) / C(AIUS) PORCIUS SEVE/RUS MIROBRIGEN(SIS) / CELT(ICUS) ANN(ORUM) LX / H(IC) S(ITUS) E(ST) S(IT) T(IBI) T(ERRA) L(EVIS). * ^ Koch, John Thomas (2006). Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 794–795. ISBN 1-85109-440-7 . * ^ Spencer and Zwicky, Andrew and Arnold M (1998). The handbook of morphology. Blackwell Publishers. p. 148. ISBN 0-631-18544-5 . * ^ Lhuyd, E. Archaeologia Britannica; An account of the languages, histories, and customs of the original inhabitants of Great Britain. (reprint ed.) Irish University Press, 1971, p. 290. ISBN 0-7165-0031-0 . * ^ Koch, John Thomas (2006). Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 532. ISBN 1-85109-440-7 . * ^ Mountain, Harry (1998). The Celtic Encyclopedia, Volume 1. uPublish.com . p. 252. ISBN 1-58112-889-4 . * ^ Kruta, Venceslas; et al. (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. pp. 95–102. * ^ Paul Graves-Brown, Siân Jones, Clive Gamble, Cultural identity and archaeology: the construction of European communities, pp 242–244. Routledge, 1996 ISBN 0-415-10676-1 . 1996. ISBN 978-0-415-10676-4 . Retrieved 2010-06-07. * ^ Carl McColman, The Complete Idiot\'s Guide to Celtic Wisdom, pp 31–34. Alpha Books, 2003, ISBN 0-02-864417-4 . 6 May 2003. ISBN 978-0-02-864417-2 . Retrieved 2010-06-07. * ^ Monaghan, Patricia (2008). The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Facts on File
File
Inc. ISBN 978-0-8160-7556-0 . * ^ Chadwick, Nora (1970). The Celts
Celts
with an introductory chapter by J.X.W.P.Corcoran. Penguin Books. p. 81. * ^ Myles Dillon and Nora Kershaw Chadwick, The Celtic Realms, 1967, 18–19 * ^ Cunliffe, Barry (2010). Celtic from the West Chapter 1: Celticization from the West – The Contribution of Archaeology. Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-84217-410-4 . * ^ 2001 p 95. La lengua de los Celtas y otros pueblos indoeuropeos de la península ibérica. In Almagro-Gorbea, M., Mariné, M. and Álvarez-Sanchís, J.R. (eds) Celtas y Vettones, pp. 115–121. Ávila: Diputación Provincial de Ávila. * ^ Lorrio and Ruiz Zapatero, Alberto J. and Gonzalo (2005). "The Celts
Celts
in Iberia: An Overview". e-Keltoi. 6 : The Celts
Celts
in the Iberian Peninsula: 167–254. * ^ Koch, John (2009). Tartessian: Celtic from the Southwest at the Dawn of History in Acta Palaeohispanica X Palaeohispanica 9 (2009) (PDF). Palaeohispanica. pp. 339–351. ISSN 1578-5386 . Retrieved 2010-05-17. * ^ Cunliffe, Barry (2008). A Race Apart: Insularity and Connectivity in Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 75, 2009, pp. 55–64. The Prehistoric Society. p. 61. * ^ Oppenheimer, Stephen (2007). The Origins of the British, pp. 21–56. Robinson. * ^ e.g. Patrick Sims-Williams, Ancient Celtic Placenames in Europe and Asia Minor, Publications of the Philological Society , No. 39 (2006); Bethany Fox, 'The P-Celtic Place-Names of North-East England and South-East Scotland', The Heroic Age, 10 (2007), http://www.heroicage.org/issues/10/fox.html (also available at http://www.alarichall.org.uk/placenames/fox.htm). See also List of Celtic place names in Portugal
Portugal
. * ^ Murray, Tim (April 2007). pg346. ISBN 978-1-57607-186-1 . Retrieved 2010-10-02. * ^ Jones, Andrew (2008). pg 48. ISBN 978-1-4051-2597-0 . Retrieved 2010-10-02. * ^ F. Fleming, Heroes of the Dawn: Celtic Myth, 1996. p. 9 & 134. * ^ Villar, Francisco. The Indo-Europeans and the origins of Europe (Italian version), p. 446. * ^ Harding, Dennis William (2007). pg5. ISBN 978-0-415-35177-5 . Retrieved 2010-10-02. * ^ pg 386. Retrieved 2010-10-02. * ^ The Celts
Celts
in Iberia: An Overview – Alberto J. Lorrio (Universidad de Alicante) & Gonzalo Ruiz Zapatero (Universidad Complutense de Madrid ) – Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies , Volume 6: 167–254 The Celts
Celts
in the Iberian Peninsula, 1 February 2005 * ^ *Otto Hermann Frey, "A new approach to early Celtic art". Setting the Glauberg finds in context of shifting iconography, Royal Irish Academy (2004) * ^ Dietler, Michael (2010). Archaeologies of Colonialism: Consumption, Entanglement, and Violence in Ancient Mediterranean France. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-26551-3 . * ^ Dietler, Michael (2005). Consumption and Colonial Encounters in the Rhône Basin of France: A Study of Early Iron Age
Iron Age
Political Economy. Monographies d'Archéologie Meditérranéenne, 21, CNRS, France. ISBN 978-2-912369-10-9 . * ^ Cunliffe, Barry (2003). The Celts. Oxford Press. p. 75. ISBN 0-19-280418-9 . * ^ Cunliffe, Barry (2003). The Celts. Oxford Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-19-280418-9 . * ^ Dietler, Michael (2010). Archaeologies of Colonialism: Consumption, Entanglement, and Violence in Ancient Mediterranean France. University of California Press. pp. 75–94. ISBN 0-520-26551-3 . * ^ Chambers, William; Chambers, Robert (1842). Chambers\'s information for the people pg50. Retrieved 2010-10-02. * ^ Brownson, Orestes Augustus
Augustus
(1859). Brownson\'s Quarterly Review pg505. Retrieved 2010-10-02. * ^ Quintela, Marco V. García (2005). "Celtic Elements in Northwestern Spain
Spain
in Pre-Roman times". Center for Celtic Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Retrieved 12 May 2010. * ^ Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Retrieved 12 May 2010. * ^ Prichard, James Cowles (1841). Researches into the Physical History of Mankind. Retrieved 2010-10-02. * ^ Alberto J. Lorrio, Gonzalo Ruiz Zapatero (2005). "The Celts
Celts
in Iberia: An Overview". E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. 6: 167–254. * ^ Burillo Mozota, Francisco (2005). "Celtiberians: Problems and Debates". E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. 6: 411–480. * ^ Jordán Cólera, Carlos (2005). "Celtiberian" (PDF). E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. 6: 749–850. * ^ Alberro, Manuel (2005). "Celtic Legacy in Galicia". E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. 6: 1005–1035. * ^ Jordán Cólera, Carlos (2005). "Celtiberian" (PDF). E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. 6: 749–850. * ^ Berrocal-Rangel, Luis (2005). "The Celts
Celts
of the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula". E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. 6: 481–96. * ^ R. Luján Martínez, Eugenio (2005). "The Language(s) of the Callaeci". E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. 6: 715–748. * ^ Coutinhas, José Manuel (2006), Aproximação à identidade etno-cultural dos Callaici Bracari, Porto. * ^ Archeological site of Tavira, official website * ^ John T. Koch, Tartessian: Celtic From the South-west at the Dawn of History, Celtic Studies Publications, (2009) * ^ Alfons Semler, Überlingen: Bilder aus der Geschichte einer kleinen Reichsstadt,Oberbadische Verlag, Singen, 1949, pp. 11–17, specifically 15. * ^ Venceslas Kruta: La grande storia dei celti. La nascita, l'affermazione e la decadenza, Newton & Compton, 2003, ISBN 88-8289-851-2 , ISBN 978-88-8289-851-9 * ^ "The Golasecca civilization is therefore the expression of the oldest Celts
Celts
of Italy
Italy
and included several groups that had the name of Insubres, Laevi, Lepontii, Oromobii (o Orumbovii)". (Raffaele C. De Marinis) * ^ "Manufatti in ferro di tipo La Tène in area italiana : le potenzialità non sfruttate". * ^ Piggott, Stuart (5 June 2008). Early Celtic Art From Its Origins to its Aftermath. Transaction Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-202-36186-4 . * ^ Schumacher, Stefan; Schulze-Thulin, Britta; aan de Wiel, Caroline (2004). Die keltischen Primärverben. Ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon (in German). Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Kulturen der Universität Innsbruck. pp. 84–87. ISBN 3-85124-692-6 . * ^ Percivaldi, Elena (2003). I Celti: una civiltà europea. Giunti Editore. p. 82. * ^ Kruta, Venceslas (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. p. 55. * ^ Stifter, David (2008). Old Celtic Languages (PDF). p. 12. * ^ MORANDI 2004, pp. 702-703, n. 277 * ^ Peter Schrijver, "Gaulish", in Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe, ed. Glanville Price (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), 192. * ^ Landolfi, Maurizio (2000). Adriatico tra 4. e 3. sec. a.C. L'ERMA di BRETSCHNEIDER. p. 43. * ^ Cunliffe, Barry (2003). The Celts
Celts
– A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-19-280418-9 . * ^ Cunliffe, Barry (2003). The Celts: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford. p. 71. ISBN 0-19-280418-9 . * ^ Ball, Martin, Muller, Nicole (eds.) The Celtic Languages, Routledge, 2003, p. 67ff. * ^ Koch, J.T., (2006) Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-85109-440-7 , p. 973. * ^ Cunliffe, Barry, Koch, John T. (eds.), Celtic from the West, David Brown Co., 2012 * ^ Cunliffe, Barry, Facing the Ocean, Oxford University Press, 2004 * ^ Collis, John (2003). The Celts: Origins, Myths and Inventions. Stroud: Tempus Publishing. p. 125. ISBN 0-7524-2913-2 . * ^ Collis, John (2003). The Celts: Origins, Myths and Inventions. Stroud: Tempus Publishing. p. 180. ISBN 0-7524-2913-2 . * ^ Collis, John (2003). The Celts: Origins, Myths and Inventions. Stroud: Tempus Publishing. p. 27. ISBN 0-7524-2913-2 . * ^ Tristram, Hildegard L. C. (2007). The Celtic languages
Celtic languages
in contact. Potsdam University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-3-940793-07-2 . * ^ Ní Dhoireann, Kym. "The Horse Amongst the Celts". * ^ "The Iron Age". Smr.herefordshire.gov.uk. Archived 7 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "The Landscape of Britain". Michael Reed (1997). CRC Press . p.56. ISBN 0-203-44411-6 * ^ A B C Simmons, Victoria (2006). John T. Koch, ed. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. I. ABC-CLIO . p. 1615. ISBN 1-85109-440-7 . * ^ Simmons, op.cit., citing Wendy Davies, Wales
Wales
in the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, 64. * ^ Simmons, op.cit., at 1616, citing Kelly, Guide to Early Irish Law, 96. * ^ Casparie, Wil A.; Moloney, Aonghus (January 1994). "Neolithic wooden trackways and bog hydrology". Journal of Paleolimnology. Springer Netherlands. 12: 49–64. doi :10.1007/BF00677989 . * ^ "Regional Reviews: Wales" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 June 2011. (369 KB) Beatrice Cauuet (Université Toulouse Le Mirail, UTAH, France) * ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica * ^ Percy, William A. (1996). Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece. University of Illinois Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-252-06740-1 . Retrieved 2009-09-18. ; Rankin, H.D. Celts
Celts
and the Classical World, p.55 * ^ Rankin, p. 55 * ^ Rankin, p.78 * ^ Roman History Volume IX Books 71–80, Dio Cassiuss and Earnest Carry translator (1927), Loeb Classical Library ISBN 0-674-99196-6 . * ^ Ellis, Peter Berresford (1998). The Celts: A History. Caroll & Graf. pp. 49–50. ISBN 0-7867-1211-2 . * ^ J.A. MacCulloch (1911). The Religion of the Ancient Celts. MORRISON & GIBB LIMITED. pp. 4–5. * ^ Evans, Thomas L. (2004). Quantified Identities: A Statistical Summary and Analysis of Iron Age
Iron Age
Cemeteries in North-Eastern France 600 – 130 BC, BAR International Series 1226. Archaeopress. pp. 34–40, 158–188. * ^ Evans, Thomas L. (2004). Quantified Identities: A Statistical Summary and Analysis of Iron Age
Iron Age
Cemeteries in North-Eastern France 600 – 130 BC, BAR International Series 1226. Archaeopress. pp. 34–37. * ^ Nelson, Sarah M. (2004). Gender in archaeology: analyzing power and prestige: Volume 9 of Gender and archaeology series. Rowman Altamira. p. 119. * ^ Bitel, Lisa M. (1996). Land of Women: Tales of Sex and Gender from Early Ireland. Cornell University Press. p. 212. ISBN 0-8014-8544-4 . * ^ Tierney, J. J. (1960). The Celtic Ethnography of Posidonius, PRIA 60 C. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. pp. 1.89–275. * ^ Rankin, David (1996). Celts
Celts
and the Classical World. Routledge. p. 80. ISBN 0-415-15090-6 . * ^ University College, Cork. Cáin Lánamna (Couples Law) . 2005. Access date: 7 March 2006. * ^ http://tintignac.wix.com/tintignac-naves#!english/c11e3 Official website of Tintignac-Naves archeological site * ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities p259 Excerpts from Book XIV * ^ Ellis, Peter Berresford (1998). The Celts: A History. Caroll & Graf. pp. 60–3. ISBN 0-7867-1211-2 . * ^ "Noricus ensis," Horace
Horace
, Odes, i. 16.9 * ^ Vagn Fabritius Buchwald, Iron and steel in ancient times , 2005, p.127 * ^ Radomir Pleiner, in The Celtic Sword, Oxford: Clarendon Press (1993), p.159. * ^ Polybius, Histories II.28 * ^ Livy, History XXII.46 and XXXVIII.21 * ^ Paul Jacobsthal Early Celtic Art * ^ A B Cunliffe, Barry, (1997) The Ancient Celts. Oxford, Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-815010-5 , pp.202, 204–8. p. 183 (religion). * ^ Sjoestedt, Marie-Louise (originally published in French, 1940, reissued 1982) Gods and Heroes of the Celts. Translated by Myles Dillon, Berkeley, CA, Turtle Island Foundation ISBN 0-913666-52-1 , pp. 24–46. * ^ Sjoestedt (1940) pp.16, 24–46. * ^ A B Inse Jones, Prudence, and Nigel Pennick. History of pagan Europe. London: Routledge, 1995. Print. * ^ Sjoestedt (1940) pp.xiv-xvi, 14–46. * ^ Sjoestedt (1982) pp. xxvi–xix. * ^ Lambert, Pierre-Yves (2003). La langue gauloise. Paris, Editions Errance. 2nd edition. ISBN 2-87772-224-4 . Chapter 9 is titled "Un calandrier gaulois" * ^ Lehoux, D. R. Parapegmata: or Astrology, Weather, and Calendars in the Ancient World, pp 63–5. PhD Dissertation, University of Toronto, 2000.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Alberro, Manuel and Arnold, Bettina (eds.), e-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies, Volume 6: The Celts
Celts
in the Iberian Peninsula, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee
University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee
, Center for Celtic Studies, 2005. * Collis, John. The Celts: Origins, Myths and Inventions. Stroud: Tempus Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-7524-2913-2 . Historiography of Celtic studies. * Cunliffe, Barry. The Ancient Celts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-19-815010-5 . * Cunliffe, Barry. Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain. London: Batsford, 2004. ISBN 0-7134-8839-5 * Cunliffe, Barry. The Celts: A Very Short Introduction. 2003 * Freeman, Philip Mitchell The Earliest Classical Sources on the Celts: A Linguistic and Historical Study. Diss. Harvard University
Harvard University
, 1994. (link) * Gamito, Teresa J. “The Celts
Celts
in Portugal”, E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies, 6 (2005). * Haywood, John. Historical Atlas of the Celtic World. 2001. * Herm, Gerhard. The Celts: The People who Came out of the Darkness. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1977. * James, Simon. The World of the Celts. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1993. 3rd edn. 2005. * James, Simon. The Atlantic Celts
Celts
– Ancient People Or Modern Invention? Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, August 1999. ISBN 0-299-16674-0 . * James, Simon & Rigby, Valerie. Britain and the Celtic Iron Age. London: British Museum
British Museum
Press, 1997. ISBN 0-7141-2306-4 . * Kruta, Venceslas, Otto Hermann Frey, Barry Raftery and M. Szabo. eds. The Celts. New York: Thames & Hudson , 1991. ISBN 0-8478-2193-5 . A translation of Les Celtes : Histoire et dictionnaire 2000. * Laing, Lloyd. The Archaeology of Late Celtic Britain and Ireland c. 400–1200 AD. London: Methuen, 1975. ISBN 0-416-82360-2 * Laing, Lloyd and Jenifer Laing. Art of the Celts, London: Thames and Hudson, 1992 ISBN 0-500-20256-7 * MacKillop, James. A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-280120-1 * Maier, Bernhard : Celts: A History from Earliest Times to the Present. University of Notre Dame Press 2003. ISBN 978-0-268-02361-4 * McEvedy, Colin. The Penguin Atlas of Ancient History. New York: Penguin, 1985. ISBN 0-14-070832-4 * Mallory, J. P. In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth. London: Thames and Hudson, 1991. ISBN 0-500-27616-1 . * O'Rahilly, T. F. Early Irish History Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies , 1946. * Powell, T. G. E. The Celts. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1980. 3rd edn. 1997. ISBN 0-500-27275-1 . * Raftery, Barry. Pagan Celtic Ireland: The Enigma of the Irish Iron Age. London: Thames ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Celts
Celts

Ancient Celts Celtic studies
Celtic studies

PEOPLES

* Names * GAELS * BRITONS * PICTS * GAULS * IBERIAN CELTS * GALATIANS

PLACES

* Gaelic Ireland
Ireland
* Dálriata / Alba * Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain / Roman Britain
Roman Britain
/ Sub- Roman Britain
Roman Britain
* Dumnonia
Dumnonia
* Iron Age
Iron Age
Gaul
Gaul
/ Roman Gaul
Gaul
/ Brittany
Brittany
* Gallaecia
Gallaecia
* Britonia * Brigantia (ancient region) * Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
* Balkans * Transylvania * Galatia

RELIGION

* Polytheism * Christianity * Animism

MYTHOLOGY

* Irish * Scottish * Welsh * British * Breton * Cornish

SOCIETY

* Calendar * Law * Warfare ( Gaelic warfare ) * Coinage

ART

* Insular * Pictish * Brooches * Carnyx * High cross
High cross
* Interlace * Knotwork * Mazes * Triple spiral * Taranis
Taranis

Modern Celts
Celts
Celtic Revival
Celtic Revival

* Modern Celtic nations * Pan-Celticism ( Celtic Congress * Celtic League ) * Music (Rock )

* Neopaganism

* Reconstructionist * Celtic Wicca * Neo-Druidism

LANGUAGES

* Italo-Celtic * Proto-Celtic

* Insular Celtic

* Brythonic * Goidelic

* Continental Celtic

* Celtiberian * Gaulish * Galatian * Gallaecian * Lepontic
Lepontic
* Noric

FESTIVALS

* Samhain
Samhain
/ Calan Gaeaf
Calan Gaeaf
* Imbolc
Imbolc
/Gŵyl Fair * Beltane
Beltane
/ Calan Mai * Lughnasadh
Lughnasadh
/Calan Awst

LISTS

* Celts
Celts
* Tribes * Deities * English words of Celtic origin * Spanish words of Celtic origin * Galician words of Celtic origin * French words of Gaulish origin

* v * t * e

Gaels

GENERAL HISTORY

* Gaelic Ireland
Ireland
* High King of Ireland
Ireland
* Gaelic Irish kingdoms * Dál Riata
Dál Riata
* Alba * Nine Years\' War * Statutes of Iona * Flight of the Earls
Flight of the Earls
* Plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster
* 1641 Rebellion * Act for the Settlement of Ireland
Ireland
1652 * Jacobite risings
Jacobite risings
* Bliadhna Theàrlaich * Penal Laws * Great Hunger * Irish diaspora * Highland Clearances
Highland Clearances
* Gaelic Revival * Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
* Gàidhealtachd

GAELIC CULTURE

* Ogham
Ogham
* Brehon law * Gaelic mythology * Lebor Gabála Érenn
Lebor Gabála Érenn
* Gaelic warfare * Gaelic astrology * Gaelic kinship * Bardic poetry * Gaelic literature (Early Irish , Modern Irish , Scottish Gaelic border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Primitive Irish
Primitive Irish
* Old Irish * Middle Irish * Classical Gaelic * Irish * Manx * Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic

MAJOR TRIBES OR CLANS

* Connachta (incl. Uí Néill , Clan Colla , Clan Donald
Clan Donald
, Uí Maine , etc) * Dál gCais
Dál gCais
(incl. Déisi ) * Eóganachta
Eóganachta
* Érainn (incl. Dál Riata
Dál Riata
, Corcu Loígde , Clan Conla , Dál Fiatach , etc) * Laigin * Ulaid
Ulaid
(incl. Dál nAraidi , Conmhaícne , Ciarraige , etc)

PROMINENT ORGANISATIONS

* Údarás na Gaeltachta
Údarás na Gaeltachta
* Foras na Gaeilge * Bòrd na Gàidhlig * Culture
Culture
Vannin * Conradh na Gaeilge * An Comunn Gàidhealach * Manx Gaelic Society * Seachtain na Gaeilge * Gael Linn
Gael Linn
* ULTACH Trust * Comunn na Gàidhlig * Columba Project * Clans of Ireland
Ireland
* An Coimisinéir Teanga * An Comunn Gàidhealach America

RELATED SUBJECTS

* Haplogroup R-M269 (human genetics ) * Celts * Norse– Gaels (incl. Uí Ímair and Clan MacLeod ) * Kingdom of the Isles * Gaelicisation

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4030206-4 * HDS : 8016 * NDL

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