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The Gaels
Gaels
(Irish pronunciation: [ɡeːlˠ], Scottish Gaelic pronunciation: [kɛː.əlˠ]; Irish: Na Gaeil, Scottish Gaelic: Na Gàidheil, Manx: Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.[a] They are associated with the Gaelic languages: a branch of the Celtic languages
Celtic languages
comprising Irish, Manx and Scottish Gaelic. Historically, the ethnonyms Irish and Scots referred to the Gaels
Gaels
in general, but the scope of those nationalities is today more complex. Gaelic language
Gaelic language
and culture originated in Ireland, extending to Dál Riata in western Scotland. In antiquity the Gaels
Gaels
traded with the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and also raided Roman Britain. In the Middle Ages, Gaelic culture became dominant throughout the rest of Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man. There was also some Gaelic settlement in Wales
Wales
and Cornwall. In the Viking Age, small numbers of Vikings
Vikings
raided and settled in Gaelic lands, becoming the Norse-Gaels. In the 9th century, the Scots Gaels
Gaels
of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
merged with Pictland
Pictland
to form the Gaelic Kingdom of Alba. Meanwhile, Gaelic Ireland
Gaelic Ireland
was made up of several kingdoms, with a High King often claiming lordship over them. In the 12th century, Normans conquered parts of Ireland
Ireland
(leading to centuries of conflict), while parts of Scotland
Scotland
became Normanized. However, Gaelic culture
Gaelic culture
remained strong throughout Ireland, the Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
and Galloway. In the early 17th century, the last Gaelic kingdoms in Ireland
Ireland
fell under English control. James I sought to subdue the Gaels
Gaels
and wipe out their culture; in Ireland
Ireland
by colonizing Gaelic land with English-speaking British settlers, and in the Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
via repressive laws such as the Statutes of Iona. In the following centuries most Gaels
Gaels
were gradually anglicized and Gaelic language
Gaelic language
mostly supplanted by English. However, it continues to be the main language in Ireland's Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
and Scotland's Outer Hebrides. The modern descendants of the Gaels
Gaels
have spread throughout Britain, the Americas
Americas
and Australasia. Gaelic society traditionally centered around the clan, each with its own territory and chieftain, elected through tanistry. The Gaels
Gaels
were originally pagans who worshipped the Tuatha Dé Danann, venerated the ancestors and believed in an Otherworld. Their four yearly festivals – Samhain, Imbolc, Beltane
Beltane
and Lughnasa
Lughnasa
– continued to be celebrated into modern times. The Gaels
Gaels
have a strong oral tradition, traditionally maintained by shanachies. Inscription in the Gaelic ogham alphabet began in the 1st century. Their conversion to Christianity
Christianity
accompanied the introduction of writing in the Roman alphabet, and Irish Gaelic has the oldest vernacular literature in western Europe. Irish mythology
Irish mythology
and Brehon law
Brehon law
were preserved, albeit Christianized. Gaelic monasteries were renowned centres of learning and played a key role in developing Insular art, while Gaelic missionaries and scholars were highly influential in western Europe. In the Middle Ages, most Gaels
Gaels
lived in roundhouses and ringforts. The Gaels
Gaels
had their own style of dress, which (in Scotland) became the belted plaid and kilt. They also have distinctive music, dance, and sports. Gaelic culture
Gaelic culture
continues to be a major component of Irish, Scottish and Manx culture.

Contents

1 Ethnonyms

1.1 Gaels 1.2 Irish 1.3 Scots

2 Population

2.1 Kinship groups 2.2 Human genetics 2.3 Demographics 2.4 Diaspora

3 History

3.1 Origins 3.2 Ancient 3.3 Medieval 3.4 Imperial 3.5 Modern

4 Culture

4.1 Language

4.1.1 Emergence 4.1.2 Contemporary

4.2 Religion

4.2.1 Pre-Christian 4.2.2 Christianity

5 Notes 6 References

6.1 Bibliography

7 External links

Ethnonyms[edit]

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v t e

Throughout the centuries, Gaels
Gaels
and Gaelic-speakers have been known by a number of names. The most consistent of these have been Gael, Irish and Scots. The latter two have developed more ambiguous meanings, due to the early modern concept of the nation state, which encompasses non-Gaels. Other terms, such as Milesian, are not often used. An Old Norse name for the Gaels
Gaels
was Vestmenn ("Westmen").[9] Informally, archetypal forenames such as Tadhg
Tadhg
or Dòmhnall are sometimes used for Gaels.[10] Gaels[edit] The word Gaelic is first recorded in print in the English language
English language
in the 1770s,[11] replacing the earlier word Gathelik which is attested as far back as 1596.[11] Gael, defined as a "member of the Gaelic race", is first attested in print in 1810.[12] The name ultimately derives from the Old Irish word Goídel, spelled officially today as Gaedheal, Gael (Irish and Manx) and Gàidheal (Scottish Gaelic). In early modern Irish, the words Gaelic and Gael were spelled respectively Gaoidhealg and Gaoidheal.[13] The more antiquarian term Goidels came to be used by some due to Edward Lhuyd's work on the relationship between Celtic languages
Celtic languages
(with the Gaelic languages
Gaelic languages
being "Q-Celtic"). This term was further popularised in academia by John Rhys; the first Professor of Celtic at Oxford University; due to his work Celtic Britain (1882).[14] According to the scholar John T. Koch in his Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, the word in the form of Guoidel was borrowed from a Primitive Welsh form that became an Old Welsh term, roughly meaning "forest people", "wild men" or later "warriors".[13] It is recorded as a personal name in the Book of Llandaff. This term shared a root with the Old Irish fíad "deer", and was partially cognate with Féni, from the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
*weidh-n-jo-.[13][15] This latter word is the origin of Fianna
Fianna
and Fenian. Irish[edit]

The Iverni
Iverni
are one of the population groups mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia.

A common name, passed down to the modern day, is Irish; this existed in the English language
English language
during the 13th century in the form of Irisce, which derived from the stem of Old English
Old English
Iras "inhabitant of Ireland", from Old Norse
Old Norse
irar.[16] The ultimate origin of this word is thought to be from the Old Irish Ériu, which is from Old Celtic *Iveriu, likely associated with the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
term *pi-wer- meaning "fertile".[16] Ériu
Ériu
is mentioned as a goddess in the Lebor Gabála Érenn as a daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann. Along with her sisters Banba and Fódla, she is said to have made a deal with the Milesians to name the island after her. The ancient Greeks; in particular Ptolemy
Ptolemy
in his 2nd century Geographia, possibly based on earlier sources; located a group known as the Iverni
Iverni
(Greek: Ιουερνοι) in the south-west of Ireland.[17] This group has been associated with the Érainn
Érainn
of Irish tradition by T. F. O'Rahilly and others.[17] The Érainn; claiming descent from a Milesian eponymous ancestor named Ailill Érann; were the hegemonic power in Ireland
Ireland
prior to the rise of the descendants of Conn of the Hundred Battles and Mug Nuadat. The Érainn
Érainn
included peoples such as the Corcu Loígde
Corcu Loígde
and Dál Riata. Ancient Roman writers, such as Caesar, Pliny and Tacitus, derived from "Ivernia" the name Hibernia.[17] Thus the name Hibernian also comes from this root (although the Romans tended to call the Gaels
Gaels
"Scoti").[18] Scots[edit] Main article: Scots Gaels From the 5th to 10th centuries, early Scotland
Scotland
was home to the following people and cultures: the Picts, Dál Riata
Dál Riata
also known as Gaels, the Britons, Angles and the Vikings.[19] The Romans began to use the term Scoti to describe the Gaels
Gaels
in Latin
Latin
from the 4th century onward.[20][21] In the context of the times, the Gaels
Gaels
were raiding the west coast of Britain for hostages, and they took part in the Great Conspiracy; it is thus conjectured that the term means "raider, pirate". Although the Dál Riata
Dál Riata
settled in Argyll
Argyll
in the 6th century, the term "Scots" did not just apply to them, but to Gaels
Gaels
in general. Examples can be taken from Johannes Scotus Eriugena
Johannes Scotus Eriugena
and other figures from Hiberno- Latin
Latin
culture and the Schottenkloster
Schottenkloster
founded by Irish Gaels
Gaels
in Germanic lands. It is also worth noting that eponymous characters were created in medieval Irish pseudo-histories: Scota, described as an Egyptian princess, and her husband Goídel Glas. The Gaels
Gaels
of northern Britain referred to themselves as Albannaich
Albannaich
in their own tongue and their realm as the Kingdom of Alba
Kingdom of Alba
(founded as a successor state to Pictland
Pictland
and Dál Riata). Germanic groups tended to refer to the Gael as "Scottas"[21] and so when Anglo-Saxon influence grew at court with Duncan II, the Latin
Latin
Rex Scottorum began to be used and the realm was known as Scotland; this process and cultural shift was put into full effect under David I, who let the Normans come to power and furthered the Lowland-Highland divide. Lowland Germanics in Scotland
Scotland
spoke a language called Inglis, which they started to call Scottis (Scots) in the 16th century, while they in turn began to refer to Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
as "Erse" (from 'Irish').[22] Population[edit] Kinship groups[edit] Main articles: Irish clans and Scottish clans

Clan tartan of the MacGregors. Distinctive patterns were adopted during the Victorian era.

In traditional Gaelic society, a patrilineal kinship group is referred to as a clann;[23] this signifies a tribal grouping descended from a common ancestor, much larger than a personal family, which may also consist of various kindreds and septs. Using the Munster-based Eóganachta
Eóganachta
as an example, members of this clann claim patrilineal descent from Éogan Mór. It is further divided into major kindreds, such as the Eóganacht Chaisil, Glendamnach, Áine, Locha Léin and Raithlind.[24][25] These kindreds themselves contain septs that have passed down as Irish Gaelic surnames, for example the Eóganacht Chaisil includes O'Callaghan, MacCarthy, O'Sullivan
O'Sullivan
and others.[26][27] The Irish Gaels
Gaels
can be grouped into the following major historical clans; Connachta
Connachta
(including Uí Néill, Clan Colla, Uí Maine, etc.), Dál gCais, Eóganachta, Érainn
Érainn
(including Dál Riata, Dál Fiatach, etc.), Laigin and Ulaid
Ulaid
(including Dál nAraidi). In the Highlands, the various Gaelic-originated clans tended to claim descent from one of the Irish groups, particularly those from Ulster. The Dál Riata (i.e. – MacGregor, MacDuff, MacLaren, etc.) claimed descent from Síl Conairi, for instance.[28] Some arrivals in the High Middle Ages (i.e. – MacNeill, Buchanan, Munro, etc.) claimed to be of the Uí Néill. As part of their self-justification; taking over power from the Norse-Gael
Norse-Gael
MacLeod in the Hebrides; the MacDonalds claimed to be from Clan Colla.[29][30] For the Irish Gaels, the old clan system did not survive the incorporation of the Gaelic realms into the Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
and the subsequent Flight of the Earls. As a result of the Gaelic revival, there has been renewed interest in Irish genealogy; the Irish Government recognised Gaelic Chiefs of the Name since the 1940s.[31] The Finte na hÉireann
Finte na hÉireann
(Clans of Ireland) was founded in 1989 to gather together clan associations;[32] individual clan associations operate throughout the world and produce journals for their septs.[33] The Highland clans held out until the 18th century Jacobite risings. During the Victorian-era, symbolic tartans, crests and badges were retroactively applied to clans. Clan associations built up over time and Na Fineachan Gàidhealach (The Highland Clans) was founded in 2013.[34] Human genetics[edit]

Distribution of Y-chromosomal Haplogroup R-M269
Haplogroup R-M269
in Europe.

At the turn of the 21st century, the principles of human genetics and genetic genealogy were applied to the study of populations of Gaelic origin.[35][36] It was found that the overwhelming majority belonged to haplogroup R1b
R1b
in their Y-chromosome DNA
DNA
(as with much of Western Europe).[37] The two other peoples who recorded higher than 85% for R1b
R1b
in a 2009 study published in the scientific journal, PLOS Biology, were the Welsh and the Basques.[38] The development of in-depth studies of DNA
DNA
sequences known as STRs and SNPs, have allowed geneticists to associate subclades with specific Gaelic kindred groupings (and their surnames), vindicating significant elements of Gaelic genealogy, as found in works such as the Leabhar na nGenealach. Examples can be taken from the Uí Néill (i.e. – O'Neill, O'Donnell, Gallagher, etc.), who are associated with R-M222[39] and the Dál gCais
Dál gCais
(i.e. – O'Brien, McMahon, Kennedy, etc.) who are associated with R-L226.[40] With regard to Gaelic genetic genealogy studies, these developments in subclades have aided people in finding their original clan group in the case of a non-paternity event, with Family Tree DNA having the largest such database at present.[41] Demographics[edit] In countries where Gaels
Gaels
live, census records documenting population statistics have taken place. The following includes the number of speakers of a Gaelic language
Gaelic language
(either Gaeilge, also known as Irish, Gàidhlig, known as Scottish Gaelic, or Gaelg, known as Manx). The question of ethnic identity is slightly more complex, but included below are those who identify with Irish or Scottish ethnicity. It should be taken into account that not all will have Gaelic descent, especially in the case of Scotland, due to the nature of the Lowlands. It also depends on the self-reported response of the individual and so is a rough guide rather than an exact science. The two comparatively "major" Gaelic nations in the modern era are Ireland
Ireland
(which in the 2002 census had 185,838 people who spoke Irish "daily" and 1,570,894 who were "able" to speak it)[42] and Scotland (58,552 "Gaelic speakers" and 92,400 with "some Gaelic language ability" in the 2001 census[43]). Communities where the languages are still spoken natively are restricted largely to the west coast of each country and especially the Hebrides
Hebrides
in Scotland. However, a large proportion of the Gaelic speaking population now lives in the cities of Glasgow
Glasgow
and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
in Scotland, and Donegal, Galway, Cork and Dublin
Dublin
in Ireland. There are about 2,000 Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
speakers in Canada
Canada
( Canadian Gaelic
Canadian Gaelic
dialect), although many are elderly and concentrated in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and more specifically Cape Breton Island.[44] According to the 2000 US Census,[3] there are over 25,000 Irish-speakers in the United States
United States
with the majority found in urban areas with large Irish-American communities such as Boston, New York City and Chicago.

State Gaeilge Ethnic Irish Gàidhlig Ethnic Scots Gaelg Ethnic Manx

 Ireland 1,770,000 (2011)[1] 3,969,319 (2011) not recorded not recorded not recorded not recorded

  United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and dependencies [b]

64,916 (2011)[2] 1,101,994 (2011)[2][45] 57,602 (2011) 4,446,000 (2011) 1,689 (2000)[46] 38,108 (2011)

 United States 25,870 (2000)[3] 33,348,049 (2013)[47] 1,605 (2000)[3] 5,310,285 (2013)[47] not recorded 6,955

 Canada 7,500 (2011)[4] 4,354,155 (2006)[48] 1,500 (2011)[4] 4,719,850 (2006)[48] not recorded 4,725

 Australia 1,895 (2011)[5] 2,087,800 (2011)[49] 822 (2001) 1,876,560 (2011) not recorded 46,000

 New Zealand not recorded 14,000 (2013)[50] 670 (2006) 12,792 (2006) not recorded not recorded

Total 1,870,181 44,875,317 62,199 16,318,487 1,689 95,788

Diaspora[edit] Main articles: Irish diaspora
Irish diaspora
and Scottish diaspora

The Emigrants, painting from 1844. This depicts a Highland Scots family in Gaelic dress migrating to New Zealand.

As the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
began to collapse, the Gaels
Gaels
(along with the Anglo-Saxons) were one of the peoples able to take advantage in Great Britain
Great Britain
from the 4th century onwards. The proto- Eóganachta
Eóganachta
Uí Liatháin and the Déisi Muman
Déisi Muman
of Dyfed both established colonies in today's Wales. Further to the north, the Érainn's Dál Riata colonised Argyll
Argyll
(eventually founding Alba) and there was a significant Gaelic influence in Northumbria[51] and the MacAngus clan arose to the Pictish kingship by the 8th century. Gaelic Christian missionaries were also active across the Frankish Empire. With the coming of the Viking Age
Viking Age
and their slave markets, Gaels
Gaels
were also dispersed in this way across the realms under Viking control; as a legacy, in genetic studies, Icelanders
Icelanders
exhibit high levels of Gaelic-derived mDNA.[52] Since the fall of Gaelic polities, the Gaels
Gaels
have made their way across parts of the world, mainly under the auspices of the British Empire, but to a lesser extent under the Spanish Empire. Core destinations for "exiles" have been North America
North America
(what is today the United States
United States
and Canada) and Oceania
Oceania
( Australia
Australia
and New Zealand). There has also been a mass "internal migration" within the British Isles from the 19th century, with Gaelic Irish peasantry and Highlanders migrating to the English-speaking industrial cities of London, Dublin, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Cardiff, Leeds, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and others. Many underwent a linguistic "Anglicisation" and some eventually merged with Anglo populations. History[edit] Origins[edit]

Scota
Scota
and Goídel Glas
Goídel Glas
voyaging from Egypt. From the 15th century chronicle the Scotichronicon.

In their own national epic contained within medieval works such as the Lebor Gabála Érenn, the Gaels
Gaels
trace the origin of their people to an eponymous ancestor named Goídel Glas. He is described as a Scythian prince (the grandson of Fénius Farsaid), who is credited with creating the Gaelic languages. Goídel's mother is called Scota, described as an Egyptian princess (some modern writers associate her with Meritaten). The Gaels
Gaels
are depicted as wandering from place to place for hundreds of years; they spend time in Egypt, Crete, Scythia, the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and Getulia, before arriving in Iberia, where their king, Breogán, is said to have founded Galicia. The Gaels
Gaels
are then said to have sailed to Ireland
Ireland
via Galicia in the form of the Milesians, sons of Míl Espáine. The Gaels
Gaels
fight a battle of sorcery with the Tuatha Dé Danann, the gods, who inhabited Ireland at the time. Ériu, a goddess of the land, promises the Gaels
Gaels
that Ireland
Ireland
shall be theirs so long as they pay tribute to her. They agree, and their bard Amergin recites an incantation known as the Song of Amergin. The two groups agree to divide Ireland
Ireland
between them: the Gaels
Gaels
take the world above, while the Tuath Dé take the world below (i.e. the Otherworld). Advances in DNA
DNA
studies have revealed some clues about the origin of the Gaels
Gaels
(who are associated with paternal R-L21).[37] Haplogroup R originated 26,800 years ago in Central Asia
Central Asia
during the Last Ice Age. The R1b
R1b
branch had broken off by the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and its derivative R-M269
R-M269
was found at the Pontic-Caspian steppe
Pontic-Caspian steppe
by the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
(the Kurgan hypothesis
Kurgan hypothesis
makes these speakers of Proto-Indo-European).[37] First entering Europe proper 7,000 years ago, the Indo-Europeans developed bronze weapons and domesticated the horse, giving them the upper hand in their conquest of the Old Europe and the proliferation of their lineages.[37] After the R-L51
R-L51
subclade founded the Unetice culture, a derivative R-L21
R-L21
moved West, arriving in Britain c. 2100 BCE and Ireland
Ireland
c. 2000 BCE, becoming the Gaelic people.[37] Ancient[edit] See also: Prehistoric Ireland, Prehistoric Scotland, Protohistory of Ireland, and Scotland
Scotland
during the Roman Empire

The Lia Fáil
Lia Fáil
at the Hill of Tara, sacred site of inauguration for the Gaelic High Kings.

According to the Annals of the Four Masters, the early branches of the Milesian Gaels
Gaels
were the Heremonians, the Heberians and the Irians, descended from the three brothers Érimón, Éber Finn and Ír respectively. Another group were the Ithians, descended from Íth
Íth
(an uncle of Milesius) who were located in South Leinster
Leinster
(associated with the Brigantes) but they later became extinct. The Four Masters date the start of Milesian rule from 1700 BCE. Initially, the Heremonians dominated the High Kingship of Ireland
Ireland
from their stronghold of Mide, the Heberians were given Munster
Munster
and the Irians
Irians
were given Ulster. At this early point of the Milesian-era, the non-Gaelic Fir Domnann held Leinster
Leinster
and the Fir Ol nEchmacht held what was later known as Connacht
Connacht
(possibly remnants of the Fir Bolg). During the Iron Age
Iron Age
there was heightened activity at a number of important royal ceremonial sites, including Tara, Dún Ailinne, Rathcroghan
Rathcroghan
and Emain Macha.[53] Each was associated with a Gaelic tribe. The most important was Tara, where the High King (also known as the King of Tara) was inaugurated on the Lia Fáil
Lia Fáil
(Stone of Destiny), which stands to this day. According to the Annals, this era also saw, during the 7th century BCE, a branch of the Heremonians known as the Laigin, descending from Úgaine Mór's son Lóegaire Lorc, displacing the Fir Bolg
Fir Bolg
remnants in Leinster. This was also a critical period for the Ulaid
Ulaid
(earlier known as the Irians) as their kinsman Rudraige Mór took over the High Kingship in the 3rd century BCE; his offspring would be the subject of the Ulster
Ulster
Cycle of heroic tradition, including the epic Táin Bó Cúailnge. This includes the struggle between Conchobar mac Nessa and Fergus mac Róich. After regaining power, the Heremonians, in the form of Fíachu Finnolach were overthrown in a 1st-century AD provincial coup. His son, Túathal Techtmar was exiled to Roman Britain
Roman Britain
before returning to claim Tara. Based on the accounts of Tacitus, some modern historians associate him with an "Irish prince" said to have been entertained by Agricola, Governor of Britain and speculate at Roman sponsorship.[54] His grandson, Conn Cétchathach, is the ancestor of the Connachta
Connachta
who would dominate the Irish Middle Ages. They gained control of what would now be named Connacht. Their close relatives the Érainn
Érainn
(both groups descend from Óengus Tuirmech Temrach) and the Ulaid
Ulaid
would later lose out to them in Ulster, as the descendants of the Three Collas in Airgíalla
Airgíalla
and Niall Noígíallach in Ailech
Ailech
extended their hegemony.[55]

The Isles in the 5th century.   Mainly Goidelic areas.   Mainly Pictish areas.   Mainly Brythonic areas.

The Gaels
Gaels
emerged into the clear historical record during the classical-era, with ogham inscriptions and quite detailed references in Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
ethnography (most notably by Ptolemy). The Roman Empire conquered most of Britain in the 1st century, but did not conquer Ireland
Ireland
or the far north of Britain. The Gaels
Gaels
had relations with the Roman world, mostly through trade. Roman jewelry and coins have been found at several Irish royal sites, for example.[56] Gaels, known to the Romans as Scoti, also carried out raids on Roman Britain, together with the Picts. These raids increased in the 4th century, as Roman rule in Britain began to collapse.[56] This era was also marked by a Gaelic presence in Britain; in what is today Wales, the Déisi
Déisi
founded the Kingdom of Dyfed
Kingdom of Dyfed
and the Uí Liatháin
Uí Liatháin
founded Brycheiniog.[57] There was also some Irish settlement in Cornwall.[56] To the north, the Dál Riata
Dál Riata
are held to have established a territory in Argyll
Argyll
and the Hebrides.[c] Medieval[edit] Main articles: Medieval Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland
Scotland
in the Middle Ages Christianity
Christianity
reached Ireland
Ireland
during the 5th century, most famously through a Romano-British slave Patrick,[58] but also through Gaels such as Declán, Finnian and the Twelve Apostles of Ireland. The abbot and the monk eventually took over certain cultural roles of the aos dána (not least the roles of druí and seanchaí) as the oral culture of the Gaels
Gaels
was transmitted to script by the arrival of literacy. Thus Christianity
Christianity
in Ireland
Ireland
during this early time retained elements of Gaelic culture.[58] In the Middle Ages, Gaelic Ireland
Gaelic Ireland
was divided into a hierarchy of territories ruled by a hierarchy of kings or chiefs. The smallest territory was the túath (plural: túatha), which was typically the territory of a single kin-group. Several túatha formed a mór túath (overkingdom), which was ruled by an overking. Several overkingdoms formed a cóiced (province), which was ruled by a provincial king. In the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the túath was the main political unit, but during the following centuries the overkings and provincial kings became ever more powerful.[59][60] By the 6th century, the division of Ireland
Ireland
into two spheres of influence (Leath Cuinn and Leath Moga) was largely a reality. In the south, the influence of the Eóganachta based at Cashel grew further, to the detriment of Érainn
Érainn
clans such as the Corcu Loígde
Corcu Loígde
and Clann Conla. Through their vassals the Déisi (descended from Fiacha Suidhe and later known as the Dál gCais), Munster
Munster
was extended north of the River Shannon, laying the foundations for Thomond.[61] Aside from their gains in Ulster (excluding the Érainn's Ulaid), the Uí Néill's southern branch had also pushed down into Mide and Brega. By the 9th century, some of the most powerful kings were being acknowledged as High King of Ireland.

A page from the 9th century Book of Kells, one of the finest examples of Insular art. It is believed to have been made in Gaelic monasteries in Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland.

Some, particularly champions of Christianity, hold the 6th to 9th centuries to be a Golden Age for the Gaels. This is due to the influence which the Gaels
Gaels
had across Western Europe
Western Europe
as part of their Christian missionary activities. Similar to the Desert Fathers, Gaelic monastics were known for their asceticism.[62] Some of the most celebrated figures of this time were Columba, Aidan, Columbanus
Columbanus
and others.[62] Learned in Greek and Latin
Latin
during an age of cultural collapse,[63] the Gaelic scholars were able to gain a presence at the court of the Carolingian
Carolingian
Frankish Empire; perhaps the best known example is Johannes Scotus Eriugena.[64] Aside from their activities abroad, insular art flourished domestically, with artifacts such as the Book of Kells
Book of Kells
and Tara Brooch
Tara Brooch
surviving. Clonmacnoise, Glendalough, Clonard, Durrow and Inis Cathaigh
Inis Cathaigh
are some of the more prominent Ireland-based monasteries founded during this time. There is some evidence that the Gaels
Gaels
may have visited the Faroe Islands and Iceland
Iceland
before the Norse, and that Gaelic monks known as papar lived there before being driven out by the incoming Norsemen.[65]

High King Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill was one of the leaders in the struggle with the Norsemen.

The late 8th century heralded outside involvement in Gaelic affairs, as Norsemen
Norsemen
from Scandinavia, known as the Vikings, began to raid and pillage settlements looking for booty. The earliest recorded raids were on Rathlin
Rathlin
and Iona
Iona
in 795; these hit and run attacks continued for some time until the Norsemen
Norsemen
began to settle in the 840s at Dublin (setting up a large slave market), Limerick, Waterford
Waterford
and elsewhere. The Norsemen
Norsemen
also took most of the Hebrides
Hebrides
and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
from the Dál Riata
Dál Riata
clans and established the Kingdom of the Isles. At the same time, the Picts
Picts
were becoming Gaelicised, and the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
merged with Pictland
Pictland
to form the Kingdom of Alba. Kenneth MacAlpin and the House of Alpin are most associated with this process. After a spell when the Norsemen
Norsemen
were driven from Dublin
Dublin
by Leinsterman Cerball mac Muirecáin, they returned in the reign of Niall Glúndub, heralding a second Viking period. The Dublin
Dublin
Norse—some of them, such as Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
king Ragnall ua Ímair
Ragnall ua Ímair
now partly Gaelicised as the Norse-Gaels—were a serious regional power, with territories across Northumbria
Northumbria
and York. At the same time, the Uí Néill branches were involved in an internal power struggle for hegemony between the northern or southern branches. Donnchad Donn raided Munster
Munster
and took Cellachán Caisil of the Eóganachta
Eóganachta
hostage. The destabilisation led to the rise of the Dál gCais
Dál gCais
and Brian Bóruma. Through military might, Brian went about building a Gaelic Imperium under his High Kingship, even gaining the submission of Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill. They were involved in a series of battles against the Vikings: Tara, Glenmama and Clontarf. The last of these saw Brian's death in 1014. Brian's campaign is glorified in the Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib
Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib
("The War of the Gaels
Gaels
with the Foreigners"). The Irish Church became closer to Continental models with the Synod of Ráth Breasail and the arrival of the Cistercians. There was also more trade and communication with Normanised Britain and France. Between themselves, the Ó Briain
Ó Briain
and the Ó Conchobhair
Ó Conchobhair
attempted to build a national monarchy. The remainder of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
was marked by conflict between Gaels and Anglo-Normans. The Norman invasion of Ireland
Norman invasion of Ireland
took place in stages during the late 12th century. Norman mercenaries landed in Leinster
Leinster
in 1169 at the request of Diarmait Mac Murchada, who sought their help in regaining his throne. By 1171 the Normans had gained control of Leinster, and King Henry II of England, with the backing of the Papacy, established the Lordship of Ireland. The Norman kings of England claimed sovereignty over this territory, leading to centuries of conflict between the Normans and the native Irish. The origins of a literary anti-Gaelic sentiment was born at this time, and developed by the likes of Gerald of Wales, as part of a propaganda campaign (with a Gregorian "reform" gloss) to justify taking Gaelic lands. Scotland also came under Anglo-Norman influence in the 12th century. The Davidian Revolution
Davidian Revolution
saw the Normanisation of Scotland's monarchy, government and church; the founding of burghs, which became mainly English-speaking; and the royally-sponsored immigration of Norman aristocrats.[66] This Normanisation was mainly limited to the Scottish Lowlands. In Ireland, the Normans carved out their own semi-independent lordships, but many Gaelic Irish kingdoms remained outside Norman control and gallowglass warriors were brought in from the Highlands to fight for various Irish kings. In 1315, a Scottish army landed in Ireland
Ireland
as part of Scotland's war against England. It was led by Edward Bruce, brother of Scottish king Robert the Bruce. Despite his own Norman ancestry, Edward urged the Irish to ally with the Scots by invoking a shared Gaelic ancestry and culture, and most of the northern kings acknowledged him as High King of Ireland.[67] However, the campaign ended three years later with Edward's defeat and death in the Battle of Faughart. A Gaelic Irish resurgence began in the mid-14th century: English royal control shrank to an area known as the Pale and, outside this, many Norman lords adopted Gaelic culture, becoming culturally Gaelicised. The English government tried to prevent this through the Statutes of Kilkenny (1366), which forbade English settlers from adopting Gaelic culture, but the results were mixed and particularly in the West, some Normans became Gaelicised.

Gaelic Irish men and noblewomen, c.1575

Scottish Highlanders depicted in R. R. McIan's Clans of The Scottish Highlands (1845)

Imperial[edit] See also: History of Ireland
Ireland
(1536–1691) and Scotland
Scotland
in the early modern period During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Gaels
Gaels
were affected by the policies of the Tudors
Tudors
and the Stewarts who sought to anglicise the population and bring both Ireland
Ireland
and the Highlands under stronger centralised control,[68] as part of what would become the British Empire. In 1542, Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII of England
declared the Lordship of Ireland
Ireland
a Kingdom and himself King of Ireland. The new English, whose power lay in the Pale of Dublin, then began to conquer the island. Gaelic kings were encouraged to apply for a surrender and regrant: to surrender their lands to the king, and then have them regranted as freeholds. Those who surrendered were also expected to follow English law and customs, speak English, and convert to the Protestant Anglican Church. Decades of conflict followed in the reign of Elizabeth I, culminating in the Nine Years' War (1594–1603). The war ended in defeat for the Irish Gaelic alliance, and brought an end to the independence of the last Irish Gaelic kingdoms. In 1603, with the Union of the Crowns, King James of Scotland
Scotland
also became king of England and Ireland. James saw the Gaels
Gaels
as a barbarous and rebellious people in need of civilising,[69] and believed that Gaelic culture
Gaelic culture
should be wiped out.[70] Also, while most of Britain had converted to Protestantism, most Gaels
Gaels
had held on to Catholicism. When the leaders of the Irish Gaelic alliance fled Ireland
Ireland
in 1607, their lands were confiscated. James set about colonising this land with English-speaking Protestant settlers from Britain, in what became known as the Plantation of Ulster. It was meant to establish a loyal British Protestant colony in Ireland's most rebellious region and to sever Gaelic Ulster's links with Gaelic Scotland.[69] In Scotland, James attempted to subdue the Gaelic clans and suppress their culture through laws such as the Statutes of Iona.[68] He also attempted to colonise the Isle of Lewis
Isle of Lewis
with settlers from the Lowlands. Since then, the Gaelic language
Gaelic language
has gradually diminished in most of Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland. The 19th century was the turning point as The Great Hunger in Ireland, and across the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
the Highland Clearances, caused mass emigration (leading to Anglicisation, but also a large diaspora). The language was rolled back to the Gaelic strongholds of the north west of Scotland, the west of Ireland
Ireland
and Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
in Nova Scotia. Modern[edit] The Gaelic revival
Gaelic revival
also occurred in the 19th century, with organisations such as Conradh na Gaeilge
Conradh na Gaeilge
and An Comunn Gàidhealach attempting to restore the prestige of Gaelic culture
Gaelic culture
and the socio-communal hegemony of the Gaelic languages. Many of the participants in the Irish Revolution
Irish Revolution
of 1912–1923 were inspired by these ideals and so when a sovereign state was formed (the Irish Free State), post-colonial enthusiasm for the re- Gaelicisation of Ireland was high and promoted through public education. Results were very mixed however and the Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
where native speakers lived continued to retract. In the 1960s and 70s, pressure from groups such as Misneach (supported by Máirtín Ó Cadhain), the Gluaiseacht Chearta Siabhialta na Gaeltachta and others; particularly in Connemara; paved the way for the creation of development agencies such as Údarás na Gaeltachta and state media (television and radio) in Irish. The last native speaker of Manx died in the 1970s, though use of the Manx language
Manx language
never fully ceased. There is now a resurgent language movement and Manx is once again taught in all schools as a second language and in some as a first language. Culture[edit] Main articles: Gaelic Ireland
Gaelic Ireland
and Culture of Scotland
Culture of Scotland
in the High Middle Ages Gaelic society was traditionally made up of kin groups known as clans, each with its own territory and headed by a male chieftain. Succession to the chieftainship or kingship was through tanistry. When a man became chieftain or king, a relative was elected to be his deputy or 'tanist' (tánaiste). When the chieftain or king died, his tanist would automatically succeed him. The tanist had to share the same great-grandfather as his predecessor (i.e. was of the same derbfhine) and he was elected by freemen who also shared the same great-grandfather.[71][72] Gaelic law is known as the Fénechas or Brehon law. The Gaels
Gaels
have always had a strong oral tradition, maintained by shanachies.[73] In the ancient and medieval era, most Gaels
Gaels
lived in roundhouses and ringforts. The Gaels
Gaels
had their own style of dress, which became the modern belted plaid and kilt in Scotland. They also have their own style of music and dance, and their own sports (see Gaelic games
Gaelic games
and Highland games). Language[edit] Main article: History of the Irish language Emergence[edit]

Auraicept na n-Éces, 7th century, explaining ogham.

The Gaelic languages
Gaelic languages
are part of the Celtic languages
Celtic languages
and fall under the wider Indo-European language
Indo-European language
family. There are two main historical theories concerning the origin and development of the Gaelic languages from a Proto-Celtic root: the North Atlantic-based Insular Celtic hypothesis posits that Goidelic and Brythonic languages
Brythonic languages
have a more recent common ancestor than Continental Celtic languages, while the Q-Celtic and P-Celtic hypothesis posits that Goidelic is more closely related to the Celtiberian language, while Brythonic is closer to the Gaulish language. Estimates of the emergence of proto-Gaelic in Ireland
Ireland
vary widely from the introduction of agriculture c. 7000–6000 BC to around the first[clarification needed] few centuries BC. Little can be said with certainty, as the language now known as Old Irish—ancestral to modern Irish, Scots Gaelic
Scots Gaelic
and Manx—only began to be properly recorded with the Christianisation
Christianisation
of Ireland
Ireland
in the 4th century, after the introduction of the Roman script. Primitive Irish
Primitive Irish
does appear in a specialised written form, using a unique script known as Ogham. The oldest examples of Ogham
Ogham
have survived in the form of memorial inscriptions or short epitaphs on pillar-like stone monuments (see Mac Cairthinn mac Coelboth). Ogham
Ogham
stones are found throughout Ireland
Ireland
and neighbouring parts of Britain. This form of written Primitive Irish
Primitive Irish
is thought to have been in use as early as 1000 BC. The script frequently encodes a name or description of the owner and surrounding region, and it is possible that the inscribed stones may have represented territorial claims. Contemporary[edit]

Respondents who stated they could speak Irish and Gaelic in the 2011 censuses.

The Gaelic languages
Gaelic languages
have been in steep decline since the beginning of the 19th century, when they were majority languages of Ireland
Ireland
and the Scottish Highlands; today they are endangered languages.[74][75] The spread of the English language
English language
has resulted in a vast majority of people of Gaelic ancestry being unable to speak a Goidelic language. As far back as the Statutes of Kilkenny
Statutes of Kilkenny
in 1366, the British government had dissuaded use of Gaelic for political reasons.[76] The Statutes of Iona in 1609 and the SSPCK in the Highlands (for most of its history) are also notable examples. As the old Gaelic aristocracy were displaced or assimilated, the language lost its prestige and became primarily a peasant language, rather than one of education and government. During the 19th century, a number of Gaeilgeoir organisations were founded to promote a broad cultural and linguistic revival. Conradh na Gaeilge (English: the Gaelic League) was set up in 1893 and had its origins in Charles Owen O'Conor's Gaelic Union, itself a derivative of the Society for the Preservation of the Irish Language. Similar Highland Gaelic groups existed, such as An Comunn Gàidhealach. At this time, Irish Gaelic was widely spoken along the Western seaboard (and a few other enclaves) and the Gaelic League began defining it as the "Gaeltacht", idealised as the core of true Irish-Ireland, rather than the Anglo-dominated Dublin.[77] Although the Gaelic League itself aimed to be apolitical, this ideal was attractive to militant republicans such as the Irish Republican Brotherhood, who formulated and led the Irish Revolution
Irish Revolution
at the turn of the 20th century; a key leader, Pádraig Pearse, imagined an Ireland
Ireland
"Not merely Free but Gaelic as well – Not merely Gaelic but Free as well." Scottish Gaelic did not undergo as extensive of a politicalisation at this juncture, as nationalists there tended to focus on the Lowland mythos of William Wallace
William Wallace
rather than the Gàidhealtachd.[78] During the 1950s, the independent Irish state developed An Caighdeán Oifigiúil as a national standard for the Irish language
Irish language
(using elements from local dialects but leaning towards Connacht
Connacht
Irish), with a simplified spelling. Until 1973, school children had to pass Modern Irish to achieve a Leaving Cert and studying the subject remains obligatory. There are also Gaelscoileanna
Gaelscoileanna
where children are taught exclusively through the medium of Irish. In the Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
itself, the language has continued to be in crisis under the pressure of globalism, but there are institutions such as Údarás na Gaeltachta and a Minister for the Gaeltacht, as well as media outlets such as TG4 and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta
RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta
to support it. The last native Manx Gaelic speaker died in 1974, although there are ongoing attempts at revival.[79] While the Gàidhealtachd
Gàidhealtachd
has retracted in the Highlands, Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
has enjoyed renewed support[80] with the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, establishing the Bòrd na Gàidhlig under the devolved Scottish Government. This has seen the growth of Gaelic medium education. There are also media outlets such as BBC Alba and BBC Radio nan Gàidheal, although these have been criticized for excessive use of English and pandering to an English-speaking audience.[81] Religion[edit] Pre-Christian[edit]

An artistic rendering of the hero Fionn mac Cumhaill

The traditional, or "pagan", worldview of the pre-Christian Gaels
Gaels
of Ireland
Ireland
is typically described as animistic,[82] polytheistic, ancestor venerating and focused on the hero cult of archetypal Gaelic warriors such as Cú Chulainn
Cú Chulainn
and Fionn mac Cumhaill. The four seasonal festivals celebrated in the Gaelic calendar, still observed to this day, are Imbolc, Beltane, Lughnasadh
Lughnasadh
and Samhain.[83] While the general worldview of the Gaelic tradition has been recovered, a major issue for academic scholars is that Gaelic culture
Gaelic culture
was oral prior to the coming of Christianity
Christianity
and monks were the first to record the beliefs of this rival worldview as a "mythology". Unlike other religions, there is no overall "holy book" systematically setting out exact rules to follow, but various works, such as the Lebor Gabála Érenn, Dindsenchas, Táin Bó Cúailnge
Táin Bó Cúailnge
and Acallam na Senórach, represent the metaphysical orientation of Gaelachas. The main gods held in high regard were the Tuatha Dé Danann, the superhuman beings said to have ruled Ireland
Ireland
before the coming of the Milesians, known in later times as the aes sídhe.[84] Among the gods were male and female deities such as The Dagda, Lugh, Nuada, The Morrígan, Aengus, Brigid and Áine, as well as many others. Some of them were associated with specific social functions, seasonal events and personal archetypal qualities. Some physical locations of importance in Ireland
Ireland
related to these stories include the Brú na Bóinne, Hill of Tara
Hill of Tara
and Hill of Uisneach. Although the sídhe were held to intervene in worldly affairs sometimes, particularly battles and issues of sovereignty, the gods were held to reside in the Otherworld, also known as Mag Mell (Plain of Joy) or Tír na nÓg (Land of the Young). This realm was variously held to be located on a set of islands or underground. The Gaels
Gaels
believed that certain heroic persons could gain access to this spiritual realm, as recounted in the various echtra (adventure) and immram (voyage) tales. Christianity[edit] Main article: Gaelic Christianity

Medieval high cross at Monasterboice

The Gaels
Gaels
underwent Christianisation
Christianisation
during the 5th century and that religion, de facto, remains the predominant one to this day, although irreligion is fast rising.[85] At first the Christian Church
Christian Church
had difficulty infiltrating Gaelic life: Ireland
Ireland
had never been part of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and was a decentralised tribal society, making patron-based mass conversion problematic.[58] It gradually penetrated through the remnants of Roman Britain
Roman Britain
and is especially associated with the activities of Patrick, a Briton who had been a slave in Ireland.[58] He tried to explain its doctrines by using elements of native folk tradition, so Gaelic culture
Gaelic culture
itself was not completely cast aside and to some extent local Christianity
Christianity
was Gaelicised.[58] The last High King inaugurated in the pagan style was Diarmait mac Cerbaill. The 6th-9th centuries are generally held to be the height of Gaelic Christianity, with numerous saints, scholars and works of devotional art. This balance began to unravel during the 12th century with the polemics of Bernard of Clairvaux, who attacked various Gaelic customs (including polygamy[86] and hereditary clergy) as "pagan".[87] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
of the time, fresh from its split with the Orthodox Church, was becoming more centralised and uniform throughout Europe with the Gregorian Reform and military reliance on Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
at the fringes of Latin
Latin
Christendom, particularly the warlike Normans. As part of this, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
actively participated in the Norman conquest of Gaelic Ireland, with the issuing of Laudabiliter
Laudabiliter
(claiming to gift the King of England
King of England
the title "Lord of Ireland") and in Scotland
Scotland
strongly encouraged king David who Normanised that country. Even within orders such as the Franciscans, ethnic tensions between Norman and Gael continued throughout the later Middle Ages,[88] as well as competition for ecclesiastic posts. During the 16th century, with the emergence of Protestantism and Tridentine Catholicism, a distinct Christian sectarianism made its way into Gaelic life, with societal effects carrying on down to this day. The Tudor state used the Anglican Church to bolster their power and enticed native elites into the project, without making much initial effort to convert the Irish Gaelic masses; meanwhile, the mass of Gaeldom (as well as the "Old English") became staunchly Catholic. Due to the geopolitical rivalry between Protestant Britain and Catholic France and Spain, the Catholic religion and its mostly Gaelic followers in Ireland
Ireland
were persecuted for a long time. In the Scottish Highlands too, the Gaels
Gaels
were generally slow to accept the Scottish Reformation. Efforts at persuading Highlanders in general of the value of this primarily Lowland movement were hampered by the complicated politics of the Highlands, with religious rivalries and clan antagonism becoming entwined (a prominent example was the intense rivalry, even hatred, between the generally Presbyterian Campbells and the generally Catholic MacDonalds), but most Highlanders later converted to Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
in the 19th century during the breakdown of the clan system. In a few remote areas, however, Catholicism was kept alive and even rejuvenated to some extent by Irish Franciscan missionaries,[citation needed] but in most of the Highlands it was replaced by Presbyterianism. The adoption of the Free Church of Scotland
Scotland
(1843–1900) in the Highlands following the Disruption of 1843
Disruption of 1843
was a reassertion of Gaelic identity in opposition to forces of improvement and clearance.[89][90][91] Notes[edit]

^ Gaels
Gaels
have not yet received official recognition of being an indigenous people or the victims of colonization, however this argument has been advanced in regards by Scotland
Scotland
by notable historians such as Michael Newton, Alastair MacIntosh and Iain Mackinnon.[6][7][8] ^ The census returns for the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are broken down on a constituency country basis. White Irish was an option in the ethnicity section of the 2011 Census of the United Kingdom; this did not distinguish between those of Gaelic Irish descent and those of Anglo-Irish descent. The results for this were; 531,087 in England and Wales, 517,907 in Northern Ireland
Ireland
and 53,000 in Scotland. According to the census, 83% (or 4,399,000) of the population in Scotland identified as "Scottish" and this did not distinguish between Gaelic Highlander and Anglo Lowlander ethnicities. In the rest of the United Kingdom, the Scots were included under White British. ^ A minority of historical revisionists have come to challenge the traditional account of the origins of Gaelic Scotland
Scotland
as being derived directly from Gaelic Ireland
Gaelic Ireland
via population movement as laid out in works such as the Senchus fer n-Alban
Senchus fer n-Alban
and the Annals of Tigernach. The pioneering figure in this direction is Dr. Ewan Campbell of the University of Glasgow
Glasgow
with his 2001 paper Were the Scots Irish?; an archaeologist, he argues that there is no evidence of mass population movement across the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
for this time period at Dunadd.

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– Irish ability, persons aged 3 years and over. ^ General Register Office, Scotland's Census 2001, Gaelic Report Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Oifis Iomairtean na Gaidhlig/Office of Gaelic Affairs Archived 29 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "2011 Census for England and Wales: Religion and Ethnicity Data Overview" (PDF). BRAP. 7 February 2014.  ^ "Manx". World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples. 7 February 2014. Archived from the original on 7 March 2015.  ^ a b "Selected Social Characteristics in the United States
United States
(DP02): 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 11, 2014.  ^ a b "Visual census, Ethnic origin and visible minorities, Canada". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 7 February 2015.  ^ "The People of Australia: Statistics from the 2013 Census" (PDF). Department of Immigration and Border Protection. 7 February 2015.  ^ "Census reveals scale of NZ Irish population". Irish Echo. 7 February 2015. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015.  ^ "Seventh-Century Ireland
Ireland
as a Study Abroad Destination" (PDF). Colin Ireland. 10 February 2015.  ^ ""They Accuse Us of Being Descended from Slaves": Settlement History, Cultural Syncretism and the Foundation of Medieval Icelandic Identity". Rutgers University. 10 February 2015.  ^ Ó Cróinín 2005, p. 166. ^ Rankin 2002, p. 306. ^ Byrne 1973, p. 73. ^ a b c Foster, Robert (2001). The Oxford History of Ireland. Oxford University Press. pp. 5–7.  ^ Byrne 1973, p. 72. ^ a b c d e "The Adoption of Christianity
Christianity
by the Irish and Anglo-Saxons: The Creation of Two Different Christian Societies". Thomas Martz. 8 February 2015.  ^ Stafford, Pauline (2013). A Companion to the Early Middle Ages: Britain and Ireland
Ireland
c.500 - 1100. John Wiley & Sons.  ^ Duffy, Seán (2005). Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 421.  ^ Byrne 1973, p. 180. ^ a b "Ancient Ireland: The Monastic Tradition". Daily Kos. 28 March 2015.  ^ MacManus
MacManus
1921, p. 215. ^ "John Scottus Eriugena". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 28 March 2015.  ^ Ureland, Per Sture (1996). Language Contact across the North Atlantic. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 115–116.  ^ Taylor, Alice (2016). The Shape of the State in Medieval Scotland, 1124-1290. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. pp. 17–18.  ^ Duffy, Seán (2002). Robert the Bruce's Irish Wars. Tempus Publishing. p. 129.  ^ a b "Driving a Wedge within Gaeldom". History Ireland. 24 February 2015.  ^ a b Ellis, Steven (2014). The Making of the British Isles: The State of Britain and Ireland, 1450-1660. Routledge. p. 296.  ^ Szasz, Margaret (2007). Scottish Highlanders and Native Americans. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 48.  ^ Nicholls, Kenneth W. (2008) [1987]. "Chapter XIV: Gaelic society and economy". In Cosgrove, Art. A New History of Ireland, Volume II: Medieval Ireland
Ireland
1169-1534. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. pp. 397–438. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539703.003.0015. ISBN 978-0-19-953970-3.  ^ Newton, Michael (2000). A handbook of the Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
world. Four Courts Press. p. 114.  ^ Glaser, Konstanze (2007). Minority Languages and Cultural Diversity in Europe. Multilingual Matters. pp. 265–266.  ^ "Irish as an endangered language". Marlyhurst University. 21 July 2015. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015.  ^ "'Endangered' Gaelic on map of world's dead languages". The Scotsman. 21 July 2015.  ^ "Words Between Worlds: The Irish Language, the English Army, and the Violence of Translation in Brian Friel's Translations". Collin Meissner. 21 July 2015.  ^ "Let's speak Gaeilge however we can and wherever we want". Irish Examiner. 21 July 2015.  ^ Tanner 2006, p. 65. ^ "Manx: Bringing a language back from the dead". BBC. 21 July 2015.  ^ "Language as activism: the big Gaelic comeback". New Statesman. 21 July 2015.  ^ " BBC Alba
BBC Alba
is not a Gaelic channel". BBCAlbaNews. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.  ^ Welch 1992, p. 4. ^ Welch 1992, p. 12. ^ Welch 1992, p. 2. ^ "Religiosity Plummets in Ireland
Ireland
and Declines Worldwide; Atheism On the Rise". Huffington Post. 21 July 2015.  ^ "Marriage in Medieval Ireland
Ireland
by Art Cosgrove". History Ireland. 21 July 2015.  ^ Bradshaw 1993, p. 26. ^ "Two nations, one order: the Franciscans
Franciscans
in medieval Ireland". History Ireland. 21 July 2015.  ^ Lynch, Michael (2007). The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. p. 85. ISBN 0199234825. Retrieved 2 July 2017.  ^ Withers, Charles W. J. (2015). Gaelic Scotland: The Transformation of a Culture Region. Routledge. p. 342. ISBN 9781317332817.  ^ Symonds, James (1999). "Toiling in the Vale of Tears: Everyday Life and Resistance in South Uist, Outer Hebrides, 1760—1860". International Journal of Historical Archaeology. 3 (2): 101–122. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

Bartlett, Robert (1994). The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950-1350. Penguin. ISBN 0140154094.  Bateman, Mary (2007). Duanaire Na Sracaire: Songbook of the Pillagers, Anthology of Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Verse to 1600. Birlinn. ISBN 184158181X.  Bradshaw, Brendan (1993). Representing Ireland: Literature and the Origins of Conflict, 1534-1660. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521416345.  Bradshaw, Brendan (2015). 'And so began the Irish Nation': Nationality, National Consciousness and Nationalism in Pre-modern Ireland. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 1472442563.  Byrne, Francis J. (1973). Irish Kings and High Kings. Four Courts Press. ISBN 1851821961.  Calloway, Colin G. (2010). White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal People and Colonial Encounters in Scotland
Scotland
and America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199737826.  Canny, Nicholas (2001). Making Ireland
Ireland
British, 1580-1650. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780199259052.  Charles-Edwards, T. M. (2007). Early Christian Ireland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521037167.  Clancy, Thomas Owen (2008). The Triumph Tree: Scotland's Earliest Poetry AD 550-1350. Canongate Classics. ISBN 0862417872.  Connolly, S. J. (2009). Contested Island: Ireland
Ireland
1460-1630. OUP Oxford. ISBN 0199563713.  Connolly, S. J. (2010). Divided Kingdom: Ireland
Ireland
1630-1800. OUP Oxford. ISBN 0199583870.  Coogan, Tim Pat (2013). The Famine Plot: England's Role in Ireland's Greatest Tragedy. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1137278838.  Crowley, Tony (2008). Wars of Words: The Politics of Language in Ireland
Ireland
1537-2004. OUP Oxford. ISBN 0199532761.  Doyle, Aidan (2015). A History of the Irish Language: From the Norman Invasion to Independence. OUP Oxford. ISBN 0198724764.  Ellis, Peter Berresford (2002). Erin's Blood Royal: The Gaelic Noble Dynasties of Ireland. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0312230494.  Denvir, John (1892). The Irish in Britain from the Earliest Times to the Fall and Death of Parnell. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner.  Gibbons, Luke (2004). Gaelic Gothic: Race, Colonization
Colonization
and Irish Culture. Alren House. ISBN 1903631394.  Gibson, D. Blair (2012). From Chiefdom to State in Early Ireland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1107015634.  Harbison, Peter (1999). The Golden Age of Irish Art: The Medieval Achievement 600-1200. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500019274.  Kinsella, Thomas (1981). An Duanaire 1600-1900: Poems of the Dispossessed. Dolmen Press. ISBN 9780851053646.  Koch, John T. (2004). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851094400.  Leerssen, Joep (1997). Mere Irish and Fior-Ghael: Studies in the Idea of Irish Nationality, Its Development and Literary Expression Prior to the Nineteenth Century. University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0268014272.  Lenihan, Patrick (2007). Consolidating Conquest: Ireland
Ireland
1603-1727. Routledge. ISBN 0582772176.  Mac Giolla Chríost, Diarmait (2005). The Irish Language in Ireland: From Goídel to Globalisation. Routledge. ISBN 0415320461.  Mac Síomoín, Tomás (2014). The Broken Harp: Identity and Language in Modern Ireland. Nuascealta. ISBN 1502974576.  Macleod, John (1997). Highlanders: A History of the Gaels. Sceptre. ISBN 0340639911.  MacManus, Seamus (1921). The Story of the Irish Race: A Popular History of Ireland. The Irish Publishing Company. ISBN 0-517-06408-1.  McLeod, Wilson (2004). Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
C.1200-C.1650. OUP Oxford. ISBN 0199247226.  Newton, Michael (2000). A Handbook of the Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
World. Four Courts Press. ISBN 185182541X.  Newton, Michael (2009). Warriors of the Word: The World of the Scottish Highlanders. Birlinn. ISBN 1841588261.  O'Callaghan, Sean (2001). To Hell or Barbados: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ireland. Brandon. ISBN 0863222870.  O'Conor
O'Conor
Don, Charles (1753). Dissertations On the Ancient History of Ireland. J. Christie.  Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí (2005). A New History of Ireland, Volume I: Prehistoric and Early Ireland. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. ISBN 9780199226658.  O'Duffy, Séan (2005). Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 1135948240.  Ó Flaithbheartaigh, Ruaidhrí (1685). Ogygia: A Chronological Account of Irish Events. B. Tooke.  O'Halloran, Sylvester (1778). A General History of Ireland. Hamilton.  Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí (2001). The Sacred Isle: Belief and Religion in Pre-Christian Ireland. Boydell Press. ISBN 9780851157474.  O'Leary, Philip (2004). The Prose Literature of the Gaelic Revival, 1881-1921. Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0271025964.  Ó Muraíle, Nollaig (2004). The Great Book of Irish Genealogies. De Burca Books. ISBN 0946130361.  Osbourn, Terry A. (2006). Teaching World Languages for Social Justice: A Sourcebook of Principles and Practices. Routledge. ISBN 1135609853.  Patterson, Nerys T. (1991). Cattle Lords and Clansmen: The Social Structure of Early Ireland. Garland Press. ISBN 9780268008000.  Rankin, David (2002). Celts
Celts
and the Classical World. Routledge. ISBN 1134747217.  Richards, Eric (1999). Patrick Sellar and the Highland Clearances: Homicide, Eviction and the Price of Progress. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. ISBN 9781902930138.  Tanner, Marcus (2006). The Last of the Celts. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300115352.  Thornton, David E. (2003). Kings, Chronologies, and Genealogies: Studies in the Political History of Early Medieval Ireland
Ireland
and Wales. Occasional Publications UPR. ISBN 1900934094.  Welch, Robert (1992). Irish Writers and Religion. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0389209635.  Watson, Moray (2010). The Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Companion to the Gaelic Language. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. ISBN 0748637095.  Woolfe, Alex (2007). From Pictland
Pictland
to Alba, 789-1070. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748612335. 

External links[edit]

Foras na Gaeilge – Irish agency promoting the language Bòrd na Gàidhlig – Scottish agency promoting the language Culture Vannin – Manx agency promoting the language The Columba Project – Pan-Gaelic cultural initiative

v t e

Gaels

General history

Gaelic Ireland High King of Ireland Gaelic Irish kingdoms Dál Riata Alba Nine Years' War Statutes of Iona Flight of the Earls Plantation of Ulster 1641 Rebellion Act for the Settlement of Ireland
Ireland
1652 Jacobite risings Bliadhna Theàrlaich Penal Laws Great Hunger Irish diaspora Highland Clearances Gaelic Revival Gaeltacht Gàidhealtachd

Gaelic culture

Ogham Brehon law Gaelic mythology Lebor Gabála Érenn Gaelic warfare Gaelic astrology Gaelic kinship Bardic poetry Gaelic literature
Gaelic literature
(Early Irish, Modern Irish, Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
& Manx) Gaelic type Insular script Fáinne Gaelic music Sean-nós song Oireachtas na Gaeilge Am Mòd Gaelic games Highland games Insular Christianity Gaelic Christian mission

Language

Primitive Irish Old Irish Middle Irish Classical Gaelic Irish Manx Scottish Gaelic

Major tribes or clans

Connachta
Connachta
(incl. Uí Néill, Clan Colla, Clan Donald, Uí Maine, etc) Dál gCais
Dál gCais
(incl. Déisi) Eóganachta Érainn
Érainn
(incl. Dál Riata, Corcu Loígde, Clan Conla, Dál Fiatach, etc) Laigin Ulaid
Ulaid
(incl. Dál nAraidi, Conmhaícne, Ciarraige, etc)

Prominent organisations

Údarás na Gaeltachta Foras na Gaeilge Bòrd na Gàidhlig Culture Vannin Conradh na Gaeilge An Comunn Gàidhealach Manx Gaelic Society Seachtain na Gaeilge Gael Linn ULTACH Trust Comunn na Gàidhlig Columba Project Clans of Ireland An Coimisinéir Teanga An Comunn Gàidhealach
An Comunn Gàidhealach
America

Related subjects

Haplogroup R-M269
Haplogroup R-M269
(human genetics) Celts Norse–Gaels
Norse–Gaels
(incl. Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
and Clan MacLeod) Kingdom of the Isles Gaelicisation

Celts
Celts
portal Ireland
Ireland
portal Scotland
Scotland
portal Isle of Man
Isle of Man
portal Category WikiProject

v t e

Gaeltacht

Gaeltachtaí

Ulster

Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
Thír Conaill (Donegal)

Na Rosa Gaoth Dobhair Cloch Cheann Fhaola Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
an Láir

Connacht

Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
na Gaillimhe (Galway)

Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
Chathair na Gaillimhe Cois Fharraige Conamara Theas Dúiche Sheoigheach Oileáin Árann Ceantar na nOileán

Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
Chontae Mhaigh Eo (Mayo)

Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
Iorrais agus Acaill

Munster

Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
Chontae Chiarraí (Kerry)

Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
Corca Dhuibhne Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
Uíbh Ráthach

Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
Chontae Chorcaí (Cork)

Múscraí Oileán Chléire

Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
na nDéise (Waterford)

Rinn Ó gCuanach An tSean Phobal

Leinster

Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
Chontae na Mí (Meath)

Ráth Chairn Baile Ghib

See also

Nua-Ghaeltachtaí

An Cheathrú Ghaeltachta (Antrim)

Organisations

Údarás na Gaeltachta Gaeltarra Éireann Coimisiún na Gaeltachta Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht Saor Raidió Chonamara RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta TG4 Acadamh na hOllscolaíochta Gaeilge Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe Gluaiseacht Chearta Siabhialta na Gaeltachta Muintir na Gaeltachta

See also

Bean an tí Neo-Gaeltacht Gaels Gaelic revival Sean-nós song Conradh na Gaeilge Connemara Gàidhealtachd Official Languages Act 2003 An Coimisinéir Teanga

Celts
Celts
portal Ireland
Ireland
portal Category WikiProject

v t e

Irish (Gaeilge)

History

Proto-Indo-European Proto-Celtic Insular Celtic Goidelic Primitive Irish Old Irish Middle Irish Modern Irish

Sociolinguistics

Connacht
Connacht
Irish Munster
Munster
Irish Ulster
Ulster
Irish Status Outside Ireland
Ireland
(in Newfoundland) Béarlachas

Grammar

Initial mutations Declension Conjugation Dependent and independent forms Phonology Syntax

Writing

Orthography Ogham Gaelic type Braille Early literature Modern literature Lexicography

Media

Journals

Comhar Feasta An tUltach Tuairisc.ie Nós An Gael Seachtain

Television

TG4 Cúla 4 RTÉ One
RTÉ One
(Nuacht RTÉ) BBC Two NI (sporadic) NVTV (sporadic)

Radio

RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta Raidió Rí-Rá Raidió Na Life Raidió Fáilte BBC Radio Ulster
Ulster
(Blas)

Publishers

An Gúm Cló Iar-Chonnacht Coiscéim Gael Linn Irish Texts Society Sáirséal agus Dill Glór na nGael

Qualifications

Leaving Cert Irish Teastas Eorpach na Gaeilge

Names

Personal and family names List of personal names

Celts
Celts
portal Ireland
Ireland
portal Category WikiProject

v t e

Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
(Gàidhlig)

History

Primitive Irish Old Irish Middle Irish Classical Gaelic Scottish Gaelic

Sociolinguistics

Canadian Gaelic Galwegian (Galloway) Gaelic Mid-Minch Gaelic Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Renaissance

Grammar

Alphabet Dependent and independent verb forms Phonology

Writing

Orthography Ogham Gaelic type Literature Dictionaries

Media

Newspapers

Stornoway Gazette (sporadic) West Highland Free Press
West Highland Free Press
(sporadic)

Television

BBC Alba
BBC Alba
(BBC Gàidhlig)

Radio

BBC Radio nan Gàidheal Isles FM (sporadic) Two Lochs Radio
Two Lochs Radio
(sporadic) Cuillin FM (sporadic) Reidio Guth nan Gàidheal (online)

Publishers

Acair Akerbeltz Birlinn CLÀR Ùr-sgeul

Names

Personal and family names List of personal names

Celts
Celts
portal Scotland
Scotland
portal Category WikiProject

Additional articles related to Gaels

v t e

Connachta

Kindreds and septs

Connachta

Uí Briúin

O'Conor
O'Conor
Don O'Conor
O'Conor
Roe O'Conor
O'Conor
Sligo Murtagh O'Conor MacGeraghty O'Finaghty (Finnerty) O'Concannon MacTeige MacBrannan (Brennan) O'Flanagan MacDermot MacDonagh MacManus MacDockery O'Beirne O'Flaherty O'Rourke O'Reilly McGovern McKiernan O'Sheridan

Uí Fiachrach

MacClellan O'Heyne O'Cleary O'Shaughnessy O'Cahill MacKilkelly O'Dowd MacFirbis O'Cann O'Coyne O'Carney O'Towey (Tuffy) O'Gaughan O'Murray

Northern Uí Néill

Cenél Conaill

O'Donnell O'Doherty O'Gallagher Dunkeld MacDevitt (MacDaid) O'Boyle O'Cannon O'Muldorey O'Strain MacMenamin

Cenél nEógain

O'Neill MacLaughlin MacNeil Maclachlan Lamont MacEwen MacSweeney MacShane
MacShane
(Johnson) MacCaul O'Cahan O'Devlin O'Daly O'Gillan O'Kieran O'Donnelly O'Gormley O'Brallaghan (Bradley) Hamill

Southern Uí Néill

Clann Cholmáin & Síl nÁedo Sláine

O'Melaghlin O'Molloy MacGeoghegan O'Higgin MacCary MacAuley

Clan Colla

McCarroll MacMahon McArdle Maguire MacManus McCaffrey MacDonald MacRory Darroch MacDonnell O'Mulrooney O'Monaghan O'Creehan O'Leighnin O'Heany O'Boylan O'Hanratty O'Hanlon O'Rogan O'Garvey O'Keelaghan (Callaghan) MacCann O'Curry O'Hennessy

Uí Maine

O'Kelly O'Donnellan O'Madden O'Downey O'Cleary O'Concannon O'Duigenan O'Naughton O'Mullally MacEgan O'Kearney O'Mulconry

Personalities

Óengus Tuirmech Temrach Énna Aignech Eochu Feidlech Eochu Airem Medb Findemna Clothru Lugaid Riab nDerg Crimthann Nia Náir Feradach Finnfechtnach Fíachu Finnolach Túathal Techtmar Fedlimid Rechtmar Conn of the Hundred Battles Art mac Cuinn Cormac mac Airt Gráinne Cairbre Lifechair Fíacha Sroiptine Muiredach Tirech Colla Uais Eochaid Mugmedon Niall of the Nine Hostages Columba of Iona Crínán of Dunkeld Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair Brian Ua Néill

Literature

Finn and Gráinne The Pursuit of Diarmuid and Gráinne An sluagh sidhe so i nEamhuin?

Places

Rathcroghan Hill of Tara Donegal
Donegal
Castle Mongavlin Castle Tullyhogue Fort Clonalis House

Battles

Creadran Cille Knockavoe Glentaisie Clannabuidhe Kinsale

Related articles

Gaels Milesians Heremonians Fenian
Fenian
Cycle Ulster
Ulster
Cycle Dal Fiachrach Suighe List of High Kings of Ireland Connacht Airgíalla Fermanagh Ailech Tyrone Clandeboye Tyrconnell East Breifne West Breifne Mide Uisnech Brega Connacht
Connacht
Irish Ulster
Ulster
Irish O'Rahilly's historical model Gaelic nobility of Ireland Flight of the Earls O'Neill's Regiment

Celts
Celts
portal Ireland
Ireland
portal Category WikiProject

v t e

Eóganachta

Kindreds and septs

Eóganachta

Eóganacht Chaisil

MacCarthy
MacCarthy
Mór MacCarthy
MacCarthy
Duhallow MacCarthy
MacCarthy
Reagh MacCarthy
MacCarthy
Muskerry MacAuliffe O'Sullivan
O'Sullivan
Mór O'Sullivan
O'Sullivan
Beare MacGillycuddy O'Callaghan O'Dennehy O'Donoghue

Eóganacht Glendamnach

O'Keeffe

Eóganacht Locha Léin

O'Cahill O'Flynn O'Moriarity MacAngus O'Carroll O'Scannell

Eóganacht Raithlind

O'Mahony O'Donoghue Mór O'Long O'Duggan O'Feehin O'Leary O'Donnell O'Connell O'Linchy (Lynch) O'Hea O'Cahalane O'Coughlan O'Cannifee O'Bogue O'Cronin O'Flynn O'Flahiffe O'Connelly O'Callaghan O'Mingane (Mongan) O'Neill

Eóganacht Áine

O'Irwin O'Kirby O'Kerwick O'Muldoon O'Kenealy O'Gunning

Uí Fidgenti
Uí Fidgenti
& Uí Liatháin

O'Donovan O'Cullane (Collins) O'Flannery O'Lehane (Lyons) O'Gleeson O'Regan O'Connell

Personalities

Mug Nuadat Ailill Aulomm Éogan Mór Fiachu Muillethan Ailill Flann Bec Óengus mac Nad Froích Feidlimid mac Óengusa Fíngen mac Áedo Duib Faílbe Flann mac Áedo Duib Fedelmid mac Crimthainn Cormac mac Cuilennáin

Places

Rock of Cashel Garranes Ringfort

Battles

Mag Mucrama Glenmama Callann Dunboy

Related articles

Gaels Milesians Eberians Deirgtine Cycles of the Kings Áine Clíodhna Leath Mogha Annals of Inisfallen Book of Munster Éoganacht Airthir Cliach Eóganacht Ninussa List of Kings of Munster List of Kings of the Picts List of monarchs of Desmond Kingdom of Desmond Ciannachta Dál gCais Cenél Cerdraige Sanas Cormaic Munster
Munster
Irish Munster List of kings of Munster Gaelic nobility of Ireland

Celts
Celts
portal Ireland
Ireland
portal Category WikiProject

v t e

Érainn

Kindreds and septs

Dál Riata

MacAlpin MacGregor MacDuff Mackintosh MacLaren Macfie Macnab MacAulay MacAdam Mackinnon MacQuarrie Paterson

Múscraige

O'Donegan O'Donnelly O'Furey O'Hea O'Mulvany O'Dowling O'Cullinane O'Flynn O'Quirke

Corcu Duibne

O'Falvey O'Shea O'Connell

Corcu Baiscind

O'Baskin MacDermot O'Donnell

Dál Fiatach

MacDunlevy MacNulty MacLea O'Haughey

Corcu Loígde

O'Coffey O'Downey O'Driscoll O'Fealy O'Flynn O'Hennessy O'Leahy O'Leary O'Twomey O'Longan O'Doheny O'Doughan O'Dunlea O'Hea O'Dinneen O'Cronin O'Baire O'Henegan O'Kevane

Clann Conla

MacGilpatrick (Fitzpatrick) O'Delany O'Horahan O'Brody O'Kealy O'Phelan O'Brophy O'Coveney O'Gloherny O'Dunphy O'Carroll O'Brennan O'Queally MacBreen O'Broder O'Dea

Conaille Muirtheimne

O'Connolly

Personalities

Óengus Tuirmech Temrach Ailill Érann Deda mac Sin Íar mac Dedad Conganchnes mac Dedad Dáire mac Dedad (Dáire Doimthech) Cú Roí Eterscél Mór Conaire Mór Lugaid mac Con Roí Conaire Cóem Fergus Mór mac Eirc Gabrán mac Domangairt Loarn mac Eirc Comgall mac Domangairt Muiredach Muinderg Eochaid mac Muiredaig Muinderg Báetán mac Cairill Cináed mac Ailpín Niall mac Eochada

Literature

Togail Bruidne Dá Derga Fled Bricrenn Mesca Ulad Táin Bó Cúailnge

Places

Caherconree Hill of Tara Dundalk

Related articles

Gaels Milesians Heremonians Iverni Dáirine Darini Ulster
Ulster
Cycle Síl Conairi List of kings of Dál Riata Origins of the Kingdom of Alba Siol Alpin Chattan Confederation Osraige Munster List of kings of Munster Munster
Munster
Irish Scottish Gaelic Ulaid List of kings of Ulster Gaelic nobility of Ireland

Celts
Celts
portal Ireland
Ireland
portal Scotland
Scotland
portal Category WikiProject

v t e

Dál gCais

Kindreds and septs

Déisi
Déisi
Tuisceart

Uí Bloid

O'Ahearne O'Boland Coombe O'Cosgrave Eustace MacGlynn O'Kearney O'Lonergan MacArthur MacConsidine MacGrath MacLysaght MacMahon O'Muldowney O'Brennan O'Brien O'Casey O'Crotty O'Hogan O'Hurley O'Kelleher O'Kennedy O'Meara O'Noonan O'Reagan Power O'Quirke O'Scanlan O'Twomey

Uí Caisin

MacClancy MacDurkin O'Flattery Flood Harley O'Hartigan O'Hickey Hogg O'Killeen MacNamara MacInerney O'Neilan O'Hay (Hayes) O'Grady Stoney Torrens O'Tubridy

Cineal Fearmaic

O'Quilty MacBrody O'Dea O'Heffernan O'Quinn Perkin

Delbhna

Faherty MacConroy Heney Flannagan Fenelon Mulholland Logue Scully

Déisi
Déisi
Muman

O'Phelan O'Bric MacHugh

Personalities

Fedlimid Rechtmar Fiacha Suidhe Declán of Ardmore Lugaid Menn Conall of the Swift Steeds Íte of Killeedy Mainchín of Limerick Mo Lua of Killaloe Flannán mac Toirrdelbaig Cennétig mac Lorcáin Mathgamain mac Cennétig Brian Bóruma Cuiduligh mac Cennétig Echthighern mac Cennétig Tadc mac Briain Donnchad mac Briain Toirdelbach Ua Briain Muirchertach Ua Briain Domnall mac Taidc Uí Briain

Literature

The Expulsion of the Déisi Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib

Places

Ballinalacken Castle Ballycar Castle Ballyhannon Castle Bunratty Castle Castlebawn Craggaunowen Castle Doonagore Castle Dromoland Castle Knappogue Castle Leamaneh Castle O'Dea Castle

Battles

Belach Lechta Cathair Cuan Clontarf Dysert O'Dea Glenmama Knockdoe Lough Raska Móin Mhór Sulcoit Athenry

Related articles

Gaels Milesians Heremonians Cycles of the Kings Dal Fiachrach Suighe List of monarchs of Déisi
Déisi
Muman Kingdom of Dyfed Attacotti Aibell Munster List of kings of Munster Thomond List of monarchs of Thomond Kingdom of Ormond List of High Kings of Ireland Contention of the Bards Munster
Munster
Irish

Celts
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portal Ireland
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Laigin

Kindreds and septs

Dál Niad Cuirp

Uí Máil

O'Tighe O'Kelly

Uí Dúnlainge

Fitzdermot O'Toole O'Byrne O'Cosgrave

Uí Cheinnselaig

MacMurrough Kavanagh Kinsella Kehoe O'Finneran O'Murphy O'Garvey O'Hartley O'Ryan Morrow

Uí Failghe

O'Connor Faly O'Dunne O'Dempsey Kavanagh Branagh MacGilpatrick (Fitzpatrick) O'Dwyer O'Holohan O'Hennessy

Uí Bairrche

MacGorman Kearney Tracy Hughes Mooney Carney

Uí Enechglaiss

O'Feary

Uí Crimthainn Áin

O'Duff

Dál Cairpre Arad

O'Kealy

Dál Messin Corb

O'Farrell

Personalities

Úgaine Mór Lóegaire Lorc Labraid Loingsech Óengus Ollom Fergus Fortamail Crimthann Coscrach Nuadu Necht Cumhall Fionn mac Cumhaill Oisín Oscar Conchobar Abradruad Cathair Mór Énnae Cennsalach Crimthann mac Énnai Áed mac Colggen Augaire mac Ailella Máel Mórda mac Murchada Diarmait Mac Murchada Fiach McHugh O'Byrne Art Óg mac Murchadha Caomhánach

Places

Naas Mullaghmast Lyons
Lyons
Hill

Battles

Confey Glenmama Clontarf Móin Mhór Ros-Mhic-Thriúin Glenmalure

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Gaels Milesians Heremonians Mythological Cycle Dindsenchas Book of Leinster List of Kings of Leinster Kingdom of Leinster O'Rahilly's historical model Gaelic nobility of Ireland Follow Me up to Carlow

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portal Ireland
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portal Category WikiProject

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Ulaid

Kindreds and septs

Dál nAraidi

Uí Echach Cobo

MacGowan Magennis McCartan Lynch

Loígis

O'More O'Kelly O'Deevy O'Doran O'Lalor O'Dowling MacEvoy O'Bergin O'Mulcahy

Soghain

O'Manning MacWard O'Scurry O'Lennon MacCashin Gilly MacGing

Conmhaícne

Conmaicne Mara

O'Kealy MacConneely O'Devaney O'Cloherty MacFolan

Conmaicne Magh Réin & Muintir Eolais

MacRannall MacDorcy O'Mulvey O'Farrell O'Beglin Borden O'Hallissy O'Murry O'Curneen O'Mulooly MacMullock O'Doonan O'Kearon MacCoogan MacGaynor O'Quinn MacShaffrey MacConnick O'Keegan MacLeavy MacMorrow MacShane O'Sullahan O'Tormey

Conmaicne Cuile Toladh

O'Tolleran O'Colleran O'Moran Martin

Conmaicne Mide

MacRourke O'Breen O'Toler

Ciarraige

O'Kieran (Kearns) O'Conor
O'Conor
Kerry O'Murtagh O'Neide

Corco Mruad

O'Conor
O'Conor
Corcomroe O'Loughlin O'Flaherty O'Deely O'Drennan O'Melody MacCurtin O'Davoren

Personalities

Cermna Finn Sobairce Ollom Fotla Fínnachta Slánoll Géde Ollgothach Fíachu Findoilches Berngal Ailill mac Slánuill Finn mac Blatha Sírlám Airgetmar Áed Rúad, Díthorba and Cimbáeth Macha Rudraige mac Sithrigi Congal Cláiringnech Bresal Bó-Díbad Fachtna Fáthach Conchobar mac Nessa Fergus mac Róich Fedelm Noíchrothach Deichtine Cúscraid Cormac Cond Longas Findchóem Amergin mac Eccit Conall Cernach Mal mac Rochride Tipraiti Tireach Fiacha Araidhe Cáelbad Fiachnae mac Báetáin Congal Cáech Fergus mac Áedáin Máel Bressail mac Ailillo Mac Creiche

Literature

Scéla Conchobair Táin Bó Cúailnge Compert Con Culainn The Tale of Mac Da Thó's Pig Mesca Ulad Annals of Ulster

Places

Navan Fort Hill of Tara Rosnaree County Laois Caherballykinvarga

Territories

Airrther Bairrche Cineál Fhaghartaigh Conaille Muirtheimne Cruthin Cobha Dál Fiatach Dál mBuinne Dál nAraidi Dál nAraidi
Dál nAraidi
in Tuaiscirt Dál nAraidi
Dál nAraidi
Magh Line Dál Riata Duibhthrian Eilne Latharna Leath Cathail Na hArda Semne Uí Blathmaic Uí Dercco Céin

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Ulaid Red Branch Cú Chulainn Uoluntii Cruthin Ptolemy's Geographia Ulster
Ulster
Cycle List of kings of Ulster Kings of Dál nAraidi Guinness family Gaels Milesians Irians Gaelic nobility of Ireland

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